Module 2 Exam Part One
Module 2 Exam Part One PSYC 1000
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Naida Adams on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Christyn Dolbier in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Chapter 7: Learning How do we learn? 71 What is learning, and what are some basic forms of learning? ● Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior, or in the potential to respond, that results from experience/ acquiring new information ● Observational learning learning by observing the behavior of others and the consquences of that behavior. ● Associative learning learning that certain events occur together ○ classical conditioning associate one event with another (respondent behavior) ○ operant learning associate a response and its consequences (operant behavior) ● Cognitive learning mental information that guides behavior Classical Conditioning 72 What are the basic components of classical conditioning, and what was behaviorism’s view of learning? ● Unconditioned Stimulus (US): naturally or automatically (w/o conditioning) triggers a response ○ Seeing food (NS) ● Unconditioned Response (UR): naturally occurring (unlearned) response to the unconditioned stimulus. ○ Salvation to food ● Conditioned Stimulus (CS): a previously neutral stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR). ○ Footsteps, Bell ● Conditioned Response (CR): is the learned response to a previously neutral but now conditioned stimulus ○ Salvation is a CR to footsteps or bell (CS) ● Ivan Pavlov’s work on classical conditioning laid the foundatbehaviorism ○ the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. ○ Believes that the basic laws of learning are the same for all species, including humans 73: In classical conditioning, what are the processes of acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination? ● Acquisition: the initial stage of learning/conditioning, becomes stronger with repeated pairings of the US and CS ○ associates an NS [food] with the US [footsteps] so that the NS [food] begins triggering the CR [salivation]. ○ Classical conditioning is adaptive ● Extinction: the diminishing of a conditioned response ○ when the US [food] and CS [footsteps/bell] are no longer paired and the CR [salvation] associated with the CS [footsteps/bell] is weakened. ● Spontaneous recovery: a return of the CR [salvation] despite a lack of further conditioning. ○ After extinction, no longer responds to the CS [footsteps/bell] but after a rest period once again will respond when presented with the CS. ● Generalization: the tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar to a CS [footsteps/bell] ○ More stuff causes salvation ○ Conditioned to fear white rats, later becomes afraid of all small furry white animals. ● Discrimination: the learned ability to distinguish between a CS [footsteps/bell] and other irrelevant stimuli. ○ Less stuff causes salvation ○ Conditioned to fear white rats, no fear of block of wood 74: Why does Pavlov’s work remain so important, and what have been some applications of his work to human health and wellbeing? ● Insights about conditioning in general ○ Basic form of learning ○ Occurs in all creatures ○ Related to biological drives and responses ○ The body’s immune system may also respond to classical conditioning ● Insight about science ○ Learning can be studied objectively ● Insights from specific applications ○ Techniques are used to improve human health and wellbeing (behavioral therapy and types of psychological disorders) Operant Conditioning 75: What is operant conditioning, and how is operant behavior reinforced and shaped? ● Operant conditioning: individual learns that his or her own actions bring about certain events or outcomes ○ Own actions (rather than CS) leads to rewards and/or punishments ○ Ie: child is allowed to play video games after washing dishes ● B.F. Skinner’s “Skinner Box” ○ Expands on Edward Thorndike's law of effect ■ Behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely ○ Skinner box is an operant chamber that shapes rats by using positive reinforcers (food) to guide closer to the the desired behavior, and negative reinforcers (shock) when they produce an undesired behavior 76: How do positive and negative reinforcement differ, and what are the basic types of reinforcers? ● Reinforcement: any consequence that strengthens behavior ○ Positive: the consequence that is presented is something that the person likes, wants, or needs. (Adding a desirable consequence) ■ Give a kid $5 (positive reinforcement) for cleaning their room, increases likelihood that they will do it again ○ Negative: occurs when a behavioral response allows a person to eliminate, avoid, or escape from something unpleasant. (Ending an undesirable consequence) ■ Reward by eliminating nagging (negative reinforcement) the child to clean the room, increases likelihood that they will do it again ■ Not the same as punishment ○ Primary reinforcer: a stimulus that meets a basic need or otherwise is intrinsically desirable ■ Ie: food, sex, fun, attention, power ■ Innately satisfying, no learning is required ○ Secondary/Conditioned Reinforcer: a stimulus like money that we associate with more basic awards ■ Ie: money to buy food, builds power ○ Immediate Reinforcer: a reward right after a desired behavior ■ Ie: dogs learn by giving a treat right after they do a trick ○ Delayed reinforcer: delayed gratification ■ Related to impulse control, enables longterm goal setting ■ Ie: a paycheck 77: How do different reinforcement schedules affect behavior? ● Reinforcement schedule: how often a response will be reinforced ○ Continuous reinforcement: giving a reward after the target every single time ■ Acquires the desired behavior quickly ■ Most effective method ■ However shows more apparent in extinction ■ Ie: drink machine always gives you a drink after putting in money, but one time takes your money without giving you your drink and now you are hesitant to use it ○ Partial/Intermittent reinforcement: gives awards part of the time ■ Takes longer to acquire ■ Established