BIO 201: EXAM 3 REVIEW
BIO 201: EXAM 3 REVIEW BIO 201
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by ASUNursing19 on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 201 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Penkrot in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 226 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy/Physiology I in Biology at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
1. The metacarpophalangeal joints at the base of the fingers are CONDYLAR joints. 2. The temporomandibular joint is a(n) SYNOVIAL joint. 3. SYNOVIAL JOINTS are the most movable joints. 4. Release of acetylcholine at a neuromuscular junction INCREASES PERMEABILITY OF THE SARCOLEMMA TO Na . + 5. The DISTAL RADIOULNAR JOINT is not found in the elbow. 6. The joint between L2 and L3 is a SYMPHYSIS. 7. The POSTERIOR TIBIOFIBULAR LIGAMENT does not belong to the tibiofemoral joint. 8. Radial (lateral) and ulnar (medial) collateral ligaments restrict side-to- side movements of the ELBOW joint. 9. In comparison to skeletal muscle, smooth muscle CONTRACTS AND RELAXES MORE SLOWLY. 10. The protein that acts as a calcium receptor in skeletal muscle is TROPONIN. 11. Collagen is ELASTIC. 12. These are all anatomical components of a synovial joint, except AN INTEROSSEOUS MEMBRANE. 13. Patches of fibrocartilage formed in the healing of a fracture are called SOFT CALLUS, whereas the bony collar formed around the fracture is called HARD CALLUS. 14. A reason the muscle twitches become progressively stronger in treppe is Ca+ ACCUMULATES IN THE SARCOPLASM FASTER THAN THE SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CAN REABSORB IT. 15. A pathologic fracture IS A BREAK IN A BONE WEAKENED BY SOME OTHER DIESASE. 16. The term for shortening of a muscle while maintaining constant tension is ISOTNIC CONTRACTION. 17. A skeletal muscle generates the greatest tension when it is PARTIALLY STRETCHED BEFFORE BEING STIMULATED. 18. Exposure to Clostridium tetani causes continuous release of acetylcholine. What effect does this have on skeletal muscle? SPASTIC PARALYSIS. 19. The triads of a muscle fiber consist of TWO TERMINAL CISTERNAE AND ONE T TUBULE. 20. A fracture in which the bone is broken into three or more pieces is called a COMMINUTED fracture. 21. The radioulnar joint is a SYNDESMOSIS. 22. The SUBPATELLAR bursa does not belong to the glenohumeral joint. 23. SYNOSTOSES are the least movable joints. 24. THE HUMEROSCAPULAR joint is a multiaxial joint. 25. These are the major categories of joints, except ELASTIC. 26. Dystrophin, the protein that is defective in muscular dystrophy, is normally found BETWEEN THE OUTERMOST MYOFILAMENTS AND THE SARCOLEMMA OF A MUSCLE FIBER. 27. The absence or inhibition of acetylcholinesterase at a synapse would lead to which of the following? TETANUS. 28. A soft callus forms during THE HEALING OF A FRACTURE. 29. These are all structures found in the shoulder joint except THE RADIOULNAR LIGAMENT. 30. The jaw joint is the articulation of MANDIBLE AND TEMPORAL BONE. 31. The stimulate muscle contraction, acetylcholine is released from the SYNAPTIC KNOB into the synaptic cleft. 32. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a muscle cell? PLASTICITY. 33. The study of joint structure, function, and dysfunction is called ARTHOLOGY. 34. Coronal, sagittal, and lambdoid are examples of SERRATE SUTURES. 35. Some joint become synostoses by THE REPLACEMENT OF FIBERS WITH BONE. 36. The ACETABULAR LABRUM deepens the socket of the hip joint and helps stabilize the joint. 37. Bone protrude through skin in a fracture called OPEN. 38. The talocrural joint is a meeting of THE TIBIA, FIBULAR, AND TALUS. 39. Unlike other joints, a GOMPHOSIS does not join two bones to each other. 40. The minimum stimulus needed to cause muscle contraction is called THE THRESHOLD. 41. The epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone in a child are bound by a SYNCHONDROSIS. 42. The process of bringing more motor units into use during a muscle contraction is called RECRUITMENT. 