Government Unit 2 Study Guide
Government Unit 2 Study Guide PLSC2003 007
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Date Created: 03/28/16
▯1 Unit II Study Guide Chapter Twelve—Congress 1. Congress and the Constitution • Rules and Structure of Each Chamber Article I—Bicameral Congress • • Senate • senators chosen by legislature of each state until 1913 w/ the 17th Amendment • 17th Amendment: direct election of senators • each state has 2 representatives in the Senate • 6 year terms—no term limit act as trustees • • requirements: • 30 years old • citizen of the US for 9 years • citizen of the state they are representing • approves treaties and presidential appointments conducts trials for impeachment • • House of Representatives • directly elected by the people • membership is based on population • represent districts/areas in the state • 2 year terms—no term limit act as delegates • • requirements: • 25 years old • citizen of the US for 7 years • citizen of the state they are representing • bills requiring raising of revenue (taxes) must start in the House charges of impeachment against federal ofﬁcials must be brought by the House • • # of representatives • 1789—65 reps • 1911—435 reps • capped at 435 • census every 10 years to reapportion the seats accordingly Powers and Limits • • Article 1—Section 8/9 Delegated Powers • tax, spend, & borrow $$ • establish a post ofﬁce and post • regulate commerce roads • write and pass laws • issue patents and copyrights • coin $$ • deﬁne and punish piracies establish lower courts • • declare war • maintain & support military • legislate over DC and federal • establish bankruptcy rules facilities • establish Naturalization rules • ﬁx standards of weight and measurements • Elastic Clause—make all laws “necessary&proper” to execute powers • Limits on tax power ▯2 • taxes have to be uniform across states and levied according to population 2. Congressional Reapportionment and Redistricting-after last census • apportionment—allocation of congressional seats according to population changes • redistricting—redrawing the district lines based on population movement within a state • gerrymandering—manipulating the boundaries to favor one political party/social class • Texas gained the most (4 seats) • NY and Ohio lost the most (2 seats each) • In order for a state to gain a seat, another must lose a seat. • TRUE • FALSE 3. Rates of Reelection for each chamber • Senate • 2010—84% reelection • 2012—91% reelection rate • House of Representatives • 2010—85% reelection • 2012—90% reelection rate 4. Congressional approval ratings • disapproval ratings and re-election rate of congress are both very high • 2012–12% approve of Congress • 30% approve of Congress as a whole • 60-70% approve of their own members of Congress (MC) 5. Hill-style versus Home-style • Home-Style • members of congress develop to satisfy constituents • helps people relate to their representative • Southern-accent comes back when in home-style • Hill-Style • members of congress develop to satisfy colleagues, party, and groups • speak more properly • gives them a greater chance of being listened to when speaking • shift easily between home-style and hill-style is key to being re-elected 6. Organization of Congress • political parties provide basic organization of Congress • after each legislative election (every 2 years) the party that wins the most seats in the chamber wins control of the chamber • the party that wins is the “majority party” • the party with the least amount of seats in the “minority party” • majority/minority parties elect their leaders • majority leaders of the Senate and of the House run those chambers • control the agenda • control Legislative process • keep party members on the same page • leaders of chambers are almost as important as the President • all legislation beneﬁts the majority party 7. Leaders and their powers. • Leadership in the House of Representatives • power to recognize members who wish to speak • ruling on questions of parliamentary procedure appointment of members to committees • ▯3 • direct business on the ﬂoor • rules—schedule • debate time • amendments • have to be germane to the bill being discussed—meaning it has to relate to the topic at hand • Speaker of the House decides when the amendment has to be germane • direct politics behind the scenes • substantial control over bills assignment to committees • appoint other parties legislative leaders—party whip and committee chairman • Leadership in the Senate • Senate Leaders • President of the Senate • can only vote in case of a tie • rarely attends sessions • President Pro Tempore • ofﬁcial chair but is mostly ceremonial • Majority Leader of the Senate • presides over the chamber • right to be heard ﬁrst on the ﬂoor • appoints committee chairs and whips • has to work w/ Minority Leader on scheduling bills • “Rule of One” or Filibuster—if a Senate wants to speak, they should be allowed unless previously agreed or clotured • ﬁlibuster: endless debate unless 2/3 cloture 8. How a Bill Becomes a Law • 1) Committee • most bills die here • House has 20 permanent committees • budget, ﬁnancial services • Senate has 16 permanent committees • foreign policies, presidential matters • 2) Subcommittee • 3) Hearings Committee • adds in all changes and mark ups • 4) Rules Committee • decides • how much time the bill can be debated • if it is open or closed • if the bill is germane • the rules that guard the bill are the 2nd key to