CPO2001 Exam 2 Review
CPO2001 Exam 2 Review CPO2001
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Scheffing on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CPO2001 at University of Florida taught by Kreppel,Amie DThomas,Jessie-Leigh O in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Comparative Politics in Political Science at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Democratic Regimes What is democracy? (demos & kratia ) o Participation o Competition o Liberty Origins o Greek versus Roman (direct vs. representative) o Absence of hegemonic power (Magna Carta , 1215) o Birth of representative institutions & l Democracy Democratization: Actors & Influences Elite Actors o Who is in power matters (as do their "interests") Resource distribution affects democratization (poverty as obstacle to o democratization) Society o Civil society: organized life outside the state o Democratic engagement and practices International Relations o Impact of foreign investment, trade and globalization (modernization) o Outside influences can push democratization o Civil society strengthened organizations outside the country Culture o Political culture is there a culture of democracy? o Democratic traditions and individualistic society, not modernization, breed democracy Executives: Head of State and Government Executives carry out the laws and policies of the state Sets the national agenda Head of Government In charge of the everyday tasks of running the state, especially in making policy In many countries, this takes the form of the prime minister o Elected by the legislature o Usually head of the largest party in the legislatures o Serves at their pleasure can be removed by a of no confidenc by the legislature o May be weaker or stronger, depending on head of state Head of State The institution in charge with symbolizing nation at home and abroad May be a president or a monarch Directly elected, indirectly elected by legislature Legislatures: Bicameral or Unicameral? Unicameralism: o Single chamber Bicameralism : o Originally used to represent different classes, now used to represent different groups (geographic usually) o Commonly used under federalism: one house to represent local communities o Can be symmetric or asymmetric (powers) Constitutional Courts Have grown in importance over time Different forms of power: judicial review Concrete Review o Ability to rule on constitutional issues rising from cases brought before court Abstract Review o Ability to rule on constitutional issues without the need of a court case Some countries have only abstract, some only concrete, some both Types of Institutional Systems Presidential Directly elected president (by the people), serves as head of state and government o o Fixed term (except impeachment), not beholden to legislature Parliamentary o Prime minister dominates as head of government o Removed by national elections or vote of no confidence o Head of state either a monarch or a president (ceremonial) SemiPresidential o Combination of two systems (sort of) o Prime minister charged with domestic policy and directly elected president who sets broader agenda and foreign policy o "Cohabitationcan cause systemic gridlock and/or instability Political Parties Why have political parties at all? Bring together diverse groups, people, and ideas o Helps establish majority rule, prevents fragmentation o But also heterogeneous prevents tyranny of the majority o Aggregates interests into coherent groups Way to hold politicians accountable o Articulates ideology that can be evaluated Different types of parties o Cadre (elite) largely historic o Mass based o Catchall o Interest based (subject environment or group Swedish Minority) Participation: Voting and Elections Suffrage: right to vote o Restrictions based on age, ethnicity/race, income o Is voting obligatory or voluntary and how easy or difficult Electoral systems: How do we count votes? How do we waste votes? Impact on the parties? o Single Member District (SMD) 1 seat per district Plurality Majority o Proportional Representation (PR) multiple seats per district Various distribution methods and levels of proportionality o Mixed systems (both SMD and PR) Dual ballot or two votes on one ballot Ability to split vote between parties (strategic action) Which is the more Democratic system? Attractions of SMD? Drawbacks? Attractions of PR? Drawbacks? Is one more democratic in terms of: Participation? o o Representation? o Efficiency? o Transparency? Electoral System and ExecutiveLegislative Relations Parliamentary systems with SMDs less likely to have multiple parties PR in parliamentary systems make coalition governments more likely Electoral system and executive system not connected independent of each other o But they impact each other Referendum and Initiative National ballot on an issue Referendum: topdown, binding on government Initiative: bottomup, binding on government Countries vary greatly in how these are used Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Substance of democracy itself rule of law o Civil rights: promotion of equality o Civil liberties: promotion of freedom Variation in range of civil rights and liberties o Equality under the law, freedom of religion, etc. (common) o Healthcare, education, work, etc. (social democracies) Positive freedom versus negative freedom o Rights to versus liberty from o Potential conflict between rights and liberties Schmitter & Karl: What Democracy is….and