Psychology 1000 PSY 1000
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Perry Klemanski on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1000 at Western Michigan University taught by Ring in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Unit 6: Memory and Personality Read chapters 10 and 11 . 1) What is selective attention? Be able to describe change blindness. (Lecture) . Only paying attention to one specific thing, and not what’s around it . 2) What is a memory illusion and what heuristic is closely associated with it? (291) . False but subjectively compelling memory, byproducts of our brains, generally adaptive tendency to go beyond the information available . 3) Be able to describe the difference between memory reconstruction and memory reproduction. Which is the more accurate view of memory? (291) . Memory reconstruction - recall an event and actively reconstruct our memories using cues and info available to us . Memory reproduction - When we recall our past experiences we barely reproduce precise replications of them . 4) Identify and describe the three systems of memory. (291-292) . Sensory memory – brief storage of perceptual info before it’s passed to short term . Short term (working memory) – Retains info for limited durations, info that we’re thinking about . Long term – relatively enduring retention of info stored regarding our facts, experiences, and skills . 5) Be able to describe the short-term memory research by the Petersons, including the procedures and findings. (294) . Participants are to remember three string letter lists, had to wait 3-18 seconds in-between to recall had to count backwards by 3’s after 10-15 seconds, participants did no better than chance . 6) Be able to define and differentiate between decay and interference. Which of these theories has stronger evidence for explaining memory loss? Be able to describe how the pigeon experiment by Skinner illustrates this. (294 and lecture) . Decay – fading of info from memory over time . Interference – loss of info from memory because of competition from additional incoming info . Pigeons who weren’t taught similar skills so their memory would stay in tact because there was no interference . 7) What did George Miller discover about short-term memory? (296) . Span of short term memory, seven plus or minus two pieces of info . 8) Describe the primacy and recency effect of long-term memory. (299) . Primacy – tendency to remember the words at the beginning of a list especially well . Recency effect – tendency to remember the words at the end of the list . 9) Define semantic and episodic memory. (299) . Semantic – knowledge about the world . Episodic – recollection about events of our lives . 10) Be able to describe and recognize examples of explicit and implicit memories. (300) . Explicit – memories we recall intentionally and of which we have conscious awareness . Implicit – memories we don’t deliberately remember or reflect unconsciously . 11) What is state-dependent memory? What is context-dependent memory? (310) . State-dependent – “If you study for the test high, you gotta take the test high” . Context-dependent – superior retrieval of memoires when the organism is in the same physical or psychological state it was in during encoding . 12) Why was patient H.M. studied and what area of his brain was removed? (313) Amygdala was removed some. And hippocampus was removed along with large chunk of temporal lobe . 13) What are flashbulb memories and how do they differ from other memories? How do flashbulb memories compare to everyday memories in terms of confidence and accuracy? (319-320 and lecture) . Emotional memory that is extraordinarily vivid in detail, powerful memories, might not decay. They took a report after what happened and they were all wrong. But they were confident that they were accurate . 14) Be able to define the misinformation effect. (322) . We are susceptible to hearing information and then incorporating them into our memories . See a pic of a straight haired man but hearing about a curly haired man in being incorporated into your memory . 15) Be familiar with the following studies by Loftus and colleagues: car accident study, broken glass study, and lost in a mall study. For the car accident study, how did the different words change the participant’s speed estimate (i.e., you should know each word used and what effect it had)? For the broken glass study what was the information that was changed and what effect did it have? For the lost in the mall study, how was the memory implanted? (322) . Suggestive memory technique Depending on what words you use, will determine how the viewer interprets the car crash. Those who said, “hit” didn’t see glass, and those who said “smash” did see glass. . 16) Define personality. (330) . Peoples way of thinking, behaving, and feeling . 17) Who founded psychoanalytic theory? What are the three core assumptions of this theory? (335-337) . Freud . Psychic determinism . Symbolic meaning . Unconscious motivation . 1. How do our personalities develop . 2. What are the core driving forces in our personalities . 3. What accounts for individual differences in personality . 18) What are the id, ego, and superego? What does each of them represent? (337) . Iceberg – top is the ego, bottom, main portion is id, and . Id – reservoir of our most primitive impulses including sex and aggression . Ego – psyche’s executive and principal decision maker . Superego – Our sense of morality . 19) When do psychosexual stages begin to affect our personality development? Be able to list the five psychosexual stages in the order in which they occur and what happens during each stage. After which psychosexual stage is the bulk of one’s personality formed? (340-341 and lecture) . Oral (6 months) . Anal (6 months – 2 years) . Phallic . Latency . Genetic bulk of one’s personality is formed after the genetic stage . 20) What is the Oedipus complex? How is this stage resolved for boys? Note that there are at least two steps involved in this process in regards to the initial emotions to both parents and how these emotions are resolved. Be prepared to be clear on all involved emotions and the resolution. (341) . Largely unconscious process . Boys want to kill father and marry mother . Conflict during phallic stage where the boy loves mother romantically and wants to kill father. How they’re resolved, takes 3-6 years to fix . 21) What are the five scientific problems with the psychoanalytic approach to personality? (342-343) . Unflasifiability – Even when events accord to the contrary of his theories, a new explanation would occur . Failed predictions – As things were studied, they were untrue . Questionable concept of the unconscious – we are unaware of things but our conscious does not rule our behavior . Reliance on unrepresentative samples – 7 women . Shared environment – Environments are not the same for everyone . 22) What is the collective unconscious and who is associated with it? (344) . Collective unconscious – shared reservoir of memories that ancestors have passed down to us including archetypes which exist in all people (cross cultural universal symbols) . 23) According to radical behaviorists, where do personalities come from? How does a behavioral account of personality differ from a Freudian view and the views of other personality theorists? According to the behavioral perspective, what are the two major influences on personality? (346) . Personality comes from genetic factors and contingencies . Personality consists of behaviors, not personalities cause behavior . 24) What is the humanistic approach to personality? The humanistic approach was developed as a reaction to what other approaches to psychology? (349 and lecture) . Individuals have free will and can choose their personalities (Free will to be the best or worst the can be) . Created as opposition to both psychoanalytical and behavioral theories of personality . 25) According to Carl Rogers, what is unconditional positive regard? How is unconditional positive regard different than letting people do whatever they want? What prevents individuals from becoming fully functional human beings? Be able to define conditions of worth and incongruence. (349-350 and lecture) . Unconditional positive regard - Is the basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does, especially in the context of client-centered therapy. . 26) Be able to name each part of the Big Five Model of Personality. (352-353) . Openness . Consciousness . Extraversion . Agreeableness . Neuroticism . 27) Know and be able to define what approach the Big Five Model uses. (352) . Lexical approach – Most critical features of our personality are embedded in our personality . 28) Be able to explain the method and outcome of Michel’s marshmallow test. What does Mischel say about the idea that personality traits such as self-control are genetically predetermined? What does the research show regarding the ability of personality traits to predict isolated instances of behavior? (356 and lecture) . Outcomes – Children who were able to delay gratification had better life outcomes . Personality traits do not predict behaviors . Therefore, personality traits do not always predict behavior . 29) What is the MMPI? What does it measure and how was it developed? (359) . 30) Be able to describe the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, including how it classifies test-takers and the reliability andvalidity of the test. (361) . Used in companies by HR . Used to predict job performance and satisfaction . Low reliability and validity . 31) Be able to explain the Rorschach and Thematic Apperception Tests, including what scientific evaluations have said . It is all subjective
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