power • 5) Floor • vote to pass or fail the bill • 6) IF passed, bill goes to the other chamber • House amends Senate bills (and vice versa) • Goes through Steps 1-4 in the other chamber • 7) Conference Committee • combine all amendments and revisions into one bill to send to the President’s desk • both houses of Congress must approve 8) White House • ▯4 approves: can be passed into a law • • veto: sends it back to Congress saying that he does not approve the bill • pocket veto: leaves it on his desk for a period of time • 9) IF vetoed, House and Senate can override the veto with 2/3 vote 9. Presidential Veto –Process and Trends • over the past 100 years, there have been more ﬁlibusters and less presidential veto • due to majority control 10. Party Line Voting-Trend • party line voting (voting with your associated party) is increasing • members are no longer as personal or intimate 11. Norms of the 20 Congress deference to leaders • • institutional patriotism • courtesy to members • apprenticeship • specialization • limited use of ﬁlibuster • “work horse” not “show horse” • real consequences for violating the norms 12. Characteristics of the 21 Century Congress • weaker leaders and extreme partisanship • more individualistic than collective ﬁlibusters • • more permissive amendment rules • more incentive to obstruct and not follow the norms • media attention • technology • interest groups and super pacs • revolving door • no respect to the leaders Chapter Thirteen—The Presidency 1. Know all of the bold terms in the chapter and discussed in the lecture. • caucus (political)—a normally closed political party business meeting of citizens or lawmakers to select candidates, elect ofﬁcers, plan strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters • expressed powers—speciﬁc powers granted by the Constitution to Congress and to the President • implied powers—powers necessary to allow presidential exercise of power • delegated powers—constitutional powers that are assigned to one governmental agency but are exercised by another with permission from the ﬁrst • commander-in-chief—the role of the president as commander of the national military and state National Guard units (when called into service) • executive agreement—an agreement made btwn the president and another country that has the force of a treaty but does not require Senate’s “advice and consent” • executive privilege—the claim that conﬁdential communications between a president and close advisers should not be revealed without the consent of the president • veto—the president’s constitutional power to turn down acts of Congress can be overridden by 2/3 vote of each house of Congress • ▯5 • pocket-veto—a presidential veto that is automatically triggered if the president does not act on a given piece of legislation passed during the ﬁnal 10 days of the legislative session • legislative initiative—the president’s inherent power to bring a legislative agenda before Congress • executive order—a rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect and formal status of legislation • inherent powers—powers claimed by a president that are not expressed in the Constitution by inferred from it • Cabinet—the secretaries, or chief administrators, of the major departments of the federal government • Cabinet secretaries are appointed by the president with consent of the Senate • National Security Council—a presidential foreign policy advisory council composed of the president, VP, secretary of state, secretary of defense, and others invited by the president • White House staff—analysts and advisers to the president, each of whom is often given the title “special assistant” • Kitchen Cabinet—an informal group of advisers to whom the president turns for counsel and guidance • Executive Ofﬁce of the President (EOP)—the permanent agencies that perform deﬁned management tasks for the president • signing statements—announcements made by the president when signing bills into law 2. Presidential Qualiﬁcations • natural born citizen of the US • live in the US for 14 years prior to applying • 35 years or older 3. Presidential Powers, military, diplomatic, appointment, veto • Military Power • commander-in-chief of armed forces • serves over army and navy • calls troops into battle when he wants • ONLY Congress declares war • National Security Council chairman • decides how we use troops • action or war? • Diplomatic Power • make treaties and trade deals with “advice and consent” of Senate • peace offerings • taxes and tariffs • president has to be understanding of the economy and how trade works • diplomatic recognition • pass executive agreements with other nations • political capital is at stake • Executive Power • see all laws be faithfully executed • appoints ambassadors, Executive Ofﬁce, Executive Cabinet, public ofﬁcers, and judges with “advice and consent” of Senate • appoints about 2500 positions and the rest are ﬁlled by civil service systems • Dr. S said 4000 in class but the powerpoint said about 2500! Judicial Power • ▯6 includes presidential pardons, which is basically a “get out of jail free” card • • pardon controversial people in their last day of ofﬁce • Gerald Ford pardoned Nixon for the Watergate Scandal • lost his political capital • Legislative Power • signs bills into laws • veto bills and send them back to the original house • pocket-veto bills • writes executive orders and agreements • tells members how to carry out laws written by Congress • can also