is not Concepts o Accountability of rulers to citizens o Institutionalized processes to ensure the above is true and regularly practices Institutionalization should be more tjustelections (civil society) Balance between aggregation of interests and balancing of intensity of interests Challenges faced by *new* democracies (compressed time scale) Procedures o Civic rights (rule of law and equality of the law) as the core foundation o "procedural minimum" definitions "Dahl" + two additional Government independence from (internal) unelected bodies (military) Government independence from (external) alternative decision makers Principles o "Consent of the governed" (the people) o "Contingent consent" (no rigging the rules) o Uncertainty over future outcomes Schmitter & Karl: What Democracy is….and is not How Democracies differ o Endless variety of combinations of different institutional and procedural characteristics o "differently democratic" not "better" What Democracies are not o Not necessarily (or even generally) more efficient Economically or politically o Not necessarily more orderly, consensual, stable, or governable (again often less because of inclusion) o Need not bring economic development (modernization theory) Lijpart Institutional choices o Proportional representation vs. plurality based on elections o Parliamentary systems versus presidential systems o Other more institutionally complex systems (semipresidentialism) not evaluated Linkages between institutions o Proportional representation > multiple parties > coalition government (parliamentary systems) o Plurality representation > twoparty systems > single party governments (parliamentary and presidential systems) o PR and Presidentialism (Latin America) potentially problematic (inter institutional conflict) o Plurality elections Presidential: USA, Philippines Parliamentary: UK, India, Australia, etc. o Presidential elections ??? Lijpart: Constitutional Choices for New Democracies Evaluating Institutional choices & "democratic performance" Representativeness o PR systems facilitate emergence of parties based on minority representation (but are there possible negative outcomes?) o PR systems tend to increase representation of women candidates (old data, however). o PR systems stimulate coalitional executives increasing representation of diverse groups (but can increase gridlock and policy stagnation) Efficacy & Efficiency o Plurality systems are assumed to facilitate quick decisions (no compromise required), but can also lead to policy instability as a result of rapid change o Interinstitutional gridlock can undermine efficiency in presidential systems (USA & Latin America), but not parliamentary systems (noconfidence vote, new Government) o Compromise decisions are not necessarily less efficacious. Increased input may lead to more optimal outcomes (but may also impede rapid substantive change when needed) Stability o Presidential systems have high level of stability (fixed terms), but can potentially lead to systematic instability and/or failure o Policy stability can be good or bad depends on situation Stepan, Linz, & Yadav: The Rise of StateNations Types of States o Strong cultural diversity ("robust multinational societies") Canada (Quebec), Belgium, Spain o Moderate cultural diversity Switzerland, UDA o Low cultural diversity (cultural homogeneity) Japan, Portugal, Poland NationState vs. StateNation o A nationstat has only one cultural nation or its various "nations" are not politically articulated o A statenation has multiple "nations" or cultural identities yet retains internal cohesion as a state Stepan, Linz, & Yadav: The Rise of StateNations Political implications o Potential conflict between groups (winners and losers) can hinder democratic consolidation Electoral competition may lead to one nation being privileged by electoral outcomes leading to perceived (or real) marginalization of other nations o Single group states will face fewer obstacles building democracy and the state simultaneously Solutions to diversity Nationstate approaches o Efforts to develop a common or shared 'national' identity (civic) o Voluntary 'assimilation' by minority groups into the broader majority identity o Forced assimilation of violent coercion (up to ethnic cleansing) Solutions to diversity Statenation approaches o Introduction of political institutional solutions Holding together vs. coming together Political practices and institutions (electoral, legislative, systemic) Multiple, but complementary identities Defining Nondemocratic Rule Variety of different types of nondemocratic systems general category of 'authoritarianism' A small group of individuals exercises power No constitutional responsibility to public "Dictates" to the people (dictators) No popular right to chose leaders Limit, to varying degrees, other public rights Ideology may or may not play a role (personalistic, military, religious, etc.) Totalitarianism as a Form of Nondemocratic Rule Terms are often used interchangeably, but different Totalitarianism seeks to transform total fabric of society through a 'totalist' ideology/approach (rare) Almost inevitable use of force to break people, shatter institutions (violence central) Examples: o Soviet Union under Stalin, 19301950s o Hitler, Nazi Germany, 1930s1945 o China, Cultural Revolution, 1960s o North Korea o But not Iraq under Saddam Hussein Modernization, Elites & Nondemocratic Rule Modernization strong correlation between lack of