Bio Psychology Study Guide
Bio Psychology Study Guide PSYC 2015
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Popular in Psychlogy
This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nikita Shah on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2015 at George Washington University taught by Kravitz, D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Biological Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Biological Psychology Notes on Sleep Cycle and Feeding Endogenous Cycles Circadian rhythm also regulates the frequency of eating and drinking, body temperature, secretion of hormones, urination, and sensitivity to drugs o This also affects our mood ▯ Setting and Resetting the Biological Clock The purpose of the circadian rhythm is to keep our internal workings in phase with the outside world Human circadian clock generates a rhythm slightly longer than 24 hours when It has no external cue to it Resetting our circadian rhythms is something necessary Zeitgeber: refers to the stimulus that resets the circadian rhythm ▯ Mechanisms of the Biological Clock: Two types of genes are responsible for generating the circadian rhythm: o Period: produce proteins called PER o Timeless: produce proteins called TIM Typically use EEG to measure brain activity while sleeping ▯ Brain Activity During Sleep Rapid eye movement: paradoxical sleep Muscles relax, heart rate increases Breathing is rapid and shallow Vivid Dreaming ▯ Eating Behavior 1: Eat huge, but infrequent ▯ Eating Behavior 2: Eat according to food abundance ▯ ▯ Digestive System Overview Function: breakdown food into smaller molecules o Saliva is used to break down the Carbohydrates in the mouth o The Stomach is used to breakdown proteins into amino acids o Small Intestine has enzymes to break down proteins, fats, and carbs to be absorbed o Large Intestine = absorb digested food ▯ Food Intake at the Early Age At the age of weaning, most mammals lose the intestinal enzyme lactase (to metabolize lactose) Many human adults have enough lactase to consume milk and other dairy products throughout the lifetime ▯ Short-Term Regulation of Feeding The brain regulates eating through messages from the mouth, stomach, intestines, fat cells, and elsewhere The desire to taste and other mouth sensations, such as chewing are also motivating factors in hunger and satiety ▯ Regulation of Feeding: Stomach and Duodenum The main signal to stop eating is the distention of the atomach The vagus nerve conveys information about the stretching of the stomach walls to the brain The splanchnic nerves convey information about the nutrient contents of the stomach ▯ Regulation of Feeding: Duodenum Cholecystokinin (CCK) regulates hunger by: o Closing the sphincter muscle between the stomach and duodenum and causing the stomach to hold its contents and fill faster ▯ Regulation of Feeding: Glucose, Insulin, And Glucagon Glucose, insulin, and glucagon levels also influence feelings of hunger Most digested food enters the bloodstream as glucose: important source of energy for body; nearly the only fuel used in the brain ▯ Long-Term Regulation of Feeding: Leptin Long-term hunger regulation is accomplished via the monitoring of fat supplies by the body ▯ Long-Term Regulation of Feeding: Obesity Obesity caused by consistent overeating damaged the endoplastic reticulum in neurons of the hypothalamus Leads to decreased leptin sensitivity Physical exercise produces chemicals of the immune system that repair the ER A diet consisting of tasty, high calorie foods makes animals (and people) obese, and they find other rewards less rewarding There is only a weak relationship between depression and weight gain A high-fat diet before birth can result in the offspring being born with a larger than average lateral hypothalamus ▯ Brain Mechanisms Information from all parts of the body regarding hunger impinge onto the arcuate nucleus
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