43. Which is the largest and most complex diarthrosis in the body? THE KNEE. 44. Which of the following best describes the resting membrane potential (RMP)? THE INTRACELLULAR ENVIRONMENT IS NEGATIVVELY CHARGED. 45. 2+ What is the purpose of the triad? THE TRAID ALLOWS FOR Ca RELEASE WHEN A MUSCLE FIBER IS EXCITED. 46. In skeletal muscle, alternating light and dark bands are termed STRIATIONS. 47. The radioulnar joint is a PIVOT JOINT. 48. Range of motion of a joint is normally determined by the following factors except THE LENGTH OF THE BONE. 49. If one nerve stimulus arrives at a muscle fiber so soon that the fiber has only partially relaxed from the pervious twitch, the most likely result will be INCOMPLETE TETANUS. 50. All of the following are functions of muscles except SECRETION. 51. What terms best described the relationship between the pronator quadratus and supinator? ANTAGONISTS. 52. Muscle fibers are arranged in bundles called FASICLES. 53. What separates groups of muscles? FASCIA. 54. Which term best describes the relationship of the deltoid and SITS muscles during should abduction? SYNERGISTS. 55. The semitendinosus is an example of what muscle shape? FUSIFORM. 56. Which of the following muscles is the prime mover for inhalation? DIAPHRAGM. 57. Which of the following extensors of the head is the most superficial? TRAPEZIUS. 58. The occipitalis and frontalis are connected via the GALEA APONEUROTICA. 59. Which of the following muscles of facial expression is not innervated by the facial nerve? LEVATOR PALPEBRAE SUPERIORIS. 60. The MASSETER originates on the zygomatic arch and inserts on the angle of the mandible. 61. Which of these muscles help to open the mouth (depress the mandible)? DIGASTRIC. 62. Which of the following muscles of mastication would be responsible for mandibular elevation? TEMPORALIS. 63. The aponeurosis of the external oblique forms the INGUINAL LIGAMENT at its inferior margin. 64. The deepest muscle of the abdominal wall is the TRANSVERSE ABDOMINAL. 65. While sitting at your desk, you drop your pencil onto the floor. You bend over to pick up the pencil. In order to straighten up and continue your exam you must use which of the following muscles? ERECTOR SPINAE. 66. Which of the following muscles is not externally visible on the trunk of the body? TRANSVERSE ABDOMINAL. 67. Tendinous intersections divide the RECTUS ABDOMINUS into segments externally visible on the abdomen of well-muscled person. 68. Which of the following correctly states the origin and insertion of the sternocleidomastoid? STERNAL MANUBRIUM AND MEDIAL ONE- THIRST OF CLAVICLE; MASTOID PROCESS AND LATERAL HALF OF SUPERIOR NUCHAL LINE. 69. The muscles that laterally rotate and depress the scapula, as in shrugging and lowering the shoulders are the TRAPEZIUS AND SERRATUS ANTERIOR. 70. Which cranial nerve innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius? ACCESSORY NERVE. 71. Which muscles originates at the manubrium, inserts on the thyroid cartilage, and aids in singing low notes? STERNOTHYROID. 72. Which of the following is true regarding the levator scapulae? IT ROTATES THE SCAPULA AND DEPRESSES THE APEX OF THE SHOULDER. 73. Which of the following is an intrinsic muscle of the hand? ADDUCTOR POLLICUS. 74. Which muscle action on the arm assists in deep inspiration? LATISSIMUS DORSI. 75. When a nurse draws blood, it is not uncommon for the needle to penetrate which muscle near the cubital region? PRONATOR TERES. 76. The antagonist for the triceps brachii is the BICEPS BRACHII. 77. An injury that results in complete functional loss of the ulnar nerve will affect which of the following muscles? ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI. 78. The longest muscle in the human body is the SATORIUS. 79. Which muscle(s) in the figure insert(s) on the head of the fibula? 4. 80. Which muscle(s) in the figure are innervated by the tibial nerve? 2, 4, 5. 81. Which muscle(s) in the figure are responsible for medially rotating the tibia? 3. 82. All of the bones below belong to the axial skeleton, except SCAPULA, which belongs to the appendicular skeleton. 