modernization and nondemocratic rule (but does not equal causation) Modernization can be uneven and cause instability > instability creates openings for strong leaders who can institute nondemocratic regimes to restore order Elites in highly unequal societies often reinforce nondemocratic structures incentivizing elites to maintain power and resources State can become a tool to siphon off resources and to keep power consolidated (leptocracy ) "Resource trap " (resource curse) International Relations and Nondemocratic Rule War, occupation, imperialism can all contribute to nondemocratic rule Outcomes of War that can be detrimental to development of democracy: Poorly drawn borders o o Uneven modernization o Weak autonomy and capacity o International support for nondemocratic regimes Civil Society, Culture and Nondemocratic Rule Nondemocratic regimes tend to have weaker civil society o The more authoritarian the reigm, the lower civil society (repression is negatively correlated with civil society) o May be a result of leaders' actions to remove civic groups (cooptation) to consolidate control Political culture as explanation: Culture rather than ideology shapes authoritarianism (lack of civic tradition) Democracy as a 'Western' product (questionable) Christianity, etc.? o Nondemocratic Regimes and Political Control Coercion and Surveillance o Observation, use of force against people, Secret police o Targeted harassment, torture, killings, widespread purges o Inculcation of fear necessary atomize population Cooptation o Corporatism Limited number of statesanctioned organizations No private organizations allowed Organizations connected directly to state o Clientelism Less structured method Public exchanges political support for specific favors or benefits Rentseeking: parts of state "rented out" to supporters o Kleptocracy Rule by theft Nondemocratic Regimes and Political Control II Personality Cults o Promotion of image of leader above moral qualities o Extraordinary wisdom and power, quasireligious qualities o Use of media to portray this image o Examples: Recent: Kim Jung Un (North Korea) Historic: Stalin (Soviet Union), Hitler (Nazi Germany), Uganda Legitimacy? o Nondemocratic rule depends on both carrots and sticks o Can it then be legitimate? Yes charisma (Mao) Yes tradition (monarchs) Yes rationality (rule by unelected "experts") Models of Nondemocratic Rule: Personal and Monarchial Rule Claim that one person alone is fit to rule the country Ruler not subject of the state (but rather its protector or embodiment) Often justified through charismatic or tradition legitimacy (cult of personality) Patrimonialism where the leader, in return for obedience, provides benefits to a small group of supporters Military Rule Relatively recent development Military seizes control of state: coup d'etat Often justified as a temporary move (instability) Often lacks specific ideology Bureaucratic authoritarianism: state bureaucracy and military support, "rational" authoritarian rule as opposed to "emotional" democracy o Many of these military nondemocratic regimes transitioned to democracy, but not all OneParty Rule Single political party monopolizes power, and other parties banned or excluded from power (formally or informally) Party incorporates people into politics, though still a minority cooptation primary feature of system Party control extends into community (cells) Benefits given to party members in return for support (may be small or large group) Leadership uses the party to mobilize and spread propaganda as needed Theocracy "Rule by God" Faith is the foundation for the political regime Such a regime can be founded on any number of faiths (and has been across history) Often the goal of fundamentalists Very difficult to achieve and comparatively rare Iran as a (weak) example of theocracy in practice Vatican can be an example (kind of) Illiberal/Hybrid Regimes Possess democratic mechanisms, but weakly institutionalized Executives typically hold tremendous power Democratic processes not well respected Subject to sudden changes, arbitrary withdrawal Media under state control State institutions under direct control of government (politicized) Often considered a "Halfway house" will become more democratic over time but not necessarily Is Nondemocratic Rule in Retreat? Expectation over much of past century that democracy had failed Opposite has taken place Dramatic expansion of democracy, especially in the past 2 decades The future is less clear…. Linz and Stepan Need to move beyond simple 2 part dichotomy (totalitarian and authoritarian) o Existence of a variety of alternative types of nondemocratic regimes between these two general types o Absence of differentiation results in a lack of understanding of systemic transition/change Four critical dimensions of measurement o Pluralism extent to which allowed (politically, economically, and socially) o Ideology extent to which it is an important or central component of the regime o Leadership extent to which it is centralized, unitary, predictable and/pr constrained o Mobilization Linz and Stepan: Modern Nondemocratic Regimes Posttotalitarianism o Most totalitarian regimes eventually shift to "post" form o An evolutionary reality, not really a fully independent type o PostStalin USSR and some Soviet countries ("stans") Sultanism o Extreme form of patrimonialism o Highly personalistic o Generally weakly institutionalized Why it matters? o Type of nondemocratic regime can