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MSU / Criminology and Criminal Justice / CRJU 3343 / How was domestic violence viewed in the past?

How was domestic violence viewed in the past?

How was domestic violence viewed in the past?


Exam 2 Study Guide

How was domestic violence viewed in the past?

∙ Chapter 4 Intimate Partner Abuse & Stalking

o The Battered Women’s Movement was in the 1970s

 Shelters and counseling programs were being developed

o The Cycle of Violence consists of 3 phases

 Phase 1: Tension Building

∙ The batterer becomes controlling

 Phase 2: Abusive Incident

∙ When the abuse happens

 Phase 3: The Honeymoon Period

∙ Attacker apologizes, and the victim forgives

o IPA is defined in many ways

 Physical, psychological, or sexual harm by a current or former partner  Stalking

 Homicides/robberies involving intimate partners

Can you press charges for cyberstalking?

o  Prosecutors normally charge the attacker with simple assault

o African American women cope with IPA by using:

 Emergency services

 Police assistance

 Housing assistance

o Mandatory Arrest: surfaced during the 1980s and 1990s with the intention to stop  domestic violence by deterring offenders.  It clarified the roles of police officers  when dealing with domestic violence calls and removed the responsibility of  arrest from the victim We also discuss several other topics like How does the electromagnetic spectrum work?

o Stalking: a course of conduct directed at a reasonable person that could cause  them to feel fearful.  It includes acts such as unwanted phone calls or messages,  being followed or spied on, and making unannounced visits

o Stalking may not be reported because:

 The victim did not want the behavior to escalate

What were the findings of the minneapolis domestic violence experiment?

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of accountable?
Don't forget about the age old question of How do you write the second derivative?

 The victim thinks that this experience is private

 Believes that it is not serious enough to report

o The stalker is normally someone who the victim knows

o Cyberstalking: incidents of stalking that use electronic forms of technology such  as e­mail, text, GPS, and the Internet

o Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment: helped show the decrease in  recidivism rates when an actual arrest was made in misdemeanor domestic  violence incidents, in comparison to when a police officer just counseled the  aggressor

o Violence Against Women Act:  passed in 1994; this federal law provides funding  for training and research on intimate partner abuse as well as sets forth policies 

for restitution and civil redress; it provided funding for battered women’s shelters  and outreach education, funding for domestic violence training for police and  court personnel, and the opportunity for victims to sue for civil damages as a  result of violent acts perpetuated against them

o If victims do not feel as though the criminal justice system meets their needs, they

are not as likely to go to them for assistance

∙ Chapter 8 Female Offenders and Their Crimes

o Proportion of Gender Arrests:

 Males are more likely to be arrested for violent crimes

 Females are more likely to be arrested for property crimes

o The 2010 Fair Sentencing Act changed the sentencing disparity between powder  We also discuss several other topics like Which of the following is a brønsted lowry acid but not an arrhenius acid?

and crack cocaine from 100 to 1, to 18 to 1.

o Risk factors for women in prostitution include:

 Violence 

 Victimization

 Drug addiction

 Contracting STIs

o Gang structures

 Mixed­gender

∙ The females are normally in a type of relationship with a male 

gang member (brother/boyfriend)

 Independent girl gang

∙ Girls have a higher level of participation in the criminal network

o How one exits the gang lifestyle:

 Age out 

 Pregnancy

 Incarcerated

 Jumped out

 Legitimate jobs

 Choose to limit involvement with gang

o Women may kill their children for the following reasons:

 Altruistic reasons

 Mental illness

∙ Chapter 9 Processing and Sentencing of  Female Offenders

o Gender Bias

 Chivalry Hypothesis: women are given preferential treatment

 Evil Woman Hypothesis: women are more harshly treated

o Gender and Sentencing Patterns We also discuss several other topics like How much money can i donate to a presidential candidate?
We also discuss several other topics like When is the second industrial revolution?

 White women are given more leniency than Latina women and Black 


o Legal vs Extra Legal

 Legal factors

∙ Whether or not offender has a criminal record ∙ How severe the offense

∙ If the offender is culpable

∙ How severely the victim was injured

 Extra Legal factors

∙ Family

∙ Public defender vs Private attorney

 Sentencing Guidelines 

∙ The type of offense

∙ Criminal record

∙ Whether or  not there were mitigating circumstances

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