but persists longer without reward ■ Greater resistance to extinction ■ Different types: ● fixedratio→ set # of responses ● variableratio→ unpredictable # of responses ● fixedinterval→ set time periods ● variableinterval→ unpredictable time periods 78 How does punishment differ from negative reinforcement, and how does punishment affect behavior? ● Punishment: undesirable consequences (spanking) ○ Attempt to decrease the frequency of a behavior ○ Usually leads to negative effects and unwanted fears ○ Conveys no information about the appropriate behavior ○ Encourages discrimination ○ Fosters depression and feelings of helplessness ● Positive punishment= to add something unpleasant ○ Spank the child ● Negative punishment= take away something pleasant/desired ○ No tv time 79 Why did Skinner’s ideas provoke controversy, and how might his operant conditioning principles be applied at school, in sports, at work, and at home? ● Skinner’s View → Critique ○ The way to modify behavior is through consequences → This leaves out the value of instruction and modeling ○ Behavior is influenced only by external feedback, not by thoughts and feelings → Adult humans have the ability to use thinking to make choices ○ We should intentionally create consequences to shape the behavior of others → Natural consequences are more justifiable than manipulation of others ○ Humanity improves through conscious reinforcement of positive behavior and the punishment of bad behavior → Humanity improves through free choice guided by wisdom, conscience, and responsibility ● Applications of Operant Conditioning ○ School ■ Proposed that machines that would reinforce students for correct responses ■ Students improves a different rates and work on different learning goals ○ Sports ■ Athletes improve most in the shaping approach ■ They are reinforced for performance that comes closer and closer to the target skill ○ Work ■ Some companies make a pay function of performance or company profit rather than seniority ■ They target more specific behaviors to reinforce ○ Home ■ Parents can reward desirable behaviors but not undesirable ones 710: How does operant conditioning differ from classical conditioning? ● Classical Conditioning ○ Basic idea: Associating events/stimuli with each other ○ Response: Involuntary, automatic reactions such as salvation ○ Acquisition: NS linked to US by repeatedly presenting NS before US ○ Extinction: CR decreases when CS is repeatedly presented alone ○ Spontaneous Recovery: Extinguished CR starts again after a rest period (no CS) ○ Generalization: When Cr is triggered by stimuli similar to the CS ○ Discrimination: Distinguishing between a CS and NS not linked to US ● Operant Conditioning ○ Basic Idea: Associating chosen behaviors with resulting events ○ Response: Voluntary actions “operating” on our environment ○ Acquisition: Behavior is associated with punishment or reinforcement ○ Extinction: Target behavior decreases when reinforcement stops ○ Spontaneous Recovery: Extinguished response starts again after a rest (no reward) ○ Generalization: Response behavior similar to the reinforced behavior ○ Discrimination: Distinguishing what will get reinforced and what will not Biology, Cognition, and Learning 711: How do biological constraints affect classical and operant conditioning? ● Biology influences on Classical Conditioning ○ Learning some associations is easier than learning others ○ Learning is adaptive ○ Each species learns behaviors that aid its survival ○ Easier to learn association that make sense for survival ○ Food aversions (nausea associates with whatever food that was eaten) ● Biology influence on Operant Conditioning ○ Training that attempts to override biological constraints will probably not endure because animals will revert to predisposed patterns ■ Monkey can not be trained to peck its nose like a pigeon 712: How do cognitive processes affect classical and operant conditioning? ● Cognitive processing in classical conditioning ○ Animals may learn when to expect a US and may be aware of the link between stimuli and responses ■ When the dog salivates at the bell, it may be due to cognition (learning to predict or expect the food) ● Cognitive processing in operant conditioning ○ Cognitive mapping and latent learning research demonstrate the importance of cognitive processes in learning. ○ Excessive rewards (extrinsic motivation: self reward) can undermine intrinsic motivation: (rewards from others) ○ Expectation as a cognitive skill is even more evident in the ability of humans to respond to delayed reinforcers such as paychecks Learning by observation 713: What is observational learning, and how do some scientists believe it is enabled by mirror neurons? ● Observational learning: learning by observing others’ behavior and the consequences of their behavior. ○ Albert Bandura’s 4 main processes involved in observational learning (Bobo Doll Experiment 1961) ■ Attention: attend to what the person we are observing is saying or doing ■ Retention: code the information and keep it in memory so that it can be retrieved ■ Production: process whereby we imitate the model’s actions ■ Reinforcement: we need adequate reinforcement to model the behavior ● The same areas fire in our frontal lobes when we perform certain actions (such as responding to pain or moving our mouth to form words) as when we observe someone else performing those actions ○ Children with Autism spectrum disorder are less likely to cognitively “mirror” and less likely to follow someone else’s gaze 714: What is the impact of prosocial modeling and of antisocial modeling? ● Prosocial modeling ○ Positive, constructive, and helpful ○ Teaches behavior that refers to actions which benefits others, contribute values to groups, and follow moral codes and social norms ■ Lectures but taught best through modeling ● Antisocial modeling ○ Models actions and words are inconsistent ○ Teaches behavior that refers to actions that are harmful to individuals and society ○ Children may imitate the hypocrisy they observe
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