influence: Stability Durability Transition Diamond: The Rule of Law vs. "The Big Man" Previous status quo in African nations has been shifting o Overall trend toward democratic governance (though still limited) o Pattern of longterm presidents with paternalistic (and patrimonial) leadership styles still present, but waning o Despite overall trends since 1980s, still significant concerns: Few large countries tending toward democracy Citizen disillusionment with democratic processes Institutions matter o The practice of elections and civil engagement strengthens efforts to build democratic governance o But ineffectiveness of institutions can eventually lead to civic disengagement Normative/proscriptive conclusions o Need for change in international intervention (passive support/assistance) o End tacit support for "big men" o Increase direct (decentralized) foreign aid o Facilitate use and improvement of new technologies Levitsky & War: The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism Hybrid political regimes o Important because they have proliferated in recent decades o Should not be considered just a 'residual category' o May not be simply 'transitional stage,' but rather an end point (new types of regimes) Multiple different types of hybrid regimes o Hybrid forms of democracy Semidemocracy Virtual democracy Electoral democracy Pseudodemocracy Illiberal democracy o Hybrid forms of authoritarianism Semiauthoritarianism Softauthoritarianism Electoralauthoritarianism o 'Partly free' systems (Freedom House) Focus on "competitive authoritarianism" Four arenas of democratic contestation o Electoral aren elections with contestation occurring, but with tampering, bias, undue pressure, obstructions, etc. o Legislative arena executive conflicts with legislature, tries to intimidate, but cannot easily simply shut it down or ignore it o Judicial arena formal independence and incomplete control by executive can lead to effective constraints on executive power o The Media availability of opposition outlets, oppressed, but not eradicated, can be influential in mitigating executive repression Paths to Competitive Authoritarianism o Decay of previous full authoritarian regime, gradual emergence of competitive elements within authoritarian regime o Collapse of previous authoritarian regime, emergence of competitive authoritarian in its place o Decay of previous democratic regime gradual emergence of non democratic constraints on democratic practices Causes of nonstate political violence Political violence: politically motivated violence outside of state control o Actions carried out by nonstate actors o Often goal is to become new rulers of the state (regime change) Three types of explanations regarding the origins/causes of political violence o Institutions provide access, instill grievances, facilitate action o Ideas more amenable to violence, justifications for violence o Individuals humiliated groups, underrepresented Forms of poltical violence Political violence by nonstate actors seeks to transform states or regimes Takes many forms: riots, assassinations, civil wars, etc. Focus on two core types o Revolution: mass uprising to fundamentally transform the regime o Terrorism: small group using coercion to seek a change in regime or policy Revolution : mass uprising to fundamentally transform the regime o A mass, public movement o Goal is to seize the state, removing the regime Possible causes of revolution: o Relative deprivation: Rapid economic growth creates unmet expectations, triggers, resentment o Institutions: States weakened by war undergo reforms, creating dissent o Organizations: Opponents of regime succeed when they share ideas and have international ties Terrorism: small group using coercion to seek a change in regime or policy o Targets civilians to pressure governments o Seeks political goals, such as territory Possible causes of terrorism: o Religious ideology/apocalyptic beliefs Belief that the end of the world is near o Nihilism Belief that violence is inherently meaningful o Humiliation and despair Only selfworth comes from a terror group Terrorists generally seek radical restructuring o Target population, rather than try to win them over like guerrillas Have expansive goals that are outside mainstream political debate, unlike other o social movements Strategic goals include: o Disrupting negotiated settlements o Preventing political and economic development Differ from guerrilla warfare o Negotiation not possible o State is illegitimate, goal is regime change Goals of political violence Legitimacy Political goals and legitimacy Governments depend on legitimacy to rule Terrorists can undermine legitimacy o Make governments appear incompetent o Highlight dissatisfaction Terrorists present their views as legitimate o Claim mandate from community or religion o State goals in terms of broader principles Goals of political violence Terrorism and religious motivations Religious fundamentalism o Return to (imagined) pristine community o Replace political ideology with religious law o Reject uncertainty stemming from rapid social and economic modernization Fundamentalists sometimes use violence… o During periods of modernization o When doctrine can justify dehumanization o Where beliefs are utopian or messianic State responses Countering terrorists and revolutionaries o Fundamental dilemma: repression or reform? Repression o May eliminate immediate threat o Leads to more resentment later Reform o