EXAM TWO STUDY GUIDE
Short Answer (30 points: 2 short answers, 15 points each)
Answer each question in one paragraph (35 complete sentences). Two of these questions will appear on your exam.
1. Many New Deal programs tried to reduce the unemployment rate by putting people to work. Name one New Deal program designed to put Americans to work, explain who it put to work, and describe what kind of work it provided.
∙ Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
o Formed in March 1933, 37 days after President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s inauguration, it was one of the first New Deal programs
o It was a public works project intended to promote environmental conservation and to build good citizens through vigorous, disciplined outdoor labor.
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o It was very close to FDR’s heart, combing his interests in conservation and universal service for youth, he believed that this civilian “tree army” would relieve the rural unemployed and keep youth off the streets and out of crime. o The CCC operated under the army’s control.
o By September 1935, over 500,000 young men had lived in CCC camps, most staying six months to a year.
o The CCC was responsible for over half the reforestation, both public and private, done in the nation’s history.
o CCC enrollees throughout the country were credited with renewing the nation's decimated forests by planting an estimated three billion trees between 1933 and 1942.
o By the time the program ended in 1942, more than 3 million persons had passed through CCC camps, where they received government wages of $30 per month.
∙ Public Works Administration (PWA)
o New Deal government agency from 19331939
o Authorized by the National Industrial Recovery Act, the agency was set up under FDR’s secretary of the interior, Harold L. Ickes, administration.
o Designed to reduce unemployment and increase purchasing power through the construction of highways and public buildings.
o Budgeted several billion dollars to be spent on the construction of public works as a means of providing employment, stabilizing purchasing power, improving public welfare, and contributing to a revival of American industry. Don't forget about the age old question of Are the marketing and financial value
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o Between July 1933 and March 1939, the PWA funded the construction of more than 34,000 projects, including airports, electricitygenerating dams, and aircraft carriers; and seventy percent of the new schools and one third of the hospitals built during that time. It also electrified the Pennsylvania Railroad between New York and Washington, D.C
∙ Civil Works Administration (CWA)
o In November, the CWA was established in 1933.
o Unlike the PWA, it directly hired workers for construction projects. o The CWA was established to create manual labor jobs for millions of unemployed workers, for the winter of 19331934.
o The CWA created construction jobs, mainly improving or constructing buildings and bridges.
o It ended on March 31, 1934, after spending $200 million a month and giving jobs to four million people.
2. Define isolationism, and give one example of isolationist sentiment in the United States before Pearl Harbor. Then give one example of how Roosevelt prepared for war despite the isolationist mood in the country before the Japanese attack. ∙ Isolationism
o The desire to avoid foreign entanglements that dominated the United States Congress in the 1930s We also discuss several other topics like any group of millions, billions, or even trillions of stars
o Beginning in 1935, lawmakers passed a series of Neutrality Acts that banned travel on belligerents’ ships and the sale of arms to countries at war
∙ These Neutrality Acts, Congress hoped would allow the United States to avoid the conflicts over the freedom of the seas that had contributed to the involvement in WW1.
∙ During 1941, the U.S. became more and more closely allied with those fighting Germany and Japan. But, Britain was virtually bankrupt and could no longer pay for supplies.
∙ So, at FDR’s urging, Congress passed the LenLease Act, which authorized military aid so long as countries promised somehow to return it all after the war. ∙ Under the LendLease Act, the U.S. funneled billions of dollars’ worth of arms to Britain and China, as well as the Soviet Union, after Hitler invaded that country in June 1941, after he renounced his nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union. ∙ FDR also froze Japanese assets in the United States, halting virtually all trade between the countries, including the sale of oil vital to Japan, (until 1941, 80 percent of Japan’s oil supply came from the U.S. ) Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between assemblers and compilers?
3. Americans experienced an economic boom in the aftermath of World War II, and the growing middle class had money to spend. Give one example of the growth of consumer culture or mass culture in the 1950s, and describe its significance. ∙ Suburbs We also discuss several other topics like cal poly philo
o The main engines of economic growth during the 1950’s were residential construction and spending on consumer goods. The postwar baby boom and the shift of population from cities to suburbs created an enormous demand for housing, television sets, home appliances, and cars.
o During the 1950s, the number of houses in the United States doubled, nearly all of them built in the suburbs.
o The dream of home ownership, the physical embodiment of hopes for a better life, came within reach of the majority of Americans.If you want to learn more check out synfuels pros and cons
o Developers pioneered inexpensive mass building techniques, and government backed low interest loans to returning veterans allowed working class men and women in large numbers to purchase homes.