restrain orders/laws 4. How has the Presidency strengthened formally? • Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 • president submits his idea of the budget to Congress • creates Ofﬁce of Management and Budget to help determine where the $$ goes • Myers vs US (1926) • can ﬁre presidential appointments except for justices and federal judges • War Powers Act of 1973 • more speciﬁc about what a president can do with the troops • has to notify Congress within 48 hours • has a 60 day extension • expanded president’s military power by accident when they were trying to restrict it 5. How has the Presidency strengthened informally? • The “Bully Pulpit” • power of persuasion • power to speak and everyone listens • Roosevelt made “Bully Pulpit” very strong through Ted Talks on the radio • Economic and Social conditions of the 1930s and 1960s • consolidation of power • people viewed the president as the person who could solve their problems on a grand scale • Psychological Ties of President to the Economy • economy will be paramount to president’s popularity impossible expectations • 6. Budgeting and Accounting Act 1921, War Powers Resolution of 1973, Line Item Veto Act of 1996, Trade Promotion Authority 2015 • Budgeting and Accounting Act 1921—established the framework for the modern federal budget • War Powers Resolution of 1973—a resolution of Congress that the president can send troops into action abroad only by authorization of Congress, or if American troops are already under attack or serious threat • Line Item Veto Act of 1996—an act to give the President line item veto authority with respect to appropriations, new direct spending, and limited tax beneﬁts • Trade Promotion Authority 2015—gives the President the ability to negotiate trade agreements without interference from Congress • members can still vote yes or no on a trade deal, but can't change any elements or ﬁlibuster to delay it 7. Selection of the President and Term in Ofﬁce, Electoral College, 12 th amendment, 22 nd amendment • Nomination Stage and General Election Stage ▯7 • evolved from state laws and party rules Super Tuesday (early contests) effect how other states vote • • George Washington=unanimously voted for (1st election) • Development of Parties—smoke ﬁlled rooms (party boss’ decision) • Progressive Era—bill opens primary process up to voters • secret ballots are out • voters choose their own Senators • unfortunately, there is an end to this because of more pressing matters Broadcast Television changes everything • • target ads • electoral college—the electors from each state who meet after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president • 12th Amendment—an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratiﬁed in 1804, providing for election of the president and vice president by the electoral college: should there be no majority vote for one person, the House of Representatives (one vote per state) chooses the president and the Senate the vice president • 22nd Amendment—sets a term limit for election and overall time of service to the ofﬁce of President of the United States 8. Presidential Succession, 25 amendment • Next in line for President: • VP Speaker of the House • • President pro tempore of the Senate • Secretary of State • Secretary of the Treasury • Secretary of Defense • Attorney General • 25th Amendment—allows for the Vice President to become president in the event of death, resignation, removal from ofﬁce or impairment that prevents the current president from fulﬁlling his or her duties 9. Impeachment and Removal of President and presidents impeached • impeachment—means to charge a government ofﬁcial with treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors and bring him before Congress to determine guilt • lower house of the legislature impeaches the ofﬁcial • upper house conducts the trial • Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton=impeached by the U.S. House of Representatives, but acquitted by the Senate • Richard Nixon resigned before he could be impeached 10. James David Barber and Presidential Character • psychological make-up tells a lot about president before and after they take ofﬁce • Barber’s Factors—psychological factors • style: how do they approach the job (positive or negative) • worldview: orientation toward the world • character: orients himself toward life overall (inclusive or exclusive) • political situation: context of politics (divided government?) • climate of expectations: what is expected of them (continues to grow) ▯8 Positive Negative Active Adaptive: self-conﬁdent, Compulsive: power as a ﬂexible, creates opportunities means to self-realization, for action, enjoys the exercise expends great energy on of power, doesn’t take himself tasks but derives little joy, too seriously, optimistic, preoccupied w/ whether his is emphasizes “rational mastery” failing or succeeding, low self- of his environment, power esteem, inclined to rigidity and used as a means to achieve pessimism, highly driven, beneﬁcial results problem managing aggression Passive Compliant: seek to be loved, Withdrawn: responds to a easily manipulated, low self sense of duty, low self-esteem esteem is overcome by compensated by service to integrating personality, reacts others, responds rather than rather than initiates, initiates, avoids conﬂict and superﬁcially optimistic uncertainty, emphasizes principles and procedures and an aversion to politicking **WORST kind of president** 