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CLEMSON / Psychology / PSYC 3060 / What is gender identity?

What is gender identity?

What is gender identity?

Description

School: Clemson University
Department: Psychology
Course: Human Sexuality
Professor: Bruce king
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: These are the correct answers to the end of chapter reviews in the textbook, laid out in an organized manner. Exam 3 covers chapters 8,9,10,11,13.
Uploaded: 03/29/2016
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PSYCHOLOGY EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDES


What is gender identity?



CHAPTER 8:

1. Gender identity is your subjective sense of being a man or a  woman.

2. Gender roles are norms (what is considered appropriate) about  the behaviors and attitudes of men and women. They vary from  culture to culture and can change over time within the same  culture.

3. A person’s genetic sex is determined at conception by the  combination of an egg, which has an X chromosome for sex, and  a sperm, which can have either an X or a Y chromosome.  4. XX combinations usually result in girls.

5. XY usually produce boys. Don't forget about the age old question of What is irrelevant information?

6. There are over 70 known irregularities in chromosome  combinations.

7. Klinefelter’s syndrome: men with one or more extra X  chromosomes

8. Turner’s syndrome: women with only one X chromosome 9. Hormones determine whether an embryo will develop  anatomically to be a boy or girl.


What is congenital adrenal hyperplasia?



10. Unless there are high levels of testosterone at this critical  stage of prenatal development, nature has programmed the  body to develop into a girl.

11. Hormone disorders before birth can result in a mismatch  between genetic and anatomical sex, or a baby whose external  genitalia are ambiguous in appearance.

12. The most common condition is called congenital adrenal  hyperplasia.

13. Gender dysphoria: some individuals feel that they are  trapped inside a body of the wrong sex.

14. Transgendered: people whose gender identity does not  match their biological sex.

15. Freudian Theory: emphasizes unconscious identification  with the parent of the same sex. We also discuss several other topics like What is amino acid?

16. Social Learning Theory: emphasizes the role of  reinforcement and imitation.


What is transsexual?



17. Cognitive-developmental theory: states that children do not acquire the concept of gender constancy until the age of 6 or 7. 18. Evolutionary theory: psychological sex differences between men and women are inherent and the result of different  reproductive pressures each faced over thousands of  

generations.

19. Sociocultural theory: emphasizes the role of the  environment or social context in influencing the way gender roles develop over the life span.If you want to learn more check out What jacques loeb believes?

20. The development of gender roles begins before a child  develops gender identity or gender constancy.

21. Masculinity and femininity were once viewed as opposite  ends of a one-dimensional continuum, but today they are  generally viewed as independent constructs.

22. This has led to the theory of androgyny, which says that a  person can be both masculine and feminine and that this is the  healthiest of all gender roles because of the flexibility it gives  individuals in different situations. If you want to learn more check out What are emergent properties?

23. Parents, teachers, the media and peers are all powerful  influences on the process of socialization and gender-role  development.

24. Gender is possibly the first social category learned by  children.

25. When children cognitively organize the world according to  gender, they create gender schemas.

26. As individuals become adults, they generally acquire more  complex sets of gender roles, and for both sexes there is an  integration of gender roles.

27. Continued belief in stereotypic gender roles can adversely  affect one’s personal and sexual relations with a partner. 28. Traditional gender roles in our culture evolved over time in  response to social forces.

29. Those forces have been changing and as a result, gender  roles are in a state of transition. Don't forget about the age old question of What was roosevelt’s idea of social insurance?

30. Recent studies have shown that some differences between  men and women in sexual attitudes and behaviors are better  explained by evolutionary theory (such as sexual desire) while  others are better explained by sociocultural theory (such as  sociosexuality).

31. Transgendered and transsexual do not mean the same  thing.

32. Hormone levels in the second half of pregnancy alter brain  anatomy to be either “male” or “female.”

33. By the age of 3, children know whether they are a boy or a  girl, but do not understand that this cannot change. 34. In the absence of testosterone during embryonic  development, we would all be born anatomically a girl. 35. Fathers tend to treat their children in more gender stereotypic ways than do mothers.

36. Transsexual is not a term for a type of homosexual. 37. According to the social learning theory, imitation is a  process by which children may learn gender identity and gender  roles.

