Ento 2010 Study Guide Exam 2
Ento 2010 Study Guide Exam 2 ENTO 2010
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Popular in Entomology
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Ento 2010 Study Guide: Exam 2 Order: Odonata o Odous=tooth o Common name: dragonflies, damselflies o Species: 5,000 Dragonflies & Damselflies o Incomplete metamorphosis o Biting mouthparts o 2 pairs of wings o VERY large eyes o VERY small antennae o Long abdomen o Nymphs are aquatic o Nymphs and adults are predators o Considered beneficial o Front and back wings beat independently Damselfly vs. dragonfly o Damselflies: are smaller than dragonflies hold wings straight back at rest dragonflies hold wings out to side lay eggs in plant stems under water dragonflies lay eggs on water surface Note: o Adults regulate their temperature o Nymphs are predators o “nymph” stage lasts for 1-3 years o nymph to adult stage is dangerous o must first pump hemolymph into its wings Damselflies & Dragonflies: o Hunt prey by sight o Use leg hairs to catch prey o Excellent fliers o Muscles are attached to wings (like birds and bats) Insect behavior : reaction of insects to specific conditions Note: o Males are territorial o Mate in “wheel position” o Male first removes rival sperm from female o Male and female are in “tandem” during egg laying This keeps other males from mating with female Order: Blattodea o Blatta=cockroach o Common name: cockroaches o Species: 3,500 Cockroaches o Incomplete metamorphosis o Chewing mouthparts o 2 pairs of wings o natural omnivores o flattened bodies o eggs laid in case=ootheca o domestic pests omnivore : eats both plants and animal material cockroaches can be a nuisance in the kitchen cockroaches are adapted to living with humans only 20 cockroach species are pests peripheral vision antennae detect food and water o keep antennae clean tail hairs are sensitive to movement cockroach Defense Against Pest Control “Bait” o smell bait at a distance o touch bait with antennae o touch bait with hairs on mouthparts o chew and taste bait o cockroaches spread diseases (bacteria) mechanically! And they can cause allergies Termites evolved from cockroaches: o Cockroach fossils are around 300 million years old Some eat wood Like termites, these cockroaches have protozoans to digest cellulose Protozoans are passed on to baby cockroaches via feces o Female cockroach “cares for young” by carrying ootheca Cockroach reproduction o Male strokes female antennae to identify her o Male offers a food gift to her o They mate end to end o Females mate once and store sperm o She can have 7 broods o Ootheca has 40 eggs o Nymphs burst ootheca by gulping air Order: Orthroptera o Orthos=straight o Ptera=wings o Common name: grasshoppers, crickets, locusts o 20,000 species Grasshoppers/Crickets o Incomplete metamorphosis o Chewing mouthparts o Front wings are narrow o Back wings are fan-like o Strong hind legs o Males produce sound o Sound receptors on leg/abdomen o Oviposit eggs in soil or a plant o Plant eaters o Major agricultural pests Stridulation: production of sound to attract a mate Cricket songs: o Each species is different o More chirps/second=higher temperature o Establish territory o Call a female o Warn others of predators How is sound produced? o Crickets and some grasshoppers: Rub a wing against a wing o Grasshoppers and locusts: Rub a leg against a wing o Wings and legs have bumps and ridges= “file & scraper” o Wings can serve as an amplifier Crickets & Grasshoppers: o “call” to find a mate o mate at night to reduce danger from predators o some predators and parasites are attracted to “call” o it is safer to be a strong “silent” male Cricket uses: o Court case to lower rent o China: raise crickets for fights o Sell for fish bait o A cricket genus=Gryllus Locusts: o #1 agricultural insect pest in the world o 2 phases: solitary; gregarious o stimulation of hairs on back legs of solitary locusts causes swarming: solitary locusts-----> gregarious locusts o swarm may cover 500 square miles and have 50 billion insects! o “nymphs” stay in soil several years during a drought o “blew/flew” to the Americas from Africa Locust swarms in Africa: o Eat: 2,000 tons/day o Travel: 65 miles/day o Oviposit in soil o 1 female-500 nymphs Locusts have plagued us since biblical