Exam 3 Study Guide - Intro to Psychology (PSYCH 1101)
Exam 3 Study Guide - Intro to Psychology (PSYCH 1101) PSYCH 1101
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brooke Mays on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1101 at Georgia Regents University taught by Verlaque, L. in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia Regents University.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Intro to Psychology Study Guide for Exam #3 Social Psychology – very pertinent to our day to day living Attribution – conclusion that we come to about the cause of a behavior or event Situational – cause has to do with the situation, outside of the person, ex: tripping because of your new shoes Dispositional – has to do with part of who the person is, stable and enduring traits, ex: tripping because you are clumsy Getting cut off in traffic Situational – they’re rushing to the hospital Dispositional – they’re a bad driver Fundamental Attribution Error – our tendency when looking at others to judge them based on disposition Overemphasize dispositional Underemphasize situational Even when we are given all the facts Lower selfesteem may result in the opposite? Actor/observer situation Individualistic Society – you’re out for you own gain Collective Society – for the greater good, communal working for the unit, judge people based of situation, blame taken onto themselves, don’t want to shame the family, accomplishment attributed to others Central and Peripheral Persuasion Central – actual policies, what they are actually saying Peripheral – their personality, your gut reaction but they don’t really make sense, they get people riled up, get the most votes because uneducated people tend to vote for them Foot in the Door Phenomenon “Can I ask you a question?” then they try to get you to buy stuff Small compliance leads to a big compliance Given stickers or something to make you start to identify with being part of the organization/charity Donate more and more and it changes our attitudes Adjust our attitudes to actions Fake It ‘til You Make It Pretend you know how to even though you don’t know It gets a little easier every time Role playing impacts attitudes Method actor Totally immersed in role Cannot separate the self from the role Keith Ledger – drug O.D Arranged Marriage Play the role of loving spouse They trust those who chose the spouse for them Stanford Prison Experiment Personality changes based on situations and roles They all knew they had an equal chance of being guards or prisoners Inmates – guards thought they were weak, they began having break downs, though they were in the wrong Caused emotional harm Shut down – inmates relieved but guards were upset Everyone, even the people running the experiment got caught up in it Can change your attitude and impact your day to day life Ibo Grave – Iraq prison, roles impacted behavior, Stanford Prison experiment cited Obedience and Roles are super powerful! Cognitive Dissonance Actions not in line with your beliefs Cognitive Dissonance Theory Resolve to do whatever we can to get rid of that feeling 3 Ways 1) Change our beliefs 2) Change our actions 3) Change our perceptions of actions and rationalize them Cheating on a test 1) Cheating is not wrong! It’s the simplest but we’re probably the least likely to do this 2) Never ever cheat again but you remember that you did that one time 3) Most common is to rationalize it, I had to cheat, everyone else is cheating too, rationalize it so it makes sense Conformity – to live, to fit in, to be safe, to meet social norms, to be accepted When you violate – judged, criticized More likely if Large group No firmly held belief Closely watched Admire group Unanimous Culture respects norms and conformity Normative Social Influence What you wear, how you talk For social approval For acceptance Informational Social Influence Because it makes sense Driving on the right side of the road, stopping at stop signs For good sense Participants in Milgram Experiment Left study knowing they would have shocked someone to death Caused such an uproar in the psychology community They believed they had killed someone Found the same percentages over and over We use obedience to rationalize Counter – checks and balance or else there’s an abuse of power What leads to Obedience? Legit authority (white lab coats) Association with prestige institution Standing close by In same room When there are none rebelling Soldiers still have done heroic things because of their obedience Social Facilitation – an action is intensified when observed by others, the expert will be better because of motivation but a novice will be worse because of anxiety Social Loafing – people tend to put out less effort in a group than by themselves, more people to fall back on, responsibility is shifted, more pressure when it’s all on you Deindividuation – anonymity and high arousal, loss of sense of self awareness and restraint, clubs, sports events, concerts, riots, rallies Group Polarization – if you spend time with the same people and ideas, you become more extreme in your beliefs, confirmation bias and belief perseverance, you need to talk to people with different opinions Group think – thinking or making decisions as a group, discourages creativity or individual responsibility Stereotype – generalized beliefs about a group Prejudice – attitudes toward a group Discrimination – unjustified behaviors towards a group, emotions involved include fear, hostility, and envy, when emotions drive your behavior Ingroups vs. Outgroups Arbitrary groups that are not so different Sport teams that get really riled up Animosity can develop Give them a task to work on together so that they have to cooperate to fix it Emotional Roots for Prejudice Scapegoat – source to blame Frustration can bring it out Deficient amygdala – no prejudice beliefs Other Race Effect – we see more uniformity in other races, harder to tell differences in other races, easier to tell differences in people we’ve been raised around Power of Vivid Case – a very powerful vivid case stands out in your mind and so you ignore the actual information and statistics “Just World” Belief – others get what they deserve and deserve what they get Robber’s Cave Experiment Aggression – behavior with the intent to harm others or yourself Physical – hitting, throwing Verbal – yelling, cursing