38. The rise of industrialization helped create the male gender  role of being independent and unemotional.

39. Gender role is the way you express your gender identity. 40. The most common hormonal disorder of sex development  in men is androgen insensitivity syndrome. If you want to learn more check out What is consumer behavior?

41. Men’s and women’s hypothalamuses are different. 42. A transsexual is not someone who cross-dresses for sexual  arousal.

43. Children show gender-stereotyped behavior before they  have developed gender constancy.

44. In girls, male sex-play behavior is related to fetal  testosterone levels.

45. There is little noticeable difference between behavior of  boys and the behavior of girls before the age of 2.

46. Gender dysphoric, transgendered person: Tom believes he  is a woman, but is anatomically a man and does not want  surgery.  

47. “Feminine” on Bem Sex-Role Inventory: Bob is low in  instrumental orientation (“getting the job done”) and has great  affective concern for the welfare of others.

48. Homosexual: Frank prefers men as sexual partners. 49. Turner’s syndrome: Susan cannot reproduce; she is short  and infertile and has one X chromosome

50. Undifferentiated individual: Joe is neither instrumental nor  expressive, neither assertive nor emotional

51. Androgen insensitivity syndrome, disorder of sex  development: David’s body sis not respond to testosterone  during prenatal development; he has female genitalia and  undescended testes.

52. Androgen insensitivity syndrome, DHT-deficient individual:  Sam was born with a very small penis that looked like a clitoris,  an incomplete scrotum, and a short, closed vaginal cavity. At  puberty his voice deepened, his testicles descended, and his  “clitoris” grew to become a penis.

53. Androgynous individual: Wayne is both instrumental and  expressive, assertive and emotional

54. Gender dysphoric, transgendered person, transsexual:  Phillip believes he is a woman trapped in a male body and wishes to have sex reassignment surgery

55. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Carol has an enlarged  clitoris and labia because of too much masculinizing hormone  during her fetal development

56. Stereotyped individual: Mike believes that men should be  assertive, aggressive, success-oriented, unemotional, and should play little role in housekeeping and childcare responsibilities

57. Klinefelter’s syndrome: Harold is tall, with long arms; he  has a small penis, shrunken testicles, low sexual desire, and an  extra X chromosome

58. Disorder of sex development: Barbara is genetically a  woman, but has both male and female reproductive systems as a result of the failure of her primitive gonads to differentiate during the embryonic stage.

59. A child’s knowledge that his or her sex does not change is  called gender constancy in cognitive-development theory. 60. According to Canian, gender roles for men and women did  not start to differ until the 1800s.

61. According to sociocultural theory, an individual’s gender  role results from society’s expectations of male and female  behavior.

62. According to Freud, children acquire the gender identity of  the same-sex parent through the process of identification. 63. The process of internalizing society’s beliefs is called  socialization.

64. Oversimplified, rigid beliefs that all members of a particular sex have distinct behavioral and emotional characteristics are  called stereotypes.

65. On Bem’s Sex-Role Inventory, a person who scores low on  both dimensions is called undifferentiated.

66. According to Freud, children acquire their gender identity in the phallic stage of psychosexual development.

67. If an individual scores high on both the femininity  dimension and the masculine dimension of the Bem Sex-Role  Inventory, he or she would be called androgynous.

68. Money and Ehrhardt (1972) stated, “Nature’s rule is, it  would appear, that to masculinize, something must be added.”  That something is testosterone.

69. Transvestites cross-dress for sexual arousal and  gratification.

70. Transsexuals cross-dress because they truly believe they  are members of the opposite sex.

71. In social learning explanations of gender identity  development, when children watch their mothers and fathers and copy them, it is called imitation.

72. Gender refers to social construction of masculinity and  femininity.

73. According to Bem, masculine is to instrumental as feminine is to expressive.

74. According to Kagan, boys’ and girls’ behaviors do not differ at the age of 2.

75. Some languages classify all nouns as either masculine or  feminine. This is an example of gender schema.

76. The presence of testosterone shortly before and after birth  changes the brain to male anatomy.

77. Among early North American Indian tribes, a two-spirit was a highly respected man who cross-dressed and assumed the  behaviors of a woman.

CHAPTER 9:

1. Sexual orientation is defined as distinct preferences consistently  made after adolescence in the presence of clear alternatives. 2. Isolated instances of sexual behavior may or may not reflect  one’s sexual orientation.