times o Exodus Chapter 10: “I will bring locusts into your country…and they shall fill your houses…” Order: Hemiptera o Hemi=half o Ptera=wings o Common names: bugs, aphids, scales, cicadas o Species: 68,000 Hemiptera o Incomplete metamorphosis o Piercing & sucking mouthparts o Pest of crops o Transmit disease “True” bugs o mouthparts (“break”) swing forward o many species are predators o base of forewing is hardened o back of forewing is membranous o many have stink glands Assassin Bug o Piercing/sucking mouthparts Hemiptera o Bed bugs feed at night Inject an anesthetic Suck human blood Vector : a means of biological transfer Human diseases o Know: Common name of disease Scientific name of disease agent Disease agent=what type of organism (protozoan, bacterium, or virus) Arthropod vector Chaga’s disease o Vector: assassin bug (kissing bug) o Disease: Trypanasoma cruzi (protozoan) o One million people die per year o Primarily in South America o Attacks the heart o Hard to diagnose; no cure o Reservoir hosts=opossums and armadillos Spread of Chaga’s disease: o Kissing bug feeds on victim at night Defecates on victim’s face o Victim rubs feces and Trypanasoma into wound Xenodiagnosis of Chaga’s Disease: o Laboratory kissing bug feeds on victim o Kissing bug tested for Trypanasoma in feces (10 days later) o Do you make the kissing bug a carrier of the disease? Xenodiagnosis : use of a live vector to diagnose a disease Aphids o Mouthparts (“break”) swing down o Plant feeders o Membranous wings o Major agricultural pests Aphids: o Have many predators o Give birth to nymphs o Plant defense=sticky hairs o Are usually wingless o Overpopulation results in winged aphids Ants tend to aphids as if farming Honeydew: a sweet, sticky substance excreted by aphids Honeydew production by aphids: o Allows water excretion! o Attracts ants o Can cause fungal growth o Honeydew=manna Aphids: o Piercing/sucking mouthparts o Tended by ants for honeydew Hemiptera diversity: o Bugs o Aphids o Scales o Cicadas o spittlebugs Order: Coleoptera o Coleo=sheath o Ptera=wings o Common name: beetles, weevils o Species=300,000 Coleoptera o Complete metamorphosis o Chewing mouthparts o Forewings hardened o Hind wings membranous o Thickened exoskeleton o Pests of crops and trees o Largest insect order! Metamorphosis : change in the structure and habits of an animal Complete metamorphosis o Egg o Larva o Pupa o Adult Complete metamorphosis: o 4 stages are often very different in: appearance habitat host predators & parasitoids ladybugs: o hop plants in UK were burned to kill aphids o lift up front wings and fly with hind wings o are beneficial; eat aphids o adult ladybugs overwinter in massive clusters o are collected and sold for biological control Fireflies: o Each species has a unique flash pattern o Male flashes to attract female o Female flashes in response o Male and female have different flash patterns o Some females mimic flash patterns of females of other species and prey on males Firefly larvae are aposematic o They glow to deter predators Fireflies flash in unison only in India & Tennessee Fireflies o Produce light with Luciferin, a pigment which yields light when combined with oxygen o 98% of energy is released as light DUNG is a valuable food source Elephant dung beetles: o Many insects are attracted to dung o Have specialized mouthparts o Roll dung into balls o Civet cats feed on dung beetle Produce civetone in anal gland Is used in perfumes Australia o Cows were imported o Insects couldn’t cope with dung o Grassland was lost o Solution: import dung beetles Ancient Egypt: o The scarab=a stone beetle Was the symbol of the soul Was also called the sun god Ra o Beetle metamorphosis may have inspired pyramid construction Spanish fly=blister beetle o Produces a toxin: cantharidin Hippocrates used as medicine Marquis De Sade used as aphrodisiac Causes burning sensation in groin Destroys mucous linings in the body! Acorn Weevil o Female has a long snout (mouthparts) Drills hole in acorn with snout Then, oviposits in this hole Lays one egg per acorn Whirligig beetle o Is a scavenger o Has divided eyes so it can see above and below water o Spins in circles to create waves that bounce back when they hit food item o Carries air bubble to breathe underwater Order: Lepidoptera o