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Computer Applications for Business Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Jamie Lee

Computer Applications for Business Exam 1 Study Guide 01:198:170

Marketplace > Rutgers University > ComputerScienence > 01:198:170 > Computer Applications for Business Exam 1 Study Guide
Jamie Lee

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Study Guide for Exam 1
Computer Applications for Business
Professor Stoll
Study Guide
ComputerApplications Business
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jamie Lee on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 01:198:170 at Rutgers University taught by Professor Stoll in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Computer Applications for Business in ComputerScienence at Rutgers University.

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Date Created: 03/28/16
Computer Applications Exam 1 Chapter 1- Defining Information Technology: - Hardware: computers are the physical embodiment of computation. They represent one of the greatest technological achievements. Few inventions are more important (information technology) - Software: Embodies the programs that instruct computers in the steps needed to implement applications. Software, unrestricted by the physical world, can direct a computer to do almost anything (information technology) - The Experience: Together, hardware and software present a virtual world that doesn’t exist, but we experience. These physical experiences, dictated by the interaction of the virtual and physical worlds, are new and important (how we encounter todays technology) - ARM: Advanced RISC Machine, standard computer that is embedded in other kinds of chips or is a component of consumer devices - Input Device: transfers an action from the physical world or a click to the computer (mouse) - Output Device: transfers information from the computer to the physical world (paper) - Software: collective term for programs  the instructions computers perform to implement applications - Program: a collection of computer instructions that implement a function or action - Software stack: series of layers of programs that implement user applications o 4 layers: hardware (bottom) software that extends and improves  Familiar applications (top) - To program: instruct an agent to perform some function or action o Agent: anything that can follow instructions - Interactions with computers: o Recorded: is a copy taken from a scene, performance, event, and so forth  Transformation: to improve (Photoshop, photo edit, video edit)  Synthetic Complexity: alternate version of the world examples include animations and cartoons o Virtual: “not real, but as if” o Artificial: ITunes, Google search, Facebook, twitter, windows, and angry birds - Algorithms: Used all the time to solve our problems  do without realizing or thinking o Precise, systematic method for producing a specified results  the process of constructing sentences by asking the letters one at a time is an algorithm  Find the best possible way to do something effectively and efficiently o Programs are algorithms that have been specialized to a specific set of conditions and assumptions and written in a specific programming language - Abstraction: remove the basic concept, idea, or process from a situation o Helps hide complexity o Details that are irrelevant for understanding from a specil point of view are ignored - Generalize: Express an idea, concept, or process that applies to many situation - Operationally attuned: to apply what we know about how a device or system works to simplify its use - User Interface Vs. User Experience: o UI: the way a user interacts with a system and how this responds to such interaction ex: colors, contrast, button interaction, touch feedback, hover on feedback o UX: the feeling a user has when interacting with a system  how easy it is to manipulate the application in general Chapter 2: Human Computer Interface - Feedback: any indication that either the computer is still working or has completed the request  takes many forms, depending on what operation a user has commanded - New Instance: any specific piece of information (image, month, or document) is considered an instance o A new or blank instance is simply the structure without any properties or content filled in o Clicking around: is exploring the application to see what features are available o Blazing away: going boldly where you’ve never gone before - Perfect Reproduction: Computers encode information as a sequence of binary digits, 0’s and 1’s  digital information (only use 0’s and 1’s means it can be perfectly reproduced) o Same sequence of 1’s and 0’s o Perfect reproduction property: - Copying/Pasting: widely available in many applications o Reproduce it from another location o Source value vs. target value - Metaphors: an icon or image used as representative or symbolic of a computation o Terrific solutions o Touch metaphor  o Essential