3. Recent surveys indicate that 3-7% of the adult male population  and about 1.5-4.5% of the adult female population have a  homosexual or bisexual orientation.

4. A true bisexual would have a rating of 2,3 or 4 on Kinsey’s 7- point rating scale.

5. The gender identities of the vast majority of homosexuals and  bisexuals are just as strong and consistent with their anatomical  sex as among heterosexuals.

6. Conformity or nonconformity with gender roles does not always  predict one’s sexual orientation.

7. Many homosexuals and bisexuals do not walk, talk, dress or act  any different than anyone else.

8. Psychoanalytic explanations state that heterosexuality is the  “normal” outcome and that homosexuality results from problems  in resolving the Oedipus complex.

9. However, later research does not generally support these claims. 10. Homosexuals, as well as heterosexuals, have all kinds of  parents, both good and bad, caring and cold.

11. Social learning theory regards homosexuality and  heterosexuality as learned behaviors; good or rewarding  experiences with individuals of one sex and/or bad experiences  with individuals of other sex (particularly in adolescence) would  lead to a particular orientation.

12. However, social and cultural studies show that  environment alone cannot explain sexual orientation.

13. In the Sambian society in Melanesia, all boys engage in  same-sex sexual behaviors for many years, yet the large majority grow up to have a heterosexual orientation.

14. Recent studies suggest that biology plays a major role in  the origin of sexual orientation.

15. Studies with twins indicate a genetic factor, while  anatomical studies have found differences in the brains of  heterosexuals and homosexuals.

16. Many researchers believe that differences in hormones  before or shortly after we are born predispose us to a particular  sexual orientation.

17. Nearly all agree that biological and social/cultural  influences interact to produce sexual orientation.

18. Anthropologists find that most societies are more tolerant  of homosexuality than prevailing attitudes in the United States. 19. Attitudes about homosexuality have varied considerably in  Western culture.

20. The ancient Greeks and Romans accepted homosexuality,  as did the early Christians.

21. It was not until Saint Thomas Aquinas that homosexuality  came to be viewed as unnatural or “against the laws of nature”  and not until the 1600s and 1700s that it was regarded as  criminal.

22. In the 1800s, the medical (psychiatric) model regarded  homosexuality as an illness, and homosexual individuals were  regarded as having pathological conditions in need of being  “cured.”

23. In 1973 the American Psychiatric Association removed  homosexuality as an official mental illness.

24. Nevertheless, many people in the U.S. continue to have a  harsh and negative attitude.

25. The process of coming out, or identifying oneself as  homosexual, involves several often painful stages.

26. The first stage is admitting to oneself that one has a  homosexual orientation.

27. In the final stages, the individual attempts to gain the  acceptance and understanding of friends, family and coworkers. 28. This is difficult in a society filled with sexual prejudice,  socially reinforced negative attitudes toward individuals,  communities, and homosexual behaviors.

29. Today, most metropolitan areas have well-established  homosexual communities where individuals can openly  associate.

30. At the time this book was written, homosexual marriages  were legal in only 13 states.

31. Many Americans oppose the idea of openly homosexual  individuals raising children, yet research shows that children  raised by homosexual parents are emotionally and mentally  healthy, grow up to have normal gender identities and gender  roles, and almost always have a heterosexual orientation.

32. The official position of the American Psychological  Association and the American Medical Association is that  therapists should not attempt to change one’s sexual orientation.

33. In some cultures, same-sex sexual behavior is considered  normal for boys during adolescence.

34. Homosexuals do not always act and/or dress differently  from heterosexuals.

35. Bisexuals are not afraid to admit to themselves their real  homosexuality.

36. It is not true that most homosexuals are unhappy with their sexual orientation and would like to become heterosexual. 37. A homosexual orientation does not indicate a gender  identity problem.

38. A male homosexual cannot be made heterosexual by  administering large doses of testosterone.

39. People who have had same-sex sexual experiences are not  necessarily homosexual in orientation.

40. Women who have had same-sex sexual relations are more  likely to be bisexual than homosexual.

41. About 10% of American men and women have had a same sex sexual experience.

42. Researchers have found a higher rate of concordance for  homosexuality between identical twins than between non identical twins.