Relational – gossiping, leaving out someone, keeping information away, done behind the backs of others Biology Genetics – temperament (genetic link), identical twins, selectively breed in and out of animals, males more prone to aggression Biochemistry – testosterone (irritability and aggressive response to frustration) and alcohol (disinhibited, aggressive behavior not seen as forbidden, more likely to interpret neutral acts as provocation, engage in violent crimes and ignore peace making options) Neural – amygdala (fear and danger) if its stimulated you have an angry reaction, inactive frontal lobes result in low impulse control, personality change, aggressive tendencies Psychosocial Aversive conditions – unpleasant conditions, hot weather, more crime and aggression, lashing out in paint, overcrowding, bad smells Reinforced – aggression can yield rewards, works with bullies, it gets reinforced and increases in intensity and frequency Modeling – seeing parents yell, abuse in the house hold, children more likely to engage if it is seen at home Culture/media – modeling flows through this Social script – socially constructs on how to act in certain situations, based on queues Violent media, videogames, books, shows normalize it but the opposite also hold true and can have a positive impact by increasing helping behavior Frustration Aggression Principle Looking for a target because frustration has been building up Attraction Basic foundation – agree on things Finding common ground, more difficult if you’re coming from different backgrounds Have more area where it’s easier and more comfortable to meet Space where there’s not conflict Mirror Exposure Effect Rank people higher in attractiveness if you see them all the time Plays into political campaigns Seeing your features in someone else’s face will also make you more likely to vote for them Physical Attractive people thought to be Healthier Happier But they are mistrusting Standards of Physical Attraction that are Universal Face symmetry, clear face and teeth, looking average Men – look for youth and fertility (hips) Women – look for masculinity (shoulders) and maturity Read about Love and the Different Types! Altruism – selflessness to the point of selfsacrifice, helping others without expectation of reward More likely to engage in when you’re in a good mood Bystander Intervention 4 Steps 1) Notice it (paying attention) 2) Appraisal (emergency) 3) Assume responsibility (you) 4) Take action (get help) Noticing there is a problem, interpreting it as a cause for alarm, and realizing that you need to take responsibility If no one is going to help, it must not be an emergency Diffusion of responsibility Less likely to get help in a busy place Once that 1 person started to help, helping became the norm Seeing one of your own in distress may incline you to help More likely to help someone similar to you You may feel person doesn’t deserve assistance Well usually help women or people similar to us Generally most will help in a small town or rural area Feeling guilt or seeing someone else help More likely to help when you’re in a good mood, but also when you’re not in a rush Social Trap aka Prisoner Dilemma Pursuing self interest Deforestation – don’t want to cut down big chunks of land but you could make a lot of money and others won’t cut down all of their land, but everyone is thinking the same way and it results in deforestation Read about and know the 4 C’s of Peacemaking Personality traits are related to biology, can breed traits in and out which suggests that there are genetic roots Traits with introversion and extraversion – biological responses, different brain activities, and extraverts have lower levels of brain activity Trait – characteristic that has an enduring quality that tends to make a person act a certain way, we are made up of a collection 2 Main categories 1) Normal – Myers Briggs, 4 different pairings that are all based on normal traits 2) Abnormal – MMPI, diagnose disorders, abnormal personality traits Eysensk’s 2 basic dimensions of personality We all vary on these dimensions Related to genetics Actually we vary on 5 major dimensions 5 Big Personality Traits Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism High in Openness More flexible Nonconformist Variety and imagination Free thinker Low in Openess Conforming Like routine Practical and down to earth Have a comfort zone High in Conscientiousness Selfdisciplined Delayed gratification Pursue goals Organized Low in Conscientiousness Disorganized Impulsive Careless High in Extraversion Drawing energy from others Sociable Fun loving Publicly affectionate Low in Extraversion Recharges energy from being alone Reserved Sober Retiring Bit of a wallflower High in Agreeableness Helpful Trusting Friendly Soft hearted Low in Agreeableness Uncooperative Suspicious Out for own goals and path High in Neuroticism Higher in anxiety Higher in insecurities and instability Selfpitying Low in Neuroticism Confident Calm Secure Selfsatisfied In general, these traits tend to stay the same but with age we tend to be more agreeable and conscientious and less introverted, neurotic, and open Change less and more consistent as we age, less change between gaps as age increases incrementally More and more consistent in your personality as you change Social Media Impact Judge yourself in comparison and you don’t know the hard times that others go through Impact on own selfesteem and image How we put ourselves out there And we also do the same Actually lowers your selfesteem because you’re judging yourself Vague posting – bring certain negative energies, attracts certain people Ways Social Media impacts our Personality What you post can say a lot about you Negative selftalk Perfect hairdo Tells a lot about a person and impacts how the world sees you Social Cognitive Perspective Reaction to environment Van Buren Reciprocate influences of Social Cognitive Perspective (back and forth) No primary cause Interpersonal factors Environmental factors Behavior Rock climbing Learned to, think about it more, have more rock climbing friends, encouraged to rock climb more, risky activities Thrill seeking behavior You can start at any place and they will influence any of them We interact with a lot of things Can distract from inner emotions and upbringing
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