11. Presidential Performance Ratings • presidential performance ratings go down as their time in ofﬁce goes up 12. What do voters want in a president? • an active, positive president 13. Issues of Gridlock • issues has more than doubled since 1950 and is close to a new high 75 percent of salient issues today are in gridlock • • many of the issues "resolved" by Congress were merely papered over because Congress couldn't reach an actual long-term agreement • even when Congress and the president manage to reach agreement on the big issues of the day, these deals are often half-measures and second-bests Chapter Fourteen—Bureaucracy 1. Know all of the bold terms in the chapter and discussed in the lecture. • bureaucracy—the complex structure of ofﬁces, tasks, rules, and principles of organization that are employed by all large-scale institutions to coordinate the work of their personnel • implementation—the efforts of departments and agencies to translate laws into speciﬁc bureaucracies rules and actions • merit system—a product of civil service reform, in which appointments to positions in public bureaucracies must objectively be deemed qualiﬁed for those positions • department—the largest subunit of the executive branch; the secretaries of the 15 departments form the Cabinet • independent agency—agency that is not part of a cabinet department • government corporation—government agency that performs a market-oriented public service and raises revenues to fund its activities • regulatory agency—a department, bureau, or independent agency, whose primary missions is to impose limits, restrictions, or other obligations on the conduct of individuals or companies in the private sector ▯9 • ﬁscal policy—the government’s use of taxing, monetary, and spending powers to manipulate the economy • Federal Reserve System—a system of 12 Federal Reserve banks that facilitate exchanges of cash, checks, and credit; regulates member banks; an uses monetary policies to ﬁght inﬂation and deﬂation • revenue agency—an agency responsible for collecting taxes • devolution—a policy to remove a program from one level of government by delegating it or passing it down to a lower level of government , such as from the national government to the state and local governments • privatization—a formerly public service that is now provided by a private company but paid for by the governments • oversight—the effort by Congress, through hearings, investigations, and other techniques, to exercise control over the activities of executive agencies 2. Know how the size of federal bureaucracy has changed over time and the number of people who currently work for the federal government and where the majority of the employees are housed. • reached its peak postwar in 1968 with 3.0 million civilian employees and 3.6 million military personnel • has decreased to less than 2.8 million civilian employees and 1.4 million military personnel • largest # of people are in the Department of Defense and Health and Human Service • $$ follows number of people 3. Understand the Organization and roles of the Executive Ofﬁce of the President. The Cabinet, Independent Regulatory Agencies, Government Corporations. • The Executive Ofﬁce of the President (EOP) • appointed by the President and not approved by the Senate • serve as the President’s representative to the department • Vice-President • National Security Council • President, VP, Secretaries of State and Defense, National Security Advisor • Ofﬁce of Management and Budget • largest ofﬁce • monitors spending • National Economic Council • 3 leading economists + 60 other advisors • The Cabinet • appointed by President and approved by the Senate • does NOT vote on policy decisions but advises and consults • cabinet ofﬁcers are heads of 14 major departments • “inner-cabinet” includes: Secretaries of Treasury, Defense, State, and Attorney General • Independent Regulatory Agencies • regulate important parts of the economy • are the watch gods over industries/businesses that affect public interest • operate independently • not directly controlled by the President • small boards of commissioners govern them • appointed by President and approved by Senate interstate commerce commission • ▯10 • federal trade commission • national labors relations board • federal reserve board • securities and exchange commission • Government Corporations • private-public partnerships • allow for more ﬂexibility and freedom • corporation for public broadcasting • Tennessee Valley Authority • US Postal Service • Amtrack 4. Describe the bureaucratic roles. • implement the law • create rules/regulations to carry out the law • enforce the law • oversee appeals and issue rulings • promote public welfare 5. Understand the criticisms of bureaucracy. • Red Tape—lots of hectic and crazy things to go through • conﬂict • duplication of jobs • unchecked growth—who is going to pay for the growth? • waste and fraud—unchecked budgets • lack of accountability —who is in charge of what? • easily “captured” Chapter Fifteen—The Federal Courts 1. Know all of the bold terms in the chapter and discussed in the lecture. 2. Understand difference between original and appellate jurisdictions. 3. Know the structure of the court system and where majority of cases are heard at the state and federal level. 4. Explain justices make their decisions. 5. Understand the power of their decisions. 6. Know the selection criteria for justices.
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