43. A bisexual is not anyone who has had sex with both men  and women.

44. Recent studies do not support Kinsey’s findings that 10% of American men are homosexual.

45. The pathway to heterosexual sexual identity is not smooth  and uniform.

46. Not all homosexuals and bisexuals have gender dysphoria. 47. Most lesbians have had pleasurable relations with men. 48. Extremely effeminate (“sissy”) boys do not always develop  a homosexual orientation.

49. If one identical twin is homosexual, the other twin is not  always homosexual.

50. Studies have found that areas of the hypothalamus in the  brain are different in male heterosexuals and homosexuals. 51. Not all homosexuals adopt a single role (“masculine” or  “feminine”) in their relationships.

52. Children raised by openly homosexual parents are not  more likely to develop a homosexual orientation than children  raised by heterosexual parents.

53. Heterosexual: Henry has had a few same-sex sexual  experiences, but has had sex only with women since he turned  15 ten years ago.

54. Homosexual: Joyce has been married and enjoyed sexual  relations with her husband, but now prefers sexual relations with  women.

55. Not enough information: Frank has had sex with both men  and women.

56. Transsexual: Michael believes he is a woman and has sex  only with men.

57. Homosexual: Carl sometimes enjoys sex with women, but  prefers sexual relations with men.

58. Not enough information: Tom is 12 years old and his few  sexual experiences have been exclusively with boys his age. 59. Bisexual: Alice enjoys sex with men most of the time, but  she often enjoys sex with women as well.

60. Heterosexual: Diane has had sex only with men, but  occasionally has homosexual fantasies.

61. Not enough information: Matthew occasionally goes to  bathhouses and lets other men give him oral-genital sex. 62. Transsexual: Mary’s gender identity is not consistent with  her anatomical sex.

63. Homosexual: Steve is 19 years old and his only sexual  experiences have been with women, but all his sexual fantasies  are about men.

64. In this book, sexual orientation is defined as distinct  preferences consistently made after adolescence in the presence of clear alternatives.

65. Researchers believe that hormones may affect sexual  orientation before or shortly after birth.

66. According to this chapter, biological factors probably  predispose individuals to a particular sexual orientation. 67. The four stages of the coming out process are: admitting,  getting to know other homosexuals, coming out, and complete  openness.

CHAPTER 10:

1. People are sexual beings from the moment of birth. 2. In infancy, self-stimulation of the genitals is motivated by a  general attempt to explore the body and seek pleasure. 3. As children grow, their curiosity about their bodies continues  and, during early childhood, reaches a peak in the age period  from 3-5 years old.

4. Early childhood games such as “house” or “doctor” allow  exploration of same-sex and opposite-sex individuals.

5. In the initial school-age years, children develop a sense of  modesty.

6. Although overt sexual play may decrease, curiosity about the  human body and sexuality does not.

7. Puberty is the time in life in which an individual first becomes  capable of reproduction and shows sexual attraction to others. 8. Many bodily changes occur, the result of changing hormone  levels, and these physical changes require many adjustments for  young adolescents.

9. Interest in sex increases dramatically at puberty, and earlier  childhood games evolve into more erotic and consciously sexual  games.

10. The most important issue in the lives of most adolescents  is self-identity and during these years there is a focus on body  image and physical characteristics.

11. Almost all teenage boys and a majority of girls  masturbate, which is usually accompanied by sexual fantasies. 12. Sex therapists feel that masturbation is a safe and healthy  sexual outlet for teenagers.

13. Surveys find that half of American high school students  have engaged in sexual intercourse.

14. For some teens, however, having sexual relations is not a  positive experience, yet many engage in it because of peer  pressure.

15. By the time people are in their mid 20’s, most people’s  sexual lifestyle is characterized by monogamy either in marriage  or by cohabitation.

16. Most young people underestimate the frequency of sex  practiced by older adults.

17. Sexual activity is highest for people in their mid 20’s – mid  30’s and only gradually declines up through the late 50’s.  18. Surveys indicate that married people have sex more often  than singles and are happier with their sex lives than are singles. 19. As women grow older, their menstrual cycles become  irregular and eventually stop entirely, which is called  menopause.

