Management Skills Exam 1 Study Guide
Management Skills Exam 1 Study Guide 33:620:302
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jamie Lee on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 33:620:302 at Rutgers University taught by Professor Sexton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see Management Skills in Business at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
STUDY GUIDE // Management Skills Exam 1 - Jamie Lee - Week 1 - (Just in case) ➢ What is Management? Getting the right work done well. ➢ The “Right Work”? ○ Identifying and communicating the right work to be done ○ Designing, implementing, monitoring, & improving flows or fork of the organization so the right work is performed effectively and efficiently ○ Creating a positive, productive work environment ○ Creating an organization that is innovative and socially responsible ➢ Why Skills Matter ○ What recruiters want: willingness to learn; flexible, Integrity; empathy, Self-motivated, Problem-solving, Ability to work in a team, Communication ○ Emotional Intelligence: Self-Awareness, Self-Regulation, Motivation, Empathy, Social Skills ➢ Goleman ○ Self-Awareness ■ Having a deep understanding of one’s emotions, needs, strengths, weaknesses, values, and goals -- and their impact on others ■ Ex: A manager knows tight deadlines bring out the worst in him so he plans his work out well in advance to get it done. ○ Self-Regulation ■ Controlling or redirecting disruptive emotions or impulses ■ Ex: When a team botches a presentation, its leader resists the urge to scream and instead considers the possible reasons for the failure, explains the consequences to the team, and explores solutions with them. ○ Motivation ■ Being driven to achieve for the sake of achievement ■ Ex: A portfolio manager at an investment company sees his funds tumble for consecutive quarters and major clients leave. Instead of blaming external circumstances, she decides to learn from the experience and engineers a turnaround. ○ Empathy ■ Considering others’ feelings especially when making decisions ■ Ex: An American consultant and her team pitch a project to a Japanese client and her team interprets the client’s silence as disapproval so prepares to leave. The consultant, however, reads the client’s body language and senses interest so she continues the meeting and her team gets the job. ○ Social Skills ■ Managing relationships to move people in desired directions ■ Ex: A manager wants his company to adopt a better Internet strategy so he finds kindred spirits and assembles a team to create a website prototype. He persuades allies in other divisions to fund the company’s participation in a relevant convention and his company forms an Internet division - and later puts him in charge of it. ○ Google: What Builds a Better Boss ■ Be a good coach. ■ Empower your team, don’t micromanage. ■ Express interest in employees’ success and well-being. ■ Be productive and results-oriented. ■ Be a good communicator: Listen to your team. ■ Help your employees with career development. ■ Have a clear vision and strategy for the team. ■ Have key technical skills, so you can help advise the team. Week 2 - Building Effective Teams ➢ The difference b/w a team and a work group ○ Team Work Group Shared leadership roles Strong, clearly focused leader Individual & mutual accountability Individual accountability Specific team purpose that the team itseThe group’s purpose is the same as the delivers broader organizational mission Collective work products Individual work products Encourages open-ended discussion and Runs efficient meetings active problem solving meetings Measures performance directly by Measures effectiveness indirectly by its assessing collective work products influence on others (ex: financial performance of business) Discusses, decides, and does real work Discusses, decides, and delegates together ➢ Team types ○ Problem solving ■ 5-12 members share ideas or offer suggestions on how work processes and methods can be improved; discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and work environment ○ Self-managed work ■ groups of employees (10-15) who perform highly related or interdependent jobs and take on many of the responsibilities of their former supervisors ■ involve planning and scheduling work, assigning tasks to members, making operating decisions, taking action on problems, and working with suppliers and customers ○ Cross-functional ■ made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task ■ effective for allowing people from diverse areas within an organization to exchange info, develop new ideas and solve problems, coordinate complex projects ○ Virtual ■ use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal ■ collaborate online using communication links such as wide-area networks, video conferencing, or e-mail ➢ Hallmarks of a real team ○ A real team ■ Is there an interdependent task? ■ Does the team have stable membership? ■ Who is the authority figure and how much autonomy or responsibility does the team have? ○ Compelling direction ■ Does the team have direction about its performance and goals? ■ Energize, focus, and engage team members ○ Enabling structure ■ Is the work design of the team motivating? ■ What are the norms in the team for [un]acceptable behavior? ■ How is the team comprised? ○ Supportive context ■ Does the reward system reward the team? (not individual) ■ Does the team have access to reports, data, and other helpful information? ■ Is training available to help the team develop skills towards goal accomplishment? ○ Expert coaching ■ Is coaching available to help members? (providing feedback, answering questions) ➢ General Model of Team Effectiveness Week 3 - Understanding Self and Others ➢ Emotional intelligence and its (5) components ○ A unique combination of emotional and social skills that a person uses to navigate everyday challenges of life. ○ Self awareness, self regulation, motivation, empathy, & social skills ○ Review what was written in week 1 above ○ EQ report divided into: ■ Stress management ■ Self perception ■ Self expression ■ Decision making ■ Interpersonal ➢ Personality (defined) and its role in organizations ○ Personality :unique and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions shown by an individual ○ Role in organizations:knowledge, skills, and ability determine whether a person can do the job; personality determines whether a person wants to do the work ➢ Big 5 personality traits (pg. 39) ○ Extraversion ■ tendency to seek stimulation and enjoy company of others ● ranging from energetic, enthusiastic, sociable, talkative to retiring, sober, reserved, silent, cautious ○ Agreeableness ■ tendency to be compassionate toward others ● ranging from good-natured, cooperative, trusting, and helpful to irritable, suspicious, uncooperative ○ Conscientiousness ■ tendency to show self discipline, strive for competence and achievement ● ranging from well organized, careful, self disciplined, responsible, and precise to disorganized, impulsive, careless, and undependable ○ Neuroticism ■ tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily ● ranging from poised, calm, composed to nervous, anxious, and high-strung ○ Openness to experience ■ tendency to enjoy new experiences and new ideas ● ranging from imaginative, witty, having broad interests to down-to-earth, simple, and having narrow interests ➢ MBTI and EQ assessment tools; the impact of different personalities and EQ on teams ○ MBTI (Meyers Briggs Type Indicator) ■ 16 possible types; does not measure aptitude ■ (Focus of attention)Extravert or introve;(Taking in infoSensor versus intuiti;(Decision-making) Thinker or feel;(Orientation to world) udger or perceiver ○ Knowledge of personality differences can help managers assign tasks, assemble teams, communicate, motivate, and manage conflict more effectively Week 4 - Diversity T2 Output Problem: where the organization is falling short in terms of where it would like to be with regard to a particular (or several) performance outcome(s) - must bemeasurable,have animpact, and besolved ➢ The business case for diversity in organizations ○ Diverse viewpoints ○ Diverse customers ○ Employee recruitment ○ Employee retention ○ Profitability ➢ Faultlines - what are they and how do they occur? ○ Defined as subgroups or coalitions that emerge naturally within team ○ When groups fall into 2 distinct, non-overlapping subgroups and provide a forum for conflict (development of in- versus out-groups) ○ Typically along various demographic lines although can be driven by surface- or deep-level diversity ○ Implications for knowledge sharing across sub-groups versus entire team; perceptions of “in-groups” versus “out-groups” and tensions between sub-groups ➢ Diversity in Teams ○ Surface-level, deep-level, Homogeneous teams, Heterogenous teams ■ Homogeneous : similar shared value and attributes ■ Heterogeneous : diverse orientation ○ Gender case: ■ Teams w/ more women tend to perform at higher levels on tasks such as brainstorming, decision making, and puzzles/problem solving ■ Teams w/ male team members are more comfortable when team objectives are clarified to greatest extent while females prefer comm. ➢ Deep-level versus surface-level diversity ➢ Cultural diversity ○ Hofstede Framework: ■ Power distance ● accepting unequal power distributions in organizations and institutions ■ Individualism (versus collectivism) ● preferences to act as individuals rather than members of a group ■ Masculinity (versus femininity) ● favoring traditional masculine roles (versus gender equality) and less emphasis on caring and concern for members’ well-being ■ Uncertainty avoidance ● preferences for structured over unstructured situations and