Lepido=scale o Ptera=wings o Common name: butterflies & moths o Species=200,000 Lepidoptera o Complete metamorphosis o Siphoning mouthparts o Wings have scales o Scales=modified hairs o Larvae feed on plants o Larvae spin silk o Greatest color variation o Major agricultural pest Butterfly o Greek=psyche o French=papillon Entomology: study of insects Etymology: study of words Morpho butterfly o Morpho=beautiful or well-made o Upper wings are iridescent blue o Lower wings are plain brown Lepidoptera larvae o Are leaf eating machines o Must molt 4-5 times o Have soft cuticle o Need defense: Camouflage Warning coloration Toxic spines Lepidoptera adults o Feed to get flight fuel o Mate abdomen to abdomen o Female lays eggs in host plant Butterflies=20,000 species Moths=180,000 species Dan Janzen: o Identify all the moths of Costa Rica Rear larvae to adults then identify Use light screen at night to collect adults o Moth scales can cause allergies How big should a biodiversity park be? Florida Queen butterfly o Looks similar to viceroy o Finds mate with sex pheromone o Male and female do courtship dance o Male uses “hair pencils” to dust female with pheromone Monarchs: o Larvae feed on milkweed o Sequester toxic alkaloids (cardenolides) o Predators leave larvae and adults alone o Fall: 4 generation adults Migrate 2,500 miles to Mexico o Winter: dormant in Mexican forests o Spring: mate and return to U.S. Mexican holiday o Return of the monarch butterflies o Represents the return of the souls of people who died during the year Insect plant interactions o Coevolutionary arms race Plant produces toxin Insect adapts to toxin Plant makes more powerful toxin Plant defense against herbivores o Silicon oxide in leaves Like eating glass o Proteinase inhibitors Animal can’t digest food o Secondary plant products Toxic compounds Plant surface has hairs=trichomes o May produce toxins o May be sticky o May be spines or hooks When plant is wounded it wants to: o Limit water loss o Prevent fungal/bacterial infection o Deter herbivory When a plant is wounded it may: o Wound-heal to give a “scab” o Produce toxic chemicals o Exude sap or gum o Form a gall (with insect inside) Jurassic Park o Fossilized plant resin=amber-gem o DNA found in fossil insects o Sequence fossil DNA o Determine relatedness of insect species o Recover dinosaur blood (DNA) from fossil mosquito Carnivorous plants: o Habitat low in nutrients o Digest protein of prey o Have modified structure to catch insects Carnivorous plants o Sundews o Venus fly trap o Bladderworts o Pitcher Plants Sundews o Bright colors attract insects o Leaf tentacles have sticky glue o Electrical signal causes leaf to curl o Leaf uses enzymes to digest prey Venus fly trap o Has trigger hairs inside leaf Touching hairs causes electrical signals o 2 signals cause rapid growth of outer leaf o leaf closes on insect; Venus fly trap digests it o only found in wetlands of North Carolina and South Carolina Bladderworts o Are aquatic o Have a bladder with a trap door o When prth item hits trigger hair, it is sucked into bladder in 1/1000 of a second! Pitcher plants o Flower-like: nectar and color attract insects o Inside: downward pointing hairs and loose wax o Insects fall into “pool” and are digested Order: Diptera o Di=two o Ptera=wings o Common name: Flies & mosquitoes o Species: 90,000 Diptera o Complete metamorphosis o Mouthparts: piercing/sucking or sponging o 1 pair of membranous wings o no hind wings o halteres=stabilizers (replace hind wings) o primitive larvae=maggots o many larvae are aquatic o most harmful order: many members cause disease Flies o Flies are best insect fliers o Hoverflies: 175 wing beats/second o Halteres give stability House Fly: o Regurgitates on food Enzymes soften food Then, uses sponging mouthparts o Transmits disease mechanically: Picks up disease somewhere and carries disease to another location o Can “see” movement very well o Uses leg hairs to taste o Has SPONGING MOUTHPARTS o Oily hairs on feet: walk on ceiling Fly farms o Maggots are used to eliminate animal farm waste Medical treatment o People with poor circulation o Leg (or arm) wounds heal slowly Add fly maggots to wound Maggots eat dead flesh Prevents amputation African Sleeping Sickness o Vector: tsetse fly o Disease: protozoans Genus: trypanosoma