20. This usually occurs in a woman’s late 40’s or early 50’s and the change in hormones can result in hot flashes, a decrease in  vaginal lubrication, and osteoporosis.

21. Men show a gradual decline in testosterone beginning in  their late teens.

22. This also results in some physical changes, such as a  decline in muscle mass and strength, less firm erections, less  forceful ejaculations, and longer refractory periods.

23. However, most elderly people continue to enjoy sexual  relations as long as they remain otherwise healthy and have a  partner.

24. For healthy couples, the best predictor of whether they will  enjoy sex in old age is their attitude about sex now. 25. It is important for parents to learn to communicate with  their children about sexuality in a positive manner.

26. Your children will learn about sex regardless of whether you ever talk to them about it.

27. Sexual learning begins in infancy, and children receive it  from their peers, the media, and your own behaviors.

28. Avoid that one long “birds and bees” talk approach;  communication between parents and their children about  sexuality should begin early childhood and be ongoing.

29. Discussions with your children about sexuality should be  frank and explicit.

30. When talking to your children about sex, how you say it is  just as important as what you say.

31. You should strive to create an atmosphere of love and  caring, so avoid scare tactics and do not lecture to them. 32. It is also important that your children view you to be  accepting and ask able.

33. You can emphasize your own sexual values, but remember  that your own behavior will affect your child’s attitudes and  moral values.

34. The only way you will be able to know whether your  attempts to educate your children about sexuality have been  successful is by their willingness to come to you when they have  questions and problems.

35. Ultrasound recordings have found that male fetuses have  erections while still inside the uterus.

36. Children can masturbate to orgasm before puberty. 37. The growth of pubic hair on girls is the result of increased  levels of testosterone.

38. If a child is found engaging in sexual exploration games  with another child of the same sex before the age of 7, it does  not mean the child is homosexual.

39. Couples who lived together before marriage are no less  likely than other couples to get divorced.

40. In a study of 202 men and women ages 80 to 102, it was  found that nearly half still engaged in sexual intercourse. 41. The lack of vaginal lubrication in women who have  undergone menopause is not an indicator that their sexual desire has decreased.

42. The average married couple in their 20s or 30s have sex  more often than young singles.

43. The average age at which girls have their first menstrual  cycle has been decreasing over the last 2 centuries. 44. “Hot flashes” are due, in part, to increasing levels of  pituitary hormones.

45. The best predictor of sexual activity for older women is not  the amount of vaginal lubrication they had when they were  younger.

46. Boys often develop enlarged breasts during puberty. 47. In early childhood, it is not normal for children to engage in sexual behaviors that imitate adults.

48. The way parents react to the sexuality of their children is  generally an indication of the way they feel about their own  sexuality.

49. In terms of hormone changes with aging, men and women  are not very much alike.

50. In men, the production of sperm does not stop in the early  50s.

51. Most women do not show a decreased interest in sex after  menopause.

52. In some cultures, hot flashes are uncommon among  postmenopausal women.

53. Pubertal development in boys lags about 2 years behind  development in girls.

54. If an adult man is castrated, it does not substantially raise  his voice.

55. Girls as young as 6 or 7 have given birth.

56. Most teenage girls do not experience severe pain during  their first sexual intercourse.

57. The sexual activity of emerging adults is generally different from the activity of younger and older age groups.

58. There is not a strong relationship between social  background (religious and political views) and whether or not one engages in extramarital affairs.

59. Children’s first sexual attractions occur around age 10. 60. Increase in estrogen: breast development in girls 61. Decrease in estrogen: vaginal dryness at menopause 62. Increase in FSH and LH: hot flashes in women 63. Increase in testosterone: development of sweat glands  (body odor, acne)

64. Increase in estrogen: gynecomastia

65. Increase in testosterone: pubic hair and body hair 66. Increase in LSH and FH: menarche

67. Decrease in testosterone: less firm erection and longer  refractory period

68. Increase in estrogen: reversal of effects of menopause 69. Decrease in testosterone: decreased sexual desire in  women

70. Decrease in testosterone: decreased sexual desire in men 71. Increase in DHEA from adrenal glands, increase in  testosterone: children’s first sexual attractions

72. The decline in sexual activity among older single women is  most often due to a lack of a partner.

73. The changes that occur in women in the few years that  precede and follow menopause are called the climacteric. 74. Before age 2, bodily exploration is usually confined to self exploration.

