Exam 4 Outline
Exam 4 Outline PSY 0010
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Urban on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 0010 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Melinda Ciccocioppo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Chapter 13: Social Psychology Social psychology is the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another Attribution - Cause that we assign to a behavior - Answer to the question “why?” Why did I fail that test? Lack of studying Why was that person yelling? They have a short temper Why did we break up? Partner cheated Attribution Theory - Dispositional attribution: cause is stable, enduring traits (personality); part of person’s personality, within themselves - Situational attribution: Cause is environmental Fundamental Attribution Error - The tendency to overestimate the impact of internal dispositions and underestimate the impact of the situation when making attributions for other people’s behavior. - We tend to assign causes that are dispositional in behavior Effects of Attribution Attitudes - Feelings, often influenced by our beliefs that predispose our reactions to objects, people, and events. - Behind the feelings or like or dislike are cognitions, which predispose attributions - If we believe a person is mean, we may feel dislike for the person and act in an unfriendly manner. Attitudes influence behaviors - Our attitudes are most likely to affect behavior when… external influences are minimal the attitude is stable the attitude is specific to the behavior Behaviors influence attitudes - Not only do people stand for what they believe in, they start believing in what they stand for - Cooperative actions (behaviors) can lead to mutual liking (attitudes) Foot-in-the-door phenomenon - The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. - If you agree to put Clinton sign up, more likely to make phone calls than if you had never put sign up at all - Taking smaller step, justifying behavior Effects of role on attitude - Role: set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave - Stanford Prison Simulation Those assigned to the guard role soon degraded those assigned to the role of prisoner Zimbardo (1972) “When ordinary people are put in a novel, evil place, such as most prisons, situations win, people lose.”- Philip Zimbardo Cognitive Dissonance Theory - When a behavior and an attitude don’t match, we experience dissonance (a state of heightened anxiety and discomfort) - We as humans want to justify our behaviors - Attitude change to support the behavior - When we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes Prejudice An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Components of Prejudice - Beliefs (stereotypes) - Emotions (hostility, envy, fear) - Predisposition to act (to discriminate) Explicit Prejudice: Conscious, openly expressed prejudice toward a group and its members - Decreased over time in the U.S., but still exists towards certain groups Implicit Prejudice: Automatic, unconscious prejudice towards a group and its members - Individual is not aware of having - Automatic association between Black men and weapons - Implicit Associations Task (IAT) Roots of Prejudice Social Roots - Social Inequalities Just-world phenomenon: tendency for people to believe the world is just and therefore people get what they deserve; from this it is but a short leap to assume that those who succeed must be good and those who suffer must be bad - Us (ingroup) vs. Them (outgroup) Ingroup = people with whom we share a common identity Ingroup bias = the tendency to favor our own group Outgroup = those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup Emotional Roots - Scapegoat theory: The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame - Especially if related to insecurities - Even temporary frustration can intensify prejudice Cognitive Roots - Forming Categories Outgroup Homogeneity Bias: tendency to exaggerate the similarities in appearance, attitude, and personality of those in an outgroup Other-race effect: tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than those of other races; Emerges in infants between 3 and 9 months - Remembering vivid cases Vivid, often violent, cases are more readily available to our memory and feed our stereotypes - Hindsight bias: Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it Can lead to blame-the-victim phenomenon Combating Prejudice - Awareness of unconscious effects of stereotypes - Attention to disconfirming evidence of stereotypes - Cooperative contact with members of other group Social influence - Influence of others on our behavior Conformity - Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard - Think of high school, wear certain clothes, say certain things to fit in Conformity Experiment - Asch (1955) - The correct answer is 2, but everyone else says 3. What would you do? - 1/3 of participants said 3, even though they knew it was 2. They said 3 because everyone else said 3 Reasons for Conforming - Normative Social Influence: Influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid rejection. - Informational Social Influence: The group may provide valuable information. Obedience: Milgram (1974) Pro-social Relations Altruism: An unselfish regard for the welfare of others. Helping Behavior - Darley & Latané (1968); As the number of others presumed to be able to help increased, the likelihood of the participant helping decreased - More number of people present, the less likely any one person is to help - Bystander effect: The tendency for the presence of others to reduce the likelihood of helping behavior Diffusion of responsibility: everyone assumes that someone else will help Single someone out so they are more likely to assume responsibility Attraction Proximity - We tend to like those who are close to us in physical proximity Increases chances we will meet someone Mere exposure effect: repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking Physical attractiveness - Perceive attractive others as healthier, happier, more sensitive, more successful and more socially skilled than less attractive others - No correlation between attractiveness and happiness or self esteem - What is physically attractive? Average, symmetrical features Men: healthy, young, low waist-to-hip ratio Women: mature, dominant, affluent Similarity - Do opposites attract? NO! Like those who are similar to us in attitudes, beliefs, and interests as well as demographic characteristics Similarity in physical attractiveness also important Love - Passionate love: an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another - Companionate love: a deep affectionate attachment Characteristics of satisfying relationships - Equity: Both partners receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give - self-disclosure: revealing intimate details about ourselves - Positive interactions (e.g. compliments, physical affection and touching, laughing together) - For every one negative interaction, there are at least 5 positive