∙ Consumer Culture
o In a sense, the 1950s represented the culmination of the long term trend in which consumerism replaced economic independence and democratic participation as central definitions of American freedom. Attitudes towards debt changed as well. Low interest rates and the spread of credit cards encouraged Americans to borrow money to purchase consumer goods.
o By the end of the 1950’s, nearly nine of ten American families owned a TV set. TV replaced newspapers as the most common source of information about public events, changed Americans eating habits with the frozen tv meal, became the nation’s leading leisure activity, and also provided Americans of all regions and backgrounds with a common cultural experience.
o The automobile opened more roads than the television did. It provided an interstate system which altered America’s landscape with the addition of motels, drive in movie theaters, and roadside eating establishments
(McDonalds!!) The car symbolized the identification of freedom with individual mobility and private choice.
o Americans became comfortable living in neverending debt, once seen as a loss of economic freedom.
4. The Civil Rights Movement included advocates of nonviolence and advocates of armed selfdefense. Give one example of each tactic as it was employed during the 1950s and early 1960s.
∙ Non violence
o On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black tailor’s assistant who had just completed her days work in a Montgomery, Alabama department store, refused to give up her seat on a city bus to a white rider, as required by local law. Park’s arrest sparked a yearlong bus boycott, the beginning of the mass phase of the civil rights movement in the South.
o The Montgomery bus boycott marked a turning point in postwar American history, launching the movement for racial justice as a nonviolent crusade based in black churches in the South.
o The March on Washington
On August 28, 1963, more than 200,000 Americans gathered in Washington, D.C., for a political rally known as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Organized by a number of civil rights and religious groups, the event was designed to shed light on the political and social challenges African Americans continued to face across the country. The march, which became a key moment in the growing struggle for civil rights in the United States, culminated in Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech, a spirited call for racial justice and equality.
o Black Panthers
The Black Panthers were formed in California in 1906 and even though their time in the civil rights movement was short, it was also very important. The Black Panthers believed that the nonviolent campaign of MLK had failed and any promised changes to their lifestyle via the “traditional” civil rights movement, would tak too long to be implemented or simply just not
The language of the Black Panthers was violent as was their public stance. They were willing to use violence to get what they wanted.
The Black Panther Party became notorious for advocating armed selfdefense in response to police brutality. The party demanded the release of black prisoners because of racism in the criminal justice system.
5. Like the New Deal, Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society expanded the role of the federal government in many Americans’ lives. Describe one program of the Great Society and briefly explain its influence.
∙ Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA)
o Domestic version of the Peace Corps for the inner cities
o Schools in impoverished American regions would now receive volunteer teaching attention.
o Federal funds were sent to struggling communities to attack unemployment and illiteracy.
∙ Economic Opportunity Act of 1964
o Law created the Office of Economic Opportunity aimed at attacking the roots of American poverty.
o A Job Corps was established to provide valuable vocational training. o Provided Head Start, a preschool program designed to help disadvantaged students arrive at kindergarten ready to learn.
6. The year 1968 represented a major turningpoint in PostWWII U.S. history. Give two examples of this turning point, and briefly explain their significance. ∙ Between April and August of 1968, Americans witnessed the traumatic assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr., and Robert Kennedy, race riots, and violence between demonstrators and the Chicago police outside the Democratic National Convention. o On April 4, 1968, having traveled to Memphis to support a strike of the city’s grossly underpaid garbage collectors, King was killed by a white assassin. The greatest outbreak of urban violence in the nation’s history followed in ghettos across the country.
Washington D.C., had to be occupied by soldiers before order was restored. As a gesture to King’s memory, Congress passed its last major civil rights law, the Opening House Act, which prohibited discrimination in the sale and rental of homes and apartments, although with weak enforcement mechanisms.
o In June, a young Palestinian nationalist assassinated Robert F. Kennedy, who was seeking the Democratic nomination as an opponent of the war
o In August, tens of thousands of antiwar activists descended on Chicago for protests at the Democratic national convention, where the delegates nominated Vice President Hubert Humphrey as their presidential candidate. The city’s police, never known for restraint, assaulted the marchers with nightsticks, producing hundreds of injuries outside the convention hall and pandemonium inside it. A later investigation called the event a “police riot”.