75. Freud referred to what this chapter calls the initial school age years as the latency stage of psychosexual development. 76. Development of breasts and growth of facial hair are  examples of secondary sex characteristics.

77. For many teenage girls, the need for emotional intimacy is  an important part of finding their self-identity.

78. Whitehurst believed that the two things most likely to lead  to extramarital sex are opportunity and alienation.

79. Puberty is at least a two-part maturational process. The  two parts are called adrenarche and gonadarche.

CHAPTER 11:

1. “Normal” is defined from a statistical point of view, and is best  though of as a range of behaviors or values.

2. You should not regard yourself as abnormal if you have not  engaged in all the behaviors discussed in this class.

3. Historically, masturbation has been presented as unnatural,  immoral and bad for one’s physical and mental health. 4. In his landmark surveys of 1948 and 1953, Kinsey found that  92% of the men and 62% of the women surveyed had  masturbated, thus demonstrating that masturbating is, in fact, a  very normal human sexual behavior.

5. More recent research showed that monthly rates of masturbation tend to increase for both men and women as they move through  their teens, 20s, and 30s, then start to decline and reach their  lowest point when people reach their 70s and beyond.

6. Although ethnic differences in masturbation rates have been  found, they are decreasing over time.

7. In particular, studies show that rates have increased among both Latinos and African Americans.

8. Most women masturbate by stimulating the clitoris and about  half have used a vibrator on at least one occasion.

9. Heterosexual men are less likely than homosexual men to report  having used a vibrator on themselves while masturbating. 10. Modern medicine has also shown that masturbation has no  negative medical consequences.

11. Most men and women masturbate even when they are in  sexual relationships.

12. In fact, studies show that the more sex a person has, the  more likely he or she is to masturbate.

13. For both men and women, intimate fantasies are the most  common.

14. In addition, most people have fantasized about someone  else while having sex with their current partner- this is called a  replacement fantasy.

15. Compared with those of men, the sexual fantasies of  women tend to contain more romance.

16. In addition, dominance fantasies are more common among  men than women, whereas submission fantasies are more  common among women than men.

17. Of course, just because a person fantasizes about  something does not mean that he or she really wants to  experience it.

18. Fantasies are usually not an indication of sexual  unhappiness or personality or psychological disorders. 19. Research on frequency of sexual intercourse reveals that  most young married couples have sex approximately 1-3 times  per week.

20. Surveys show that singles have sex less often than  couples.

21. When we consider how long intercourse lasts, researchers  have found that the entire shared event lasts typically 15-60  minutes for most couples.

22. As with frequency, sexual intercourse duration generally  declines with age.

23. The most common position for sexual intercourse in the  U.S. is missionary, or man-on-top position.

24. However, many also prefer other positions including  woman-on-top.

25. There is no “correct” way of having sexual intercourse  except what is right for you and your partner.

26. Making your sexual encounters spontaneous, exciting,  fulfilling, and not ritualized may mean exploring a variety of  times, places and positions.

27. Oral-genital sex, properly referred to as fellatio (woman  goes down on man) and cunnilingus (man goes down on woman) is common among many groups in the population.

28. A considerable number of heterosexual couples have tried  anal intercourse on at least one occasion.

29. However, the prevalence of these behaviors differs among  various groups in the U.S.

30. For example, African Americans are less likely than other  groups to engage in oral-genital and anal sex.

31. Similarly, masturbation and oral-genital sex are more  commonly experienced by people with higher levels of  education.

32. And homosexual men are more likely than heterosexual  men and women to engage in anal sex.

33. A healthy and satisfying sexual relationship can contribute  to one’s overall physical and emotional well-being.

34. Sexually healthy individuals consider sex to be a positive  and good thing, and feel free to choose when, where, and with  whom to engage in a particular sexual activity.

35. Just because many people may be exploring a particular  form of expression does not mean it fits into everyone’s value  system.

36. Until recently, several states had sodomy laws that  prohibited oral and/or anal sex between consenting adults. 37. Most people believe that they should have the right to  decide for themselves what to do in privacy, and in 2003 the U.S. Supreme Court agreed.

38. The same cannot be said in many other parts of the world,  however, where sodomy and other sexual behaviors are severely punished.