interactions in happy relationships Chapter 14: Personality Personality = An individual’s characteristic pattern of feeling, acting, and thinking Psychoanalytic Perspective Our understanding of the self has been greatly influenced by Sigmund Freud Psychoanalytic theory emphasized unconscious desires and motivations Personality Structure - The Id unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives operates on the pleasure principle demands immediate gratification Animalistic tendencies, survival, reproduction, aggression Id dominated personality = cannot delay gratification, sometimes at the expense of happiness in the long run. Ex. Drug addicts - The Ego The “executive” : mediates the demands of the id and superego Operates on the reality principle Seeks to gratify the id’s impulses in realistic ways that will bring long-term pleasure Devil =id; Angel = superego; Person = ego - Superego The conscience Provides standards for judgment and for future aspirations Develops around 4 or 5 Positive feeling of pride, negative feelings of guilt = dominated by superego Wants perfection Personality Development - Psychosexual stages = the childhood stages of development during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones (pleasure sensitive areas) - All happening unconsciously - Only boys go through Oedipus complex at phallic stage Oedipus complex = according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires towards his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father - Women don’t have a strong of superego - Fixation = according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure- seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved Oral fixation = a person who had been either orally overindulged or deprived might fixate at the oral stage. They might continue to seek oral gratification through smoking or excessive eating Defense Mechanisms - The ego reduces or redirects anxiety with defense mechanisms - All defense mechanisms function indirectly and unconsciously - The way ego unconsciously defends itself from anxiety - Freudian slip = boy says orgasm instead of organism because he is unconsciously thinking about sex Neo-Freudians - Alfred Adler (1870-1937) Personality formation driven by efforts to conquer feelings of inferiority in childhood Inferiority complex - Karen Horney (1885-1952) Personality formed from desire for love and security in childhood Countered Freud’s masculine bias Countered Freud’s penis envy, with womb envy - Carl Jung (1865-1961) Less emphasis on social processes Collective unconscious: Common reservoir of images (archetypes) derived from humanity’s universal experiences Personality Assessment - Projective tests: Tools that attempt to uncover unconscious desires and motivations Rorschach inkblot test: Set of 10 inkblots designed to identify people's inner feelings; what they see is a projection of unconscious Critique - Too much emphasis placed on unconscious desires and motives; theories that cannot be tested. - Flawed view of development. Development is lifelong Too much importance placed on parents and not enough on peers No evidence for Oedipus Complex - Suppressed sexuality not at the root of all psychological disorders - Unconscious Mind- cool information processing rather than hot inner turmoil - Defense Mechanisms Reaction formation = men who might have sexual attraction towards men might be more homophobic Projection False consensus effect: tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors Motivated by need to protect self-image rather than diffuse anxiety caused by unacceptable, unconscious desires Humanistic Perspective Focus on people’s potential for healthy personal growth rather than on the factors that lead to dysfunction and anxiety. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) and Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Abraham Maslow’s Self-Actualizing Person - People are motivated to fulfill a hierarchy of needs Strive to fulfill lower needs first - Developed ideas by studying healthy, creative people Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Perspective - Components of a growth-promoting environment 1. Genuineness: Open with feelings; transparent and self- disclosing person you perceive yourself to be is the same person other perceive you as 2. Acceptance: Offer unconditional positive regard (value ourselves and others regardless of faults) extreme non judgment, accepting of others regardless of faults 3. Empathy: Share and mirror other’s feelings putting yourself in their place, taking their perspective Personality Assessment - Self-concept: All of the thoughts and feelings we have in response to the question, “Who am I?” Also who they would like to be, what is their ideal self - Closer to ideal = more positive self-concept Critique - Concepts are vague and subjective. - The individualism encouraged can lead to self-indulgence and selfishness. - Fails to appreciate the reality of humans’ capacity for evil. The Trait Perspective Trait: A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act a certain way Personality is a collection of traits Example of traits: moody, impulsive, outgoing, honest, dependable The Big Five - Research has identified 5 primary trait dimensions that, in combination, describe fairly completely one’s personality. - People can fall anywhere in between Questions about the Big Five - How stable are these traits? Quite stable, but some developmental variability Personality becomes more stable as we get older - Adolescence adulthood Neuroticism, extraversion, openness go down Conscientiousness, agreeableness go up (more disciplined, more kind hearted) - Are these trait subject to cultural changes? Yes! e.g., Within the U.S. and Netherlands, extraversion and conscientiousness have increased - How heritable are these traits? About ½ of variability in people’s personalities can be attributed to differences in genes. - Do traits reflect differing brain structures? Brain connections and size of different brain regions correlates with some traits. - How well do these traits predict behavior Fairly well in general, but not well for specific instances Personality test scores are weak predictors of behavior in a given situation, but friends and family typically agree on a person’s personality. Personality Assessment - Personality inventory: A questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors corresponding with several personality traits Empirically driven: begin with a large pool of items, given to participants, then narrowed down by selecting items that discriminate between groups E.g. MMPI, measures depressive tendencies, masculinity/femininity, and introversion/extraversion Critique - Objectifies humans and the human experience by turning people into scores on a personality inventory. - Personality inventories may not be valid. Can assess desirable responding with a lie scale. - What good is a score on a personality inventory if it can’t predict behavior in a specific situation?
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