May satisfy some demands o Can encourage more demands later Skocpol: A Structural Analysis of Social Revolutions Focus on socia revolutions o Revolution from below based largely on peasant/worker revolts o Revolution as distinct from ellion and insurrection revolutions result in regime change (paradigm shift) o Does not include revolutionary change from above (elite controlled) Structural approach to social revolutions o Desire to develop a generalizable and predictive explanati0n for when social revolutions will happen Agrarian Bureaucracy as a system o "Agricultural society in which social control rests on a division of labor and a coordination of effort between a semi bureaucratic state and a landed upper class" pg. 318 o Differentiation between landed elite and the state is critical for system breakdown and potential revolution Significance of Agrarian system for revolutionary activity o Key economic importance of peasants while still serving as the potential source of revolution o Segmented leadership with distance between central administration and landed elite (state reliance on landed elite) Modern Agrarian Bureaucracies o France1789, Russia 1917, and China 1949 cases) o Impact of international arena Potential threat from more powerful (militarily) nations Potential threat from more powerful (economically) nations External pressures and internal reforms o External pressures cause internal reforms that can weaken the ties between the elite and the state (leading to possible dissent/conflict and opening opportunities for peasant revolt) o Modernization can exacerbate….. Goldstone: Understanding the Revolutions of 2011 Requirements for a successful revolution 1. Government perceived as illegitimate 2. Elites (esp. military) alienated from state 3. Broad based social mobilization (across divides) 4. International powers neutral or opposed to regime (no exogenous support) Revolutions require all four to occur simultaneously 1. The rarity of this is what makes revolutions so rare 2. Sultan style regimes are more likely to suffer from all four Revolutions in the Middle East o 1. The sultanistic regimes such as Egypt and Tunisia (and Libya) were more susceptive and thus succumbed to revolution 2. Other nondemocratic regimes (monarchies and theocracies) are less susceptible and thus more enduring despite above problems (flexibility, division of authority, etc.) 3. Revolution itself does not guarantee quality of result consolidation of democratic governance is difficult and time consuming Defining Advanced Democracies What is an "advanced democracy"? o Stable, political institutions o Diverse, wealthy economy Sometimes called "first world" Common characteristics of advanced democracies: o Economic development Freedom and equality Economic development in advanced democracies: Small agricultural sectors o o Industrial sector shrinking o Service sectors growing Defining Advanced Democracies Freedom and equality Large variation. For example: o Personal liberties: Abortion permitted in Canada, restricted in Korea. Expression freer in the United States than Germany o Economic freedoms: Prostitution permitted in New Zealand, illegal in the US. Some drugs permitted in the Netherlands o Political participation: Voting is compulsory in Australia and Brazil. Far fewer than 100 percent vote elsewhere; 57 percent in the US Changing sovereignty Two trends that may erode advanced states: o International integration Movement of state functions to international level Reduction in independent state capacity WTO, NAFTA, EU, MERCOSUR, ASEAN, etc. o Devolution Movement of state functions to local/regional level Reduction in independent state capacity…independent or semi autonomous regious in Spain, UK, etc. Changing sovereignty European Union International integration o European Union: A group of European countries Originally 6 Western European states, now 28 Economic and social cooperation o Origins: After World War Two Goal was to prevent another European War Functional cooperation on coal and steel Changing sovereignty changing character Two different views of the European Union o Intergovernmental cooperation EU is actually controlled by member states All major decisions made through negotiation among national leaders o Supranational institution EU is governed through EU institutions National governments are constrained by EU rules and procedures o Integration through crisis management Changing sovereignty other examples Other examples of international integration: o World Trade Organization Created in 1994 (follow up to GATT) Judicial process can rule on national laws o North American Free Trade Afreement Trade policy set through international treaty Some environmental and labor standards o Mercosur (Southern Common Market) An economic and political agreement among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Brazil (joined in December 2012) Changing sovereignty Devolution Different causes for devolution o Impove representation of ethnic/linguistic minorities o Bring citizens closer to decision making (engage citizens) Changing Political Values Postmaterial values o Contrast with "modern" values Modern values: rationalism, industry Material values: individual consumption Postmaterialism o After basic needs met, concern for social ends Justice, environmental protection, culture Identity politics o Since WWII, accelerating ethnic change North African migrants to Western Europe (1520% immigrant) Latin American migrants