39. Many women have sexual fantasies.

40. A person can be sexually healthy and choose not to have  oral-genital sex, or even sexual intercourse.

41. Man-on-top is not the preferred position of intercourse in all cultures.

42. Masturbation does not lead to serious and negative health  consequences.

43. Assuming that neither person has a sexually transmitted  infection, oral-genital sex is no less hygienic than kissing. 44. Most married people who masturbate do not do so because they are unhappy in their sexual relationship.

45. The content of sexual fantasies usually does not indicate  sexual unhappiness or personality or psychological problems. 46. Fantasizing about another person while having sex with  your partner is not an indication of a serious relationship  problem.

47. Single people have sex far less frequently than married or  cohabiting couples.

48. How often a couple has sex is likely to vary over time. 49. Surveys have found that many people today have tried  more than one position of intercourse.

50. Women’s sexual fantasies are not as visual and sexually  explicit as men’s.

51. More people have tried oral-genital intercourse than have  tried anal intercourse.

52. Not only homosexual men can have anal intercourse. 53. Most people do not stop masturbating as soon as they  establish a sexual relationship with someone.

54. When it comes to oral-genital sex, both men and women  want to receive more of it from their partners than they are  getting.

55. Until 2003, in many states a married couple caught having  oral sex in the privacy of their home could be sent to prison. 56. It is still possible in the U.S. to prosecute people for  fornication.

57. Couples should not engage in anal and vaginal intercourse  without washing in between because of bacterial.

58. One of the most common types of fantasy during sexual  intercourse is the replacement fantasy.

59. A primary reason that many people continue to masturbate after forming a sexual relationship is variety.

60. Couples who always have sex in the same place and in the  same manner risk letting their sex lives become ritualized. 61. Laumann and his colleagues (1994) found that the two  sexual behaviors most preferred by Americans are vaginal  intercourse and watching someone undress.

62. Laumann and his colleagues also found that masturbation  is mostly a reflection of a sexually active lifestyle.

63. The preferred manner of sexual intercourse in all known  cultures is face-to-face.

64. Woman-on-top is the position of intercourse usually  preferred in cultures where a woman’s sexual satisfaction is  considered to be as important as the man’s.

65. A sexually healthy person is someone who is comfortable  with their own sexuality and feels free to choose between a  variety of sexual behaviors.

66. Oral-genital sex is most common among higher-educated  people.

CHAPTER 13:

1. Studies have found that at least half of all couples in the United  States will eventually experience sexual problems.

2. It is common for two people in a relationship to differ in their  preferences for frequency and type of sex.

3. This often results from different expectations and assumptions  about sex.

4. When this happens, it is best to consider the problem as the  couple’s problem.

5. If the problem persists and is causing stress and anxiety, it is  advisable to seek professional help.

6. Today, most sexual problems are treated as medical problems,  but this approach is not working well as a standalone therapy for  many sexual problems.

7. A better, multidisciplinary approach that recognizes the  interpersonal and psychological aspects of sexual behavior is the biopsychosocial approach.

8. Most therapists will probably take a medical and sexual history  first.

9. For most couples the first set of general exercises will be non demand mutual pleasuring techniques called sensate focus  exercises.  

10. After completing these, the couple will then be assigned  specific exercises.

11. Many sexual problems are due to a failure to resolve  conflicts in other aspects of the relationship, and thus sexual  therapy may also require couples therapy.

12. A persistent and recurrent absence of sexual fantasies,  thoughts, and/or desire is called low or hypoactive sexual desire  in men and sexual interest arousal disorder in women.

13. At the other extreme, hypersexual individuals are  distinguished by the compulsiveness with which they engage in  sex.

14. Painful intercourse, or dyspareunia, can occur in either men and women and can have a variety of causes.

15. The most common sexual problem specific to men under  age 60 is probably premature ejaculation, which is often defined  as a recurrent and persistent absence of reasonable voluntary  control.

16. Probably the most psychological devastating male problem is erectile disorder, which can have organic and/or psychological  causes.

17. The most common psychological cause is performance  anxiety.

18. Difficulty reaching orgasm and ejaculating in a woman’s  vagina is called orgasmic disorder and usually has a  psychological cause.