to computer usage because the guide us in learning and using software - Graphical User Interface: Chapter 3: Networking - Synchronous and Asynchronous communication o Synchronous communication: requires that both the sender and the receiver are active at the same time ex: sending or receiving simultaneously o Asynchronous Communication: the sending and receiving occur at different times ex: post cards and text messages - Types of communications by numbers of receivers o Broadcast: Involves a single sender and many receivers (radio and television) o Multicast: There are many receivers, but the intended recipients are not the whole population (ex: magazines often covering specializing topics) o Point-to Point: Opposite of the other two --> telephone communication and text message because there is one specific sender one specific receiver - Client/Service Structure: the protocol the internet uses  client refers to any situation where one computer gets services from another computer, the server o Fundamental to Internet interactions - IP Addresses: Each computer connected to the internet is given a unique address called its IP address  short for INTERNET PROTOCOL ADDRESS  series of four numbers (one byte each) separated by dots (0-255) - Domain Names: Human readable symbolic names for computers that are based on a hierarchy of domains o Domains: a related group of networked computers - DNS Servers: Domain Name System translates the hierarchical, human readable names into the four number IP addresses  both people and computers to use their preferred naming - Top-Level Domains: TLDs  edu domain for educational institutions is one of several top level domain names  examples include commercial enterprises (.com), organizations (.org), networks (.net), military (.mil), and governmental agencies (.gov) o Now includes biz, info, name, travel and others - TCP/IP Protocol: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol  sending process o Sending any amount of information  possible by breaking it into a sequence of small fixed size units o Postcard analogy o Packets: has space for one unit of information, a destination IP address, and sequence number  sent over the internet one at a time using whatever route is available  Header of 12 bytes containing a lot of important bits needed for technical purposes including sequences  Each packet can take a different route  congestion and service interruptions do not delay transmission - WAN: Wide Area Networks  networks designed to send information between two locations widely separated and not directly connected o Internet is point to point channels  packets must be visit a sequence of commuters to reach their destination o Take several hops to be delivered - LAN: Local area network - when computers are close enough to be linked by a single cable or pair of wires  the interconnection is referred to as this o Ethernet  main technology for LAN  setting up connection on all computers in a lab or building  Setup: wire, wire pair, or optic fiber  channel that winds past a set of computers (the ether is the channel) - Connecting to the Internet o ISP: Internet Service Provider  Sells connection to the internet  phone companies and cable companies  Place a modem in the house  converts the bits a computer outputs into a form that is compatible with the carrier  sent to the carriers business where converted into a suitable form for the server that connects to the Internet via the Internet Gateway  DSL or ADSL (digital subscriber line) and cable are common  Smartphone uses wireless broadband network o Campus or Enterprise Network: LAN  organizations’ system administrators connect the computers to form a LAN  local networks collectively know as intranet also connect to the internet by a gateway - Wireless Networks: A variation on the LAN connection is often referred to by its protocol name 802.11 o Router physically connected to an ISP modem connected which is capable of broadcasting and receiving signals such as radio frequency (RF) - The World Wide Web: web servers (files and their services) do not confuse with the internet o URL: Universal Resource Locator  Protocol: the http:// part, which stands for Hypertext Transfer protocol  tells the computer how to handle the file  other ways to send via the File transfer protocol (FTP)  Server Name: Name is the server IP address given by the domain hierarchy computer uses this name to send a request to the server computer for the page  Page’s Pathname  sequence following the IP address: /homes/Snyder/index.html  tells the server which file or page is requested and where to find it - Describing a Web page by HTML; advantages o Two advantages to storing and sending the source rather than the image itself:  Description file usually requires less information  The browser can adapt the source image to your computer more easily than a literal pixel by pixel description  ex: easier to shrink or expand the page from its description than to use the image