Urban Government Mid Term Study Guide
Urban Government Mid Term Study Guide posc 305
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ariel Kamen on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to posc 305 at Towson University taught by James H. Glenn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Study Guide Urban Gov! Questions: 1. Role of Economics in Cities Economics matter a great deal because it is an attachment to place and community 2. How did cities grow? • immigration has always mattered to cities a great deal • placement of services matters….because stakes are high • during this time politics change from elite driven to class and ethnicity driven • as you would expect water and access to waterways is crucial to the growth and development of cities • as cities grow, wealth grows……and signs of wealth appears • when manufacturing takes hold • immigrants flock to America, not always welcomed, they go where jobs are • some groups are favored over others 3. Who made up cities during different periods of America? Growing middle class 4. How does immigration affect cities? They take the lesser desired jobs that other people don’t want to do, but when they leave their are generally shortages of people doing jobs. 5. What is the role of political machines in cities? Machine Politics • Party machines typically hierarchal and disciplined, run by a boss. Controlled by a combination of ethnic identity and partisanship. Worked to mobilize voters, prospered because of independent and internal system of command, coordination and control • Corruption is part of machines…..not the sole feature • Help excluded get access to political system * Political machines organized like a pyramid • machines prospered during industrial age when ethnic communities divided society (melting pot? maybe not..) • between 18701945, 17 of 30 largest cities were ruled through a political boss, system peaks in 1945, last boss: Richard Daley in Chicago Ex: Boss Tweed; New York, NY Frank Hague; Jersey City, NJ Ed Cump; Memphis, TN Jim Curley; Boston, MA Huey Long; Louisiana Tom Pendergast; Kansas City, MO (only boss to have a president — Truman) • at Constitution Ratification only 5% adult white males could vote (minorities — no; women) • by mid 1800s neighborhood connections fit well with decentralized local government * Alcohol has always been important in politics • lots of immigrants from England, Germany, Ireland, Austria, Belgium • pubs become a key gathering place and source of information, many places bars are closed on election day • the (relative) lack of central government and formal rules meant that the ability to deliver votes and build alliances was critical, no formal job description…no formals skills required either • most machines engaged in some election corruption (in Chicago sometimes the dead vote) • the positive assertions of machines: 1. Centralized power and got things done 2. Offered upward mobility to immigrants 3. Assimilated immigrants into “American Way of Life” 1. Centralized Power and Getting Things Done • city government relied on numerous boards, commissions and departments usually had a weak mayor • this confused citizens, so many reformers streamlines city government • as cities grew (faster than rest of county) they improvised services: water systems, paved streets, public buildings • this leads to jobs • would you bribe an official to get a contract? — Yes! • growth assured that there was enough spoils to go around • responsibility also meant that regulatory agencies took bribes to “look the other way” • the explosion in services meant that the public got the goods they sought • research on machine and non machine cities show machines might not have made a difference • services were provided to a certain point • If the problem was eliminated, why would you need the machine? Corruption in Machines • power to the political machines sometimes led to fraud and graft • fraud: deliberate deception Ex: sometimes cheated to win elections by voting more than once • graft: using political influence for financial gain Ex: businesses offered money to get city contracts Ex: kickbacks — when city paid companies they “kicked—back” some of the money to the official who gave them the job 2. Upward Mobility • evidence that machines help immigrants is mixed • Irish are a unique exceptions….so are African Americans • Irish master machine politics before other groups and only include other ethnics with necessary • African Americans were largely not allowed to vote/participate 3. Assimilation • machines helped sponsor picnics, sports leagues, and youth clubs • immigrants often felt like outsiders; machines were an assimilation outlet • study of 20 bosses showed that 15 were 1st and 2nd generation immigrants and 13 never finished grammar school (no formal requirements) • machine leaders become symbols of success, realistically they knew the language, culture and what we need • machines encouraged ethnic divisions to ensure votes……is that good? • often workers tried to placate immigrants problems instead of fixing them….if you fixed the problem, do you need the machine? Have Machines Gone Away? • using New Haven; is this representative? • politically connected agencies still thriving • political spoils come from several areas: 1 municipal government; 2 probate court; 3 state government • activists and machines interested in different things — machine is interested in low profile jobs; activists are interested in high profile elections Patronage is Still King • patronage makes it easier to centralize party organization — resources are used to discipline and reward workers • patronage not necessarily controlled by the same people and factions can form • more patronage….harder it is for one group to control….more factions form • political participation is driven by commitment to government activity and by commitment to certain politics • machine has morphed….its real focus was personalizing government (is this bad?) • machines continue helping navigate government and despite a desire for reform and clean government, people do not mind when THEY ARE THE ONES BENEFITTING 6. How have cities changed over the years? Americans intentionally create weak executives remember cities offered very few services and only as a city wealth Reform • though it sounds nice; it is rooted in class, race and religious tensions • As cities grew people only lived with people like them. The wealth with wealthy, poor with poor • jobs though were concentrated in the city core, and the wealthy had to travel past the poor frequently • over time the wealthy and middle class seek to reform the system, lessen the influence of immigrants • corruption receives a lot of attention when discussing reform people love drama • Several influential books and magazine articles discuss the industry and working conditions. The most influential is Upton Sinclar’s The Jungle • The jungle is so popular it leads to the creation of the US food and Drug Administration in 1905 • over time workers gain additional workplace protections • however the fight grows into battle over government 7. What is the role and result of Urban Reform? Loosely knit set of municipal government and citizen group initiatives, from the late 1890s to the end of WWI and from the late 1960s to the mid1970s, aimed at improving city life. 8. Why do people migrate? • 3 periods of migration • 19101930: Miexicans and Bavcks move to cities • 19401970: Appalachian, Whites, Blacks and Mexicans • blacks were becoming more urban and more Northern • jobs were advertised in black newspapers like the Chicago Defender at the same time the racial atrocities, like lynching, were being covered by black media • during WW1, companies with contracts but too few workers, sent people to look and find additional (and cheap) labor • despite change, blacks faced a lot of institutional racism including having to live in well defined areas • blacks were the last hired, first fired, and given worst jobs • judicial system persecuted the new balcks as well the arrest state in Detroit in 1926 was 4x the rate of whites • blacks made up 31% of prison population but only 9% of national population. Today 30% of colored people make up population and 60% of prisons 9. How did race affect cities? What about class? Race affected cities by making certain living areas designated living spaces, but also to take jobs other people did not want. It affected class because the end result was that the wealthy and middle class decided to seek reform to lessen the influence of immigration 10. What urban policies did different presidential administrations pursue? Terms: 1. Political Patronage is the dispensation of favors or rewards such as public office, jobs, contracts, subsidies, prestige or other valued benefits by a patron (who controls their dispensation) to a client 2.Suburb A city within a city 3. Home rule the government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens 4. New Deal A group of government programs and policies established under President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s; the New Deal was designed to improve conditions for persons suffering in the Great Depression 5. Night Comes to the Cumberlands A book that discusses the poverty in Appalachia and it is said to be “The War on Poverty” 6. The Jungle • The jungle is so popular it leads to the creation of the US food and Drug Administration in 1905 • over time workers gain additional workplace protections • however the fight grows into battle over government 7. Great Migration The movement of 6 million blacks out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1910 and 1970 8. Pluralism Classical pluralism is the view that politics and decision making are located mostly in the framework of government, but that many nongovernmental groups use their resources to exert influence. The central question for classical pluralism is how power and influence are distributed in a political process 9. Laffer Curve A supposed relationship between economic activity and the rate of taxation that suggests the existence of an optimum tax rate that maximizes tax revenue 10. Regionalism The theory or practice of regional rather than central systems of administration or economic, cultural, or political affiliation 11. Redlining Refuse (a loan or insurance) to someone because they live in an area deemed to be a poor financial risk 12. Political “Boss” Political bosses were political leaders who got people to vote for them by giving favors. They also made deals with various contractors. The ring of people who made deals and got votes for the political boss were called the political machine. In NYC the political machine was called Tammany Hall 13. Tiebout Model The Tiebout model, also known as Tiebout sorting, Tiebout migration, or Tiebout hypothesis, is a positive political theory model first described by economist Charles Tiebout in his article "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures" (1956)
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