o Drug treatment is effective o 165,000 deaths per year Sleeping sickness kills people and cows o Wild animals=reservoir host o Africans can’t raise cattle o People of Africa need more protein o Tsetse fly=”Guardian of Africa” Because native habitat has been saved Tsetse Fly Female: o Does not lay eggs o Has 1 egg that hatches inside female fly o Larva develops inside female fly o Mature larva is born Burrows into soil and pupates Adult emerges from soil o Produces only 8 larvae! Mosquito life cycle o Eggs laid in or near water o Aquatic larvae o Aquatic pupae o Adults live 1-3 weeks o Female mates in male swarm o Male feeds on flowers o Female needs “blood meal” Mosquito larvae have a siphon tube for breathing Mosquitos have piercing/sucking mouthparts! Mosquitos: o Female attracted to host carbon dioxide o Sound of female wings attracts male Mosquitos-piercing/sucking mouthparts have: o Protective sheath o Tube to suck blood o Knife-like mouthparts o Saliva injector (stops blood clotting) 1/6 of humans have an insect-vectored disease o malaria has killed more people than any other disease o 1897: Ronald Ross showed that mosquitos vector malaria o 1900: Walter Reed showed that mosquitos vector yellow fever Yellow Fever o Vector: mosquito Genus: Aedes o Disease: virus o Reservoir host: monkeys o Worst in South America & Africa o No effective treatment Dengue Fever o Vector: mosquito Genus: Aedes o Disease: virus o No effective treatment o South America, Africa, & Caribbean Zika Fever o Vector: mosquito Genus: Aedes o Disease: virus o No effective treatment o South America, Africa, & Caribbean o Special concern: pregnant women o Zika may cause microcephaly Malaria o Vector: mosquito Genus: Anopheles o Disease: protozoan Genus: plasmodium o Drug treatment is effective o South America, Africa, & Asia Malaria life cycle o Mosquito feeds on infected host o Plasmodium mates in mosquito’s stomach Moves to salivary glands o Mosquito feeds on new host o Plasmodium moves to host liver Attacks red blood cells Red blood cells rupture o Cycle repeats in host: 24, 48, 96 hours Mated female mosquito: o Eggs do not develop without a blood meal o Head produces hormones needed for egg production Natural Selection in Africa: o A mutation changed structure of hemoglobin o This change provided resistance to malaria o People with 1 copy of the gene survive malaria o People with 2 copies of the gene have Sickle Cell Anemia Order: Siphonaptera o Siphon=tube o Aptera=wingless o Common name: fleas o Species=1,800 Siphonaptera o Complete metamorphosis o Piercing/sucking mouthparts o No wings o Adults of both sexes are blood-sucking parasites o Good jumpers and runners o Narrow body o Many are disease vectors Fleas: o Female needs blood for eggs o Female eats 15 times her weight/day o Female lays 2000 eggs o Eggs hatch in 1-10 days o Larvae feed on adult feces o Larva spins a sticky cocoon o Cocoon is well camouflaged o Life cycle is 12-174 days o Environment (temperature and humidity) is very important Fleas are attracted to: o Heat o Carbon dioxide o Light o Movement Fleas: o Can jump 200 times their length o Resilin: a protein in the back legs of fleas that works like a rubber band Miriam Rothschild is a world flea expert o She showed that female flea reacts to sex hormones of a pregnant female host o Female flea adjusts her reproductive cycle to match that of her host Lays her eggs on babies of host Bubonic Plague o Vector: fleas o Disease: bacteria Yersinia pestis o Antibiotic treatment is effective o Found in Russia, Middle East, and Western U.S. o Major outbreak in India Bubonic Plague: o Reservoir=rodents o Bacteria enter flea with blood meal o Bacteria multiply in flea gut o Bacteria break entry to gut o Flea seeks new host o Flea feeds on new host o Regurgitates blood with bacteria o Host is infected Elephantiasis o Vector: mosquitoes o Disease organism: roundworms o Causes swollen appendages o 300 million people in Southeast Asia have Elephantiasis River Blindness o Vector: black flies o Disease: roundworms o West Africa o 20 million people infected Possible use of insects in war o Modify plague bacteria o Destroy crops o War on drugs Flashcards: https://quizlet.com/129539718/e nto-2010-exam-2-flash-cards/
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