itself Chapter 4: HTML - HTML5: Benefits: Hypertext Markup Language  main language used to define how a web page should look - Tags: Bold, Italic, Paragraph o Tags: words or abbreviations enclosed in angle brackets < and > Start tag and end tag  Example: <title> </title> MUST BE LOWERCASE  Bold: <b> </b>  Italic: <i> </i>  Paragraph: <p> </p> - Tags – Singleton: some are not in pairs do not have matching ending tags  > is replaced with /> o Horizontal rule : <hr /> displays horizontal line o Break Rule: <br /> continues the text on the next line  useful for inserting blank lines - Additional Formatting Tags: o REFERENCE THIS - Required Tags: Head and body o THREE REQUIRED:  <head> </head>  <body> </body>  <html> </html> - Headings: o Level 1  level 6 o <h1> </h1> - White Space: spaces that have been inserted for readability o Create with spaces, tabs, and new lines (return or enter) o HTML ignores white space  browser turns any sequence of white space characters into a single space before it begins processing the HTML o Exception: Preformatted information contained within <pre> and </pre> tags which is displayed as it appears - Escape Symbol: the ampersand (&) followed by an abbreviation, followed by a semicolon o &lt; displays as < o &gt; displays as > o &amp; displays as & - Accent Marks - Markup Validation Service: Checks to make sure the XHTML is perfectly correct  if wrong the service tells you where the mistakes are and whats not proper - Marking links with anchor tags: o Two sides of links:  Hyperlinks:  Anchor text: the text in the current document which is highlighted  Hyperlink reference: the address of the other webpage  NORMAL TEXT <a href=”filename”> ANCHOR </a> - Absolute pathnames vs. Relative pathnames o Absolute Pathnames: Complete URLS  right way to reference pages at other websites o Relative Pathnames: describes how to find the referenced file relative to the file in which the anchor tag appears o Going “deeper” in a folder: give the path from the current folder down to the file o Going “higher” in the hierarchy: refer to the next outer lvel of the hierarchy  containing folder  directory structure - Including picture with image tags Attributes: href, src, alt o Image tag: analogous to an anchor tag  specifies a file that contains an image <img src=”filename” alt=”descriprion”/> - Styles: most useful attribute: o Properties: characteristics of page components  color, size or position o Placed inside the tags whose contents you want to modify o Style = “property name: specification” o Colon (:) separates the property name o <body style=”background-color :black> o <img src=”puffer.jpg” width=”200” height=”200”…/> o <p style =”text-align : center”><img src=…/></p> - CSS (Main concepts) o Cascading Style Sheets: the facility that is responsible for much of what is very slick on the web pages we see everyday  simplifies the task of creating beautiful yet complex page designs  Closest style wins  Default: given by the browser settings  External: given in a file  Global: given in the <head> section  Range: given in an enclosing tag  Site: given by the style attribute - List Tags: Ordered, unordered o Unordered: <ul> and </ul> surrounds the items of the list which are themselves enclosed in list tags <li> and </li> o Definitional list : <dl> and </dl> sequences of definition terms and surrounded with <dt> and </dt> and definitional data <dd> and </dd> - Tables: <table> and </table> o Border around it : o Table row tabs: <tr> </tr> o Cells of each row <td> and </td> o Captions: <caption> and </caption> Chapter 5: Locating Information on the WWW - Crawlers: First step  visits every web page that it can find o Has a todo list - Multiword Searches: o And query because it instructs the query processor to find pages relevant to the words o Problem: no index entry corresponding to a set of tokens, only the lists for the individual words  no time to crawl the web to build an index for the set of words - Descriptive Terms o Title: the <title> tags enclose a short phrase describing the whole page o Anchor Text: the highlighted link text, which is inside <a….> tags, describes the page it links to o Meta: web page creators can add a <meta…> tag in the head section which is a several sentence description of the page as in o Alt Attributes: Recall that the <img…> tag has an attribute that gives a textual description of a picture  good sources of descriptive terms for the image and the page its on - Page Ranks: Hit list o The order in which hits are returned to a query is determined at least in part by a number google calls PAGERANKS o Higher the page rnk, the closer to the top of the list a page will be - Advanced Searches o Logical Operators: AND, OR, NOT:  And: logical operator  specifes a logical relationship between the words it connects  Or: additional search  Not: not to specify o Combining Logical Operators:  Group using parentheses o Site Search: looking only on their site  site search is usually offered on the homepage