19. Some men suffer from benign coital cephalalgia, or  headaches after orgasm.

20. For many women, lack of sexual interest/arousal is due to  relationship problems.

21. Vaginismus: Some women experience involuntary  contractions of the muscles surrounding the vaginal opening  when they attempt intercourse, which results in pain, and is  usually psychologically caused.

22. The vast majority of women who go to sexual therapy do  so because of problems reaching orgasm, including poor  techniques by partner, sexual repression during the woman’s  upbringing, and general relationship problems.

23. When one member of a couple has a sexual problem, it is  not unusual for the partner to develop a corresponding sexual  difficulty.

24. Communication is the exchange of information.

25. Because of our culture’s negative attitudes, many people  feel uncomfortable talking about sex, even with their sexual  partners.

26. Stereotypic gender roles and power differences in a  relationship also contribute to this difficulty.

27. You and your partner can get used to talking about sex  together by discussing sexuality-related articles in newspapers,  books, and magazines.

28. One of the first things you must do is agree on a  comfortable vocabulary to use when talking about sex. 29. When talking about sexual differences or problems, be sure to emphasize the positive rather than the negative things that  your partner does. That does not mean that you can never  complain, but when you do, focus on your partner’s behavior  rather than on his or her character.

30. Take responsibility for your own pleasure by expressing  your feelings and desires to your partner in a clear, specific  manner.

31. Whenever possible, begin sentences with “I” rather than  “you.”  

32. It is often easier to find out about your partner’s sexual  desires and needs if you first self-disclose.

33. However, good communication is a two-way street; it  requires that you also become a good listener.

34. In addition to communicating verbally, we also  communicate nonverbally with eye contact, facial expressions,  interpersonal distance, and touch.

35. Even with good communication skills, people will not  always agree, but it is possible to agree that you disagree. 36. Women’s physiological arousal (ex: vaginal lubrication) is  poorly correlated with subjective arousal.

37. The most frequent sexual problem for women seeking sex  therapy is often difficulty reaching orgasm.

38. Stimulation of the clitoris during intercourse is necessary. 39. Performance anxiety can cause sexual problems in both  men and women.

40. The International Society for Sexual Medicine defines a  premature ejaculator as any man who usually reaches orgasm  within 1 minute of beginning sexual intercourse.

41. Just because a woman has difficulty reaching orgasm, does not mean that she does not enjoy sex.

42. Pharmacotherapy (Viagra) is not an effective standalone  therapy for erectile dysfunction.

43. Dyspareunia is usually caused by a physical problem. 44. Many men with psychologically caused erectile problems  get full erections during sensate focus exercises.

45. Most women do not separate sexual desire from sexual  arousal.

46. Female orgasm problems are not always the result of  insufficient physical stimulation.  

47. Low sexual desire in women is not usually due to low  testosterone levels.

48. Therapists are NOT in agreement that hypersexuality is a  form of addiction similar to alcoholism.

49. Erectile problems are not inevitable as men grow older. 50. Not all women with low sexual interest/arousal are  distressed by it.

51. Headaches during orgasm occur mainly in men. 52. The sex therapy model presented in this chapter is not  applicable to most peoples of the world.

53. There are probably psychological and/or relationship  problems associated with nearly all erectile problems. 54. Most women need stimulation of the clitoris in order to  reach orgasm, even during intercourse.

55. Most therapists believe that the woman on top position has the most erotic potential for both people during intercourse. 56. When a person begins to observe and evaluate his or her  own sexual responses during sex, it is called spectatoring, and  can be a cause of sexual problems.

57. For most women, sexual desire depends on a good  relationship.

58. Sensate focus exercises are non-demand mutual pleasuring techniques.

59. Phimosis: (in men) The foreskin of the penis being too tight can cause painful intercourse.

60. Ejaculatory incompetence: a man is totally unable to  ejaculate in a woman’s vagina.

61. Hypoactive sexual desire is the most difficult sexual  problem to treat successfully.

62. Intercourse means communication.

63. When communicating with one another, it is important that there be agreement between the verbal and nonverbal aspects  of communication.

64. One of the best predictors of long-term success in a  relationship is the manner in which couples handle  

disagreements.

65. Feelings of sadness or anxiety after otherwise physically  satisfactory intercourse is called postcoital dysphoria.

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