PSY 1010 Exam #3 Study Guide
PSY 1010 Exam #3 Study Guide 1010
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Fariba Rana on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1010 at Wayne State University taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
PSY 1010 Exam #3 Study Guide Chapters that will be covered on the exam: Chapter 6: Memory o 6.1: Encoding – Transforming Perceptions into Memories o 6.2: Storage – Maintaining Memories over Time o 6.3: Retrieval – Bringing Memories to Mind o 6.4: Multiple Forms of Memory – How the Past Returns o 6.5: Memory Failures – The Seven Sins of Memory Chapter 7: Learning o 7.1: Classical Conditioning – One Thing Leads to Another o 7.2: Operant Conditioning – Reinforcements from the Environment o 7.3: Observational Learning – Look at Me o 7.4: Implicit Learning – Under the Wires Chapter 9: Consciousness o 9.2: Concepts and Categories – How We Think o 9.3: Decision Making – Rational and Otherwise Important Information in Chapter 6: Encoding: The process of transforming what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory. Memories are made by combining information we already have in our brains with new information that comes in through our senses. Memories are constructed, not recorded. Three types of encoding processes: o Semantic encoding: Long-term retention is greatly enhanced by this encoding process. It is the process of relating new information in a meaningful way to knowledge that is already stored in memory. It is associated with increased activity in the lower left part of the frontal lobe and the inner part of the left temporal lobe. The more activity there is in these areas, the more likely the person is to remember the information. o Visual imagery encoding: The process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures. When you create a visual image, you relate incoming information to knowledge already in memory. When you use visual imagery to encode verbal information, you end up with a visual placeholder and a verbal placeholder to remember the information, allowing you to remember the information in more than one way. This type of encoding activates visual processing regions in the occipital lobe. o Organizational encoding: The process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items. People can improve their recall of individual items by organizing them into categories. This type of encoding activates the upper surface of the left frontal lobe. Memory mechanisms that help us survive and reproduce are preserved by natural selection, and our memory systems are built in a way that allows us to remember well-encoded information that is relevant to our survival. Our human ancestors depended on the encoding of survival-related information. Storage: The process of maintaining information in memory over time. Three major types of memory storage: o Sensory memory: A type of memory storage that holds information for a few seconds or less. There are two types of sensory memory: Iconic and echoic. Iconic sensory memory: A fast-decaying store of visual information. Memory usually decays in 1 second or less. Echoic sensory memory: A fast-decaying store of auditory information. Memory usually decays in 5 seconds or less. o Short-term memory: A type of memory storage that holds non-sensory information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute. Rehearsal: The process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it. Chunking: Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory. You group small things into a single meaningful thing. Working memory: Active maintenance of information in short-term storage. o Long-term memory: A type of memory storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years. Long-term memory has no known capacity limits (unlike the other two types of memory). Patient Henry Molaison (HM): A man that suffered from intractable epilepsy. To help stop the seizures, HM’s doctors removed parts of his temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and some surrounding regions. He could have conversations, use and understand language, and perform well on intelligence tests, but he couldn’t remember anything that happened to him after the operation. His semantic memory for things that happened after the surgery was damaged, but his short-term memory was intact. His long-term memory was severely impaired. He had severe anterograde amnesia and mild retrograde amnesia. Anterograde amnesia: The inability to transfer new information from the short- term store into the long-term store. This happens when the hippocampal region of the brain is damaged. Retrograde amnesia: The inability to retrieve information that was acquired after a particular date, usually the date of an injury or surgery. Hippocampus: Area of the brain that is critical for the storage of explicit memories, but is not needed to retrieve them. It is critical when a new memory is first formed, but it may become less important as the memory ages. HM couldn’t make new memories but could still remember old ones from before the surgery. Consolidation: The process by which memories become stable in the brain. The act of recalling a memory, thinking about it, and talking about it with others contributes to consolidation. Reconsolidation: Seemingly consolidated memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, thus requiring them to be consolidated again. Every time memories are retrieved, they become vulnerable to disruption and have to be reconsolidated. Disrupting reconsolidation can possible eliminate painful memories. Amygdala: Plays a key role in emotional memory. Long-term storage involves the growth of new synaptic connections between neurons. The act of sending neurotransmitters across synapses actually changes the synapses, strengthening the connections between neurons and making it easier for them to transmit to each other next time. Long-term potentiation: A process whereby communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens the connection, making further communication easier. Retrieval: The process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored. Retrieval cue: External information that is associated with stored information and helps bring it to mind. It helps us bring temporarily inaccessible information to mind. (Ex: Hints) The encoding specificity principle: A retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create a specific way in which information was initially encoded. External contexts make powerful retrieval cues. State-dependent retrieval: The tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval. If the person’s state/emotions at the time of retrieval