with a search window and go button o Filtered Searches: Pinpoint the pages we want - Web Searching o Advanced Search: Gives considerable control over the results returned - Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Sources o Primary: Person who has direct knowledge on the information (participants in an event) o Secondary: People who interview primary sources such as reporters and journalists o Tertiary: People who watch journalists on TV or read newspaper reports - Authoritative sources: that is what experts say  assume they are well informed and what they say is true Chapter 7:Representing Information Digitally - PandA representation: the name we use for the two fundamental patterns of digital information based on the presence and absence of a phenomenon  pneumonic for “Presence and Absence” o Black and white  discrete  distinct/separable  there is no gray  Not possible to transform one value into another by tiny gradation - Binary System: PandA has two patterns present and absent making it binary o There is NO law that says ON means “PRESENT” or OFF means “ABSENT” - Hex Notation: Hex digits that are base 16 numbers o Used to specify an RGB color or other encoding using bits  we must give the bits in order - Binary Numbers compared with Decimal numbers o Binary: to encode numbers and keyboard characters o Binary numbers are different from decimal because limited to two digits 0 and 1 - Conversions: Hexadecimal, Decimal, Binary: refer to the chart and past problems - Digitizing text: ASCII, Extended ASCII, Unicode o ASCII: Pronounced AS-Key  American Standard Code for Information Interchange  Advantages for a standard: computer parts built by different manufacturers can be connected, programs can create data and store it so that different programs can process it later o Extended ASCII: Known as ISO-8859-1 o Unicode: A more complete solution besides ASCII and variations  uses more than one byte up to four to encode around 100,000 symbols, enough for all languages - Metadata: Information describing information o Does not require binary encoding (joins numbers and letters) o Most common way to give metadata is with tags o Hard to describe the information’s properties - Parity: refers to whether a number is even or odd - Chapter 8: Representing Multimedia Digitally - Digitalizing color: o Pixels are small points of colored light arranged in a grid to form a computer display (formed from three colored lights: red, green, blue) o RGB Lights: Red, green, and blue  always this order o Black and White colors:  White  results from turning on all three lights at a high intensity (255,255,255)  Black absence of light RGB (0,0,0) o Intensities: different amounts  Given by a binary number stored in bytes  0000 0000  smallest intensity  1111 1111  largest intensity o Lighten up: Changing colors  Each Byte contains the decimal value of 206 o Increasing Intensities  Increasing Brightness: refers to how close to white the pixels are  Changing Contrast: size difference between the darkest and lightest portion of the image  Add a smaller amount for dark pixels and a larger amount for light pixels o Adding Color to a Black and White picture - Digitizing Sound o o Analog to Digital: Sampling  we take measurements at regular intervals o Sampling PCM:  Sampling Rate: the number of samples in a second  the faster the rate  the more accurate the wave recorded  Nyquist Rule: Sampling rate must be at least twice as fast as the highest frequency  Bit Depth o Object creates sound by vibrating in a medium push the air causing pressure waves to emanate from the object  transmitted by three tiny bones to the fine hairs of our cochlea o MP3: Compression  Reduce the number of bits needed to represent the information usually 10:1 compression - Digitizing Images and Video o Image compression: compression means to change the representation in order to use fewer bits to store or transmit information  Run-length encoding: uses binary numbers to specify how long the first sequence or run of 0’s is, then how long the following sequence of 1’s is, then how long the following sequences of 0’s is and so on  Lossless: run length encoding is an example  meant high that the original representation of 0’s and 1’s can be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed version  Lossy: meaning that the original representation can not be exactly reconstructed from the compressed form  MP3 is lossy because the high notes cant be covered  not important because we cant hear them anyway o JPEG, GIF, JPG  Jay-PEG: Joint Photographic Experts Groups of the ISO  lossy compression that exploits the same kinds of “human perception” characteristics  JPG  Luminance: sensitivity to small changes in brightness  Chrominance: not sensitive to small differences in color  Gifs: o MPEG: Motion Picture Experts Group of the ISO  Same idea applied to motion pictures  Record and transmit the differences between frames


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