ambiguity versus not Week 5 - Values, Ethics, and Justice ➢ Values (defined) and their importance ○ Values: core beliefs or desires that guide or motivate attitudes and actions ○ Importance: guide one’s behaviors, attitudes, and decisions; important to identify and be mindful of one’s core values ■ knowing one’s values will help making important decisions ■ influence goals ■ provide moral compass ■ critical for leader effectiveness ➢ Types of values ○ Instrumental (“How) Values versus Terminal (“What) Values ○ Tangible Values versus Intangible Values ■ material things versus ideals you wish to strive toward/pursue ○ Ethical or Moral Values versus Non Ethical Values ■ directly related to beliefs concerning what is right/proper versus dealing with things we like, desire, or find personally important ➢ Criterion for ethical decision-making Right versus Right// 1. Truth versus loyalty:Conforming with facts versus reality (truth) versus allegiance to a person group, or set of ideas 2. Individual versus community: Us versus them or self versus others 3. Short versus long term:Now versus then; reflects difficulties when immediate needs or desires run counter to future goals 4. Justice versus mercy:Expectations (justice) versus exception to the rules (mercy) Ethics Takeaways// 1. Ethics is a personal and complex set of ideas which guide your behavior. 2. Ethical behavior can be managed through formal policies, practices, and processes -- especially those which are transparent. ➢ Justice (defined), types of justice, and its importance ○ Justice: a personal evaluation about the ethical and moral standing of managerial conduct ○ Types: ■ Distributive: appropriateness of resource allocation decision ■ Procedural : appropriateness of how decisions are made and implemented ■ Interactional:appropriateness of how one person treats another ● informational/interpersonal ○ Importance : Selection procedures, reward systems, conflict resolution, layoffs, performance appraisals Justice Takeaways// 1. Being fair is not the same as being perceived as fair. 2. Individuals may not give the same weight to all 3 justice dimensions. 3. Organizations have “3 bites of the apple” Week 6 - Motivation and Feedback ➢ Motivation (defined) and types of motivation ○ Motivation : Willingness to exert effort toward a particular end; comes from Latin word movere“to move”; linked to performance ○ Types: ■ Extrinsic: refers to payoffs such as $$$ that are granted by others ■ Intrinsic: refers to self-granted and internally experienced payoffs, such as a feeling of accomplishment ➢ Theories of motivation ○ Theory X: Managers believe that employees inherently dislike work and must be directed or coerced into performing. ○ Theory Y : Managers assume that employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. Thus, the average person can learn to accept or seek responsibility. ○ McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory: ■ Focuses on need for achievement, power, and affiliation ○ Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory: ■ Motivation-Hygiene Theory ● The factors that lead to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from the factors that lead to job dissatisfaction. ● Addressing hygiene factors (relating to conditions surrounding the job) may placate workers but will not motivate them. ○ Adam’s Equity Theory ■ Calls for a fair balance to be struck b/w an employee’inputs(hard work, skill level, tolerance, enthusiasm) aoutputs(salary, benefits, intangibles/recognition) ■ Balance serves to ensure a strong and productive relationship is achieved with the employee, with the overall result being contented, motivated employees ○ Vroom’s Expectancy Theory ■ Expectancy : belief that your efforts will result in performance (effort → performance) ■ Instrumentality: belief that your performance will be rewarded (performance → reward) ■ Valence: perceived reward value (do I value the reward available?) ○ Locke’s Goal Setting Theory ■ Goal settingis the process of improving performance w/ objectives, deadlines, or quality standards ■ Goals motivate by (1) directing attention; (2) encouraging effort; (3) encouraging persistence; (4) fostering goal-attainment strategies and action plans ➢ What are SMART goals? ○ Sp ecific ○ M easurable ○ A ttainable ○ Re levant ○ T ime-frame ➢ Feedback (defined) and the hallmarks of good feedback ○ Feedback: Results of behavior relayed to individuals for their use and learning ○ When Giving Feedback: Feedback should bspecifi, receiver must feel valued, and focus on action-orienstrategie. ○ When Receiving Feedback:Rather than arguing your views tryunderstand the other party’s perspective, rather than acting defensive chbodyyour language, and clarify your understanding by listening carefully, asking questions, and summarizing on 2-3 key areas.
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