matches the person’s state at the time of encoding, the state itself serves as a retrieval cue. Transfer-appropriate processing: The idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding and retrieval contexts of the situations match. Retrieval can strengthen a retrieved memory, making it easier to remember that information later. However, this isn’t always the case. Retrieval-induced forgetting: A process by which retrieving an item from long-term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items. The act of retrieval can also change what we remember from an experience. Retrieving a memory involves more than a simple readout of the information. Regions in the left frontal lobe show heightened activity when people try to retrieve information that was presented to them earlier. Regions in the hippocampal region show heightened activity when people successfully retrieve information that was presented to them earlier. Research suggests that there are several kinds of memory, some that are accessible to conscious recall and some that we cannot consciously access but nonetheless affect our behavior. Explicit memory: Occurs when people consciously or intentionally retrieve past experiences. Implicit memory :Occurs when past experiences influence later behavior and performance, even without an effort to remember those experiences or an awareness of the recollection. (Ex: HM’s improved performance on tasks that he didn’t remember doing) Procedural memory: A type of implicit memory which refers to the gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice. Hippocampal structures that are damaged may be necessary for explicit memory but not implicit memory. Priming: An enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or an object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus. (A type of implicit memory) Hippocampal region is not required for priming . Semantic memory: A network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world. Episodic memory: The collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place. The hippocampus is not required to acquire new semantic memories. Remembering the past and imagining the future depend on a common network of brain regions. Collaborative memory: How people remember in groups. Collaboration can improve memory or worsen it. Collaborative inhibition: The same number of individuals working together recall fewer items than they would on their own. The retrieval strategies used by some members of the group disrupt those used by others whenever the group members are recalling items together . Transience : Forgetting what occurs with the passage of time. Memories degrade over time. This occurs during the storage phase of memory after an experience has been encoded and before it has been retrieved. o Retroactive interference: Situations in which later learning impairs memory for information acquired earlier. o Proactive interference: Situations in which earlier learning impairs memory for information acquired later. Absentmindedness: A lapse in attention that results in memory failure. There is less activity in the lower left frontal lobe when attention is divided. Dividing attention prevents the lower left frontal lobe from playing its usual role in semantic encoding, causing absentminded forgetting. It also leads to less hippocampal involvement in encoding. Prospective memory: Remembering to do things in the future. Blocking: a failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it. (When it’s on the tip of your tongue) Occurs especially often for the names of people and places. Name blocking usually results from damage to parts of the left temporal lobe. Memory misattribution: Assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source. Individuals with damage to the frontal lobes are especially prone to memory misattribution errors. o Source memory: Recall of when, where, and how information was acquired. People sometimes correctly recall a fact they learned earlier but misattribute the source of this knowledge. (Déjà vu experiences - A present situation that is similar to a past experience may trigger a sense of familiarity that is mistakenly attributed to having been in the exact situation previously) o False recognition: Mistaken feeling of familiarity (Ex: thinking that there was a word in a list of words that wasn’t actually there). Suggestibility: The tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections. We do not store all the details of our experiences in memory, making us vulnerable to accepting suggestions about what might have happened or should have happened. Bias: The distorting influences of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences. Our current moods can bias our recall of past experiences. Sometimes, we exaggerate differences between what we feel or believe now and what we felt or believed in the past. Persistence: The intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget. o Flashbulb memories: Detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events. o Emotional arousal generally leads to enhanced memory. Important Information in Chapter 7: Classical conditioning: When a neutral stimulus (ex: bell sound) produces a response after being paired with a stimulus (ex: food) that naturally produces a response (ex: salivating). Unconditioned Stimulus (US): Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism. (In Pavlov’s experiment, this would be the presentation of food to the dog) Unconditioned Response (UR): A reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus. (Salivation of the dogs) Conditioned Stimulus (CS): A previously neutral stimulus that produces a reliable response in an organism after being paired with the US. (The sound of a bell) Conditioned Response (CR): A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus. (Salivation of the dogs) Acquisition: The learning phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together. After learning has been established, the CS by itself will elicit the CR. After conditioning has been established, second-order conditioning can be demonstrated. Second-order conditioning: Conditioning in which a CS is paired with a stimulus that became associated with the US in an earlier procedure. (Ex: Pavlov paired a new CS, a black square, with the now reliable sound of the bell. After being trained, his dogs produced a salivary response to just the black square even though it had never been directly associated with food) Extinction: the gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the CS is repeatedly presented without the US. Spontaneous recovery: The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period. Generalization: The CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the CS used during acquisition. The more the new stimulus is change, the less conditioned responding is observed. Discrimination: The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli. Little Albert: Watson presented little albert with a white furry mouse. He wasn’t afraid of the mouse until Watson associated the mouse with a loud noise, causing Albert to cry every time he saw the mouse. In this situation, a US (the loud sound) was paired with a CS (the presence of the rat) such that the CS all by itself was sufficient to produce the CR (a fearful reaction). He exhibited generalization because he became scared of anything else that was white and furry (ex: a seal-fur coat, a Santa Claus mask) Watson proposed that fear could be learned, just like any other behavior. Cognitive elements of classical conditioning: o The bell, because of its systematic pairing with food, served to set up this cognitive state (expectation) for the laboratory dogs; Pavlov, because of the lack of any reliable link with food, did not. (Rescorla-Wagner) o Rescorla-Wagner model predicted that conditioning would be easier when the CS was an unfamiliar event than when it was familiar. The reason is that familiar events already have expectations associated with them, making new conditioning difficult. Neural elements of classical conditioning: o Cerebellum: Critical for the occurrence of eyeblink conditioning (Richard Thompson and his colleagues focused on classical conditioning of eyeblink responses in the rabbit, in which the CS (a tone) is immediately followed by the US (a puff of air), which elicits a reflexive eyeblink response. After many CS–US pairings, the eyeblink response occurs in response to the CS alone.) o Amygdala: Part of the brain that is critical for emotional conditioning. It is involved in fear conditioning. Evolutionary elements of classical conditioning: o Developing food aversions after eating something bad is evolutionary beneficial. You don’t want to eat something that made you sick ever again, prompting you to avoid that food completely. Any species that forages or consumes a variety of foods needs to develop a mechanism by which it can learn to avoid any food that once made it ill; classical conditioning causing food aversions is that mechanism. o Biological preparedness: A propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others, so that some behaviors are relatively easy to condition in some species but not others. o Example experiment: Cancer patients who experience nausea from treatments often develop aversions to foods they ate before their therapy. Broberg/Bernstein found that if they ate an unusual food at the end of the last meal before the treatment, the conditioned food aversions would be towards the unusual food, not the other normal food eaten in the meal. Operant conditioning: A type of learning in which the consequences of an organism’s behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future. Law of Effect (Thorndike): Behaviors that are followed by a satisfying state of affairs tend to be repeated and those that produce an unpleasant state of affairs are less likely to be repeated. Operant behavior: Behavior that an organism produces that has some impact on the environment. (B.F. Skinner) In Skinner’s system, all of these emitted behaviors “operated” on the environment in some manner, and the environment responded by providing events that either strengthened those behaviors (reinforcement) or made them less likely to occur (punishment). Operant conditioning chamber/Skinner box: Allows a researcher to study the behavior of an organism in a controlled environment. Reinforcer: Any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it. Punisher: Any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it. Positive: Situations in which a stimulus is presented or added. Negative: Situations in which a stimulus is removed. Positive reinforcement: Stimulus is presented/Increases likelihood of behavior. Negative reinforcement: Stimulus that is removed/Increases likelihood of behavior. Positive punishment: Stimulus is presented/Decreases likelihood of behavior. Negative punishment: Stimulus that is removed/Decreases likelihood of behavior. Primary reinforcers: Help satisfy biological needs (food, comfort, shelter, warmth) Secondary reinforcers: Verbal approval, a trophy, money etc. They derive their effectiveness by their associations with primary reinforcers through classical conditioning. (Ex: money starts out as a neutral CS that becomes associated with a primary US such as acquiring food or shelter) The more time that elapses between the occurrence and the reinforcer, the less effective the reinforcer. The longer the delay between a behavior and the administration of punishment, the less effective the punishment will be in suppressing the targeted behavior. Operant conditions shows discrimination, generalization, and extinction just like classical conditioning. Extinction is a bit more complicated in operant conditioning than in classical conditioning because it depends on how often reinforcement is received. Unlike classical conditioning, where the number of learning trials was important, in operant conditioning, the pattern with which reinforcements appeared was crucial. Skinner explored dozens of schedules of reinforcement. Fixed-interval schedules: Reinforcers are presented at fixed-time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made. Variable-interval schedules: A behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement. Fixed-ratio schedules: Reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made. o Continuous reinforcement: Presenting reinforcement after each response. Variable-ratio schedules: The delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses. Intermittent reinforcement: When only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement, they produce behavior that is much more resistant to extinction than a continuous reinforcement schedule. Intermittent reinforcement effect: The fact that operant behaviors that are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules resist extinction better than those maintained under continuous reinforcement. Shaping: learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior. The outcomes of one set of behaviors shape the next set of behaviors, whose outcomes shape the next set of behaviors, and so on. Superstitious behavior: People often behave as though there’s a connection between their responses and reward when in fact the connection is merely accidental. Latent learning: Something that is learned, but