83. A rounded knob that articulates with another bone is called a CONDYLE. 84. A hole through a bone that usually allows a passage for nerves and blood vessels is called a FORAMEN. 85. All the bones listed below belong to the appendicular skeleton except the ETHMOID. 86. Most of the bones of the skull are connected by immovable joint called SUTURES. 87. Sinuses are not found in the TEMPORAL BONE. 88. THE SELLA TURCICA is not found as a part of the temporal bone. 89. PARIETAL BONES are not facial bones. 90. The SELLA TURCICA houses the pituitary gland (hypophysis) and is found in the SPHENOID BONE. 91. There are two of each of the following bones except for the unpaired ETHMOID. 92. Fontanels are SPACES BETWEEN THE UNFUSED CRANIAL BONES in an infant. 93. All of these contribute to the wall of the orbit except THE NASAL BONE. 94. Vertebrae are divided into 5 groups, usually 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 coccygeal. 95. Which intervertebral disc is the largest? BETWEEN L4 AND L5. 96. The axis is the only vertebrae with a DENS. 97. The STERNUM belongs to the thoracic cage, whereas the CLAVICLE belongs to the pectoral girdle. 98. Costal cartilages connect RIBS WITH THE STERNUM. 99. The brachium contains the HUMERUS, whereas the antebrachium contains the RADIUS AND ULNA. 100. The glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA articulates with the head of the HUMERUS. 101. The acetabulum articulates with the FEMUR. 102. The joint between the costal cartilage 1 and the sternum is a SYNCHONDROSIS, whereas the other costal cartilages are joined to the sternum by SYNOVIAL joints. 103. Unlike other joints, a GOMPHOSIS does not join two bones to each other. 104. What do sutures, gomphoses and syndesmoses have in common? THESE ARE FIBROUS JOINTS. 105. A BURSA is a sac of fluid associated with a synovial joint. 106. Raising an arm to one side of the body to stop a taxi is an example of ABDUCTION of the shoulder. 107. If you stand on tiptoes to reach something high, you are performing PLANTAR FLEXION at the ankle. 108. Your shoulders PROTRACT when you reach to push a revolving door. 109. A monoaxial joint like the elbow is capable of which one of the following movements? FLEXION AND EXTENSION. 110. INVERSION tips the soles medially, like facing each other, and EVERSION tips the soles laterally, away from each other. 111. The rotator cuff tendons enclose the shoulder joint on all sides except INFERIORLY, which explains in part the nature of most shoulder dislocations. 112. Which is the most stable joint? COXAL JOINT. 113. Which structure in the knee prevents hyperextension? THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT. Bony joint or synostosis: an immovable joint formed when the gap between two bones ossifies and in effect, become a singe bone Fibrous joints or synarthrosis: adjacent bones are bound b collagen fibers that emerge from one bone, cross the space between them, and penetrate into the other 3 kinds of fibrous joints: sutures, gomphoses, syndesmoses Sutures: immobile or slightly movable fibrous joints Gomphoses: the attachment of a tooth to its socket. The tooth is firmly held in place by a fibrous periodontal ligament. Syndesmoses: a fibrous joint at which two bones are bound by relatively long collagenous fibers (ex: binds radius/ulna and tibia/fibula) Cartilaginous joints or amphiarthorsis: bones are linked together by cartilage Synchondrosis: bones are bound by hyaline cartilage (ex: temporary joint between epiphysis/diaphysis of a long bone in a child, attachment st of 1 rib to sternum) Sympheses: 2 bones are joined by fibrocartilage (ex: pubic symphysis, joint between the bodies of 2 vertebrae) Synovial joint or diarthrosis: freely movable joint, structurally complex (ex: elbow, knee, knuckles, wrist, ankle) Articular cartilage: what facing surfaces of the 2 bones are covered with Synovial fluid: slippery lubricant, is rich in albumin and hyaluronic acid
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