to US (13% immigrant) Asian migrants to Canada and Australia (25% immigrant) Economic Changes Changes in the economy have altered the relationship between state and society Two trends since the 1970s: o Post industrialis: the shift from economic growth and employment in industry to growth and employment in services o The welfare stat: political challenges to social policy and redistribution, often attributed to globalization Economic change Post industrialism Shift from industry to services: o Manufactured goods imported from newly industrializing countries o Services account for more economic growth and exports Examples: insurance, banking Consequences: o Job losses in manufacturing sectors. Skills do not often transfer to growing sectors. Raises demands for trade Economic change The Welfare State Welfare states are becoming more expensive o Two reasons: Rising health care costs Aging populations o Possible solutions: Higher taxes Lower benefits Technical fixes Economic change Problems with possible solutions: o Higher taxes Firms or wealthy individuals may leave the country to avoid taxes Globalization may constrain state revenue o Lower benefits Reducing health, education spending may undermine growth in the long run Cutbacks may trigger public protests o Technical fixes Requires effective political oversight Acemoglu et al: Income and Democracies Well recognized relationship between income per capita and democracy o Most countries with comparatively high income per capita are democratic o Most nondemocracies are located in poor regions/countries o The outstanding question is whether there is a casual relationship between 2 characteristics Modernization Theory versus statistical analysis o Modernization theory holds that "democracy is both created and consolidated by a broad process of modernization" pg.46 o Superficial aggregate empirical analysis shows a clear correlation between level of democracy and GDP per capita o However, more careful analysis of the impact of changes in income and democracy suggest that no direct causal relationship exists o The absence of a strong causal link is persistent even when more comprehensive analyses are performed (instrumental variables including savings rate, total in income of trade partners, and long time horizons100 years) Acemoglu et al: Income and Democracies Alternative explanation for strong correlation based on "divergent politicaleconomic development paths" o 500 years ago most societies were nondemocratic and most had broadly similar income levels Path dependency and critical junctures o Income and the development of democracy may be jointly affected by other variables leading some countries towards wealth and democracy and other to head towards lower levels of economic development and nondemocratic political systems Constraints on the power of the executive The role of and character of religion in the society o Experiences under European colonization Impact of population density (on colonization strategies) Impact of the date of independence (early versus late) Przeworski: Conquered or Granted Suffrage extensions (right to vote) Shifting character of the meaning of 'democracy' and democratic governance across time o Shift to 'representative' government during 18th, 19th, and even early 20th century did not mean equal participation by all o White, male, literate and landed were all standard requirements for voting rights in early "democracies" Why did those privileged with political control decide to share that power with the masses especially give potential costs associated? o Numerous alternative explanations exist in the literature o Threat of revolution ("reform to preserve") o Economic incentives (redistribution vs. provision of public goods) o Geopolitical incentives (threat or war and the need for soldiers) Przeworski: Conquered or Granted Different kind of extensions of suffrage o Classbased alone only extending to new classes within the enfranchised group (from landed elite white males to white males without property for example) o Genderbased alone provision of suffrage to women in the same class as enfranchised men (might still be limits based on class or literacy, etc.) o Simultaneous extensions of both types Which of the extant explanations best explain types and timing of historical extensions of suffrage? o Theories tested against broad data set beyond standard cases and deep historical assessments Results suggests a more complicated answer than singular explanations suggest o Extension to men best explained by the "revolt" thesis. In fact the other explanations do not hold up well to statistical testing o Extension to women best explained by evolution of international norms Duverger: The Number of Parties Self reenforcing (enduring) character of singleballot majority systems o "Duverger's Law" single ballot, simple majority electoral system leads to a twoparty system o Internal part schisms rarely leads to proliferation of parties o Disguises changing voter preferences until vote swing hits a tipping point, and there is major party replacement (Labor over Liberals in the UK, Republicans over Whigs in the USA) Mechanical effect o Substantial overrepresentation of the two largest parties o Impact potentially mitigated for regionally concentrated parties Psychological effect o Discourages voters from "wasting votes" Can discourage third parties from forming or contesting elections o
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