it is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the future. Cognitive map: A mental representation of the physical features of the environment. The neurons in the medial forebrain bundle are the most susceptible to stimulation that produces pleasure (eating, drinking, engaging in sexual activity). These neurons are dopaminergic (they secrete the neurotransmitter dopamine). All species, including humans, are biologically predisposed to learn some things more readily than others and to respond to stimuli in ways that are consistent with their evolutionary histories. Cognitive, neural, and evolutionary mechanisms have no role in Skinner’s approach to behavior. Latent learning provides evidence for a cognitive element in operant conditioning because it occurs without any positive reinforcement. Observational learning: Learning takes place by watching the actions of others. Model: someone whose behavior might serve as a guide for others. Mirror neurons: A type of cell found in the frontal and parietal lobes of primates (including humans). They fire when an animal performs an action and also fire when an animal watches someone else perform the same task. These neurons contribute to observational learning. Neural research indicates that observational learning is closely tied to brain areas that are involved in action. Implicit learning: Learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products of information acquisition. Habituation: A kind of implicit learning in which repeated exposure to a stimulus results in a reduced response. Hippocampus and nearby structures in the medial temporal lobe are not necessary for implicit learning. Implicit learning has decreased activation of occipital region in brain. Explicit learning involves the use of the frontal cortex, parietal cortex, and hippocampus (left temporal lobe, right frontal lobe, and parietal lobe). Some forms of learning start out as explicit but become more implicit over time. Important Information in Chapter 9: Concept: A mental representation that categorizes shared features of related objects, events, or other stimuli. There are three main theories about how people categorize things: o Family resemblance: Theory of how we form concepts based on features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member. o Prototype theory: Categories are organized around a prototype, which is the best or most typical member of a category. Visual cortex is involved in forming prototypes. o Exemplar theory: We make category judgments by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the category. We classify new objects by comparing them to all category members. Prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia are involved in learning exemplars. Category-specific deficit: A neurological syndrome characterized by an inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category, although the ability to recognize objects outside the category is undisturbed. o Damage to the front part of the left temporal lobe: Difficulty identifying humans o Damage to the lower left temporal lobe: Difficulty identifying animals o Damage to the region where the temporal lobe meets the occipital and parietal lobes: Impairs ability to retrieve names of tools Rational choice theory: The classical view that we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen, judging the value of the outcome, and then multiplying the two. Our judgements will vary depending on the value we assign to possible outcomes. Studies show that people are good at estimating frequency (the number of times something will happen). In contrast, we perform poorly on tasks that require us to think in terms of probabilities (the likelihood that something will happen). Frequency format hypothesis: The proposal that our minds evolved to notice how frequently things occur, not how likely they are to occur. We interpret, process, and manipulate information about frequency with ease because that’s the way quantitative information usually occurs in natural circumstances. (Ex: Physicians do better at predicting incidence of breast cancer when the relevant information is presented as frequencies rather than as probabilities) Availability bias: Items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently. Conjunction fallacy: When people think that two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event. In reality, the reverse is true: The probably of two or more events occurring simultaneously (in conjunction) is always less than the probability of the event occurring alone. Representativeness heuristic: A mental shortcut that involves making a probability judgment by comparing an object or event to a prototype of the object or event. Framing effect: Occurs when people give different answers to the same problem depending on how the problem is phrased or framed. Sunk-cost fallacy: A framing effect in which people make decisions about a current situation based on what they have previously invested in the situation. Prospect theory: People choose to take on risk when evaluating personal losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains. Damage to prefrontal area of brain inhibits decision making. Other important information from lectures: Maintenance rehearsal: mentally repeating information Elaborative rehearsal: A type of semantic encoding; using top-down strategy by re-coding information into something meaningful Serial position effect: If you’re asked to memorize a list of words, you’ll be better at remembering the words at the beginning of the list and the words at the end of the list Recency effect: The ability to remember the words at the end of a list Primacy effect: The ability to remember the words at the beginning of the list Distraction abolishes the recency effect Words at the beginning of the list get stored in LTM and words at the end of the list get stored in STM Retrieval: Getting information out of memory Recall: Bringing memory into conscious awareness, as in a fill in the blank or essay question on a test Recognition: Matching current information to previously learned information, as in a multiple choice test Consistency bias: Tendency to reconstruct the past to fit the present Change bias: Tendency to exaggerate differences between what we feel/believe now and what we felt/believed in the past Egocentric bias: Tendency to exaggerate the change between present and past in order to make ourselves look good in retrospect Associative learning: Linking two events together The compensatory response in relation to drugs: Refers to how physiological systems seek to maintain homeostasis.
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