Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide CRM 3343
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Juliane Notetaker on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CRM 3343 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Kecia Johnson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Gender, Crime and Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 Intimate Partner Abuse & Stalking o The Battered Women’s Movement was in the 1970s Shelters and counseling programs were being developed o The Cycle of Violence consists of 3 phases Phase 1: Tension Building The batterer becomes controlling Phase 2: Abusive Incident When the abuse happens Phase 3: The Honeymoon Period Attacker apologizes, and the victim forgives o IPA is defined in many ways Physical, psychological, or sexual harm by a current or former partner Stalking Homicides/robberies involving intimate partners o Prosecutors normally charge the attacker with simple assault o African American women cope with IPA by using: Emergency services Police assistance Housing assistance o Mandatory Arrest: surfaced during the 1980s and 1990s with the intention to stop domestic violence by deterring offenders. It clarified the roles of police officers when dealing with domestic violence calls and removed the responsibility of arrest from the victim o Stalking: a course of conduct directed at a reasonable person that could cause them to feel fearful. It includes acts such as unwanted phone calls or messages, being followed or spied on, and making unannounced visits o Stalking may not be reported because: The victim did not want the behavior to escalate The victim thinks that this experience is private Believes that it is not serious enough to report o The stalker is normally someone who the victim knows o Cyberstalking: incidents of stalking that use electronic forms of technology such as email, text, GPS, and the Internet o Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment: helped show the decrease in recidivism rates when an actual arrest was made in misdemeanor domestic violence incidents, in comparison to when a police officer just counseled the aggressor o Violence Against Women Act: passed in 1994; this federal law provides funding for training and research on intimate partner abuse as well as sets forth policies for restitution and civil redress; it provided funding for battered women’s shelters and outreach education, funding for domestic violence training for police and court personnel, and the opportunity for victims to sue for civil damages as a result of violent acts perpetuated against them o If victims do not feel as though the criminal justice system meets their needs, they are not as likely to go to them for assistance Chapter 8 Female Offenders and Their Crimes o Proportion of Gender Arrests: Males are more likely to be arrested for violent crimes Females are more likely to be arrested for property crimes o The 2010 Fair Sentencing Act changed the sentencing disparity between powder and crack cocaine from 100 to 1, to 18 to 1. o Risk factors for women in prostitution include: Violence Victimization Drug addiction Contracting STIs o Gang structures Mixedgender The females are normally in a type of relationship with a male gang member (brother/boyfriend) Independent girl gang Girls have a higher level of participation in the criminal network o How one exits the gang lifestyle: Age out Pregnancy Incarcerated Jumped out Legitimate jobs Choose to limit involvement with gang o Women may kill their children for the following reasons: Altruistic reasons Mental illness Chapter 9 Processing and Sentencing of Female Offenders o Gender Bias Chivalry Hypothesis: women are given preferential treatment Evil Woman Hypothesis: women are more harshly treated o Gender and Sentencing Patterns White women are given more leniency than Latina women and Black women o Legal vs Extra Legal Legal factors Whether or not offender has a criminal record How severe the offense If the offender is culpable How severely the victim was injured Extra Legal factors Family Public defender vs Private attorney Sentencing Guidelines The type of offense Criminal record Whether or not there were mitigating circumstances
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