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UCR / Chemistry / CHEM 1 / What type of ions are emitted from acidic solutions?

What type of ions are emitted from acidic solutions?

What type of ions are emitted from acidic solutions?

Description

School: University of California Riverside
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry
Professor: Glen millhauser
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Chemistry, Chem, and midterm
Cost: 50
Name: Chemistry 1B Midterm 1 Study Guide
Description: These are all the notes for the first midterm.
Uploaded: 03/29/2016
6 Pages 32 Views 1 Unlocks
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Chemistry 1B Midterm #1 Review 


What type of ions are emitted from acidic solutions?



Chapter 8:

Solutions and Their Concentrations:

­Solution: homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

­Solvent: substance present in the greatest proportion in a solution

­Solutes: all the substances dissolved in it

­Aqueous solutions: solutions where water is the solvent

­Molarity (M): number of moles (n) of solute in a volume (V) of 1 liter of solution ­M = (moles of substance)/(Liter of solution)

Dilutions:

­Standard Solutions: solution of known concentration that is used in chemical analysis ­Dilution: process of lowering the concentration of a solution by adding more solvent ­To calculate volume of the more concentrated solution to be transferred: n=(Vi)(Mi) ­i is initial (concentrated) solutions


Which of the following is a brønsted lowry acid but not an arrhenius acid?



­To calculate volume of the solute transferred: n=(Vf)(Mf)

­f is the final (dilute) solution

­equation to calculate volume of a concentrated solution to be transferred to prepare a dilute solution: Vi=[(Vf)(Mf)]/Mi

Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes:

­Why does the light bulb light up in a NaCl solution but not in a beaker of salt crystals? ­must be linked to the salt’s dissolution in water

­When NaCl dissolves, its ions are liberated from their crystal lattice and are able to migrate independently through the solvent. As they migrate, they take their electric charges with them. If they migrate in opposite directions then the ion migration allows electricity to flow through the solution We also discuss several other topics like What is the sears roebuck catalog?

­the Na+ ions are attracted to and migrate to the graphite rod while the Cl ions move towards the positive graphite electrode


Does dipole dipole interactions affect solubility?



­Electrode: a solid electrical conductor that is used to make contact with a solution or other nonmetallic component of an electrical circuit

­Electrolyte: material that conducts electricity because it has free ions, ionic solution and molten salts are examples

­Strong electrolyte when an ionic substance dissociates completely when dissolved in water, strong acids & bases (most salts)

­Nonelectrolyte when substance does not dissociate into ions when it dissolves in water, does not conduct electricity (polar molecules, insoluble salts)

Weak electrolyte when substance only partly dissociates into ions when it dissolves in water

­Hydronium ions: formed when an H+ ion is donated to a water molecule to form H3O+

Acids, Bases, and Neutralization Reactions

­Arrhenius acids: acids (all of them) produce H3O+ ions when dissolved in water ­Most acids only partially ionize when dissolved in water

­weak electrolytes and weak acids We also discuss several other topics like How presidential campaigns are publicly funded?
If you want to learn more check out What major event happened in 1848 in seneca falls ny?

­Strong acids: acids that completely dissociates into ions in aqueous solution ­HCl, HBr, HI, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO4

­Bronsted­Lowry Model: defines an acid is any compound that donates H+ ions ­Bronsted­Lowry Acid: compounds that donate H+ ions

­Arrehenius acids are bronsted­lowry acids because they donate H+ ions to H2O but bronsted­lowry acids are not Arrehenius acids because they donate H+ ions to other compounds other than H2O

­Bronsted­Lowry Base: compounds that accept H+ ions

­Strong Base: base that completely dissociates into ions in aqueous solutions ­OH­ (combines with H+ to form water)

­Weak Base: base that only partially dissociates in aqueous solutions

­NH3: conducts electricity weakly, weak electrolyte

­amphiprotic: a substance that can behave as either a proton acceptor or a proton donor ­When in the presence of a base, H2O is an acid; when in the presence of an acid, H2O is a base We also discuss several other topics like What was the outcome of citizens united v federal election commission 2010?

­Neutralization Reactions: a reaction that takes place when an acid reacts with a base and produces a solution of a salt in water.

­there must be one H+ ion for every OH­ ion in an acid­base neutralization reaction in aqueous solution

ie) HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O (l)

­one mole of NaOH for every mole of HCl because each mole of HCl can donate one mole of H+ ions and each mole of NaOH contains one mole of OH­ ions ­includes 2 products: a salt and water

­spectator ion: ion that is unchanged by a chemical reaction

­How to Write a Total Ionic Equation:

1. Write all soluble ionic compounds as separate ions, with each of their symbols followed by (aq)

2. Write all soluble nonelectrolytes­­and all weak electrolytes­­using their molecular formulas

3. Use the molecular formula H2O(l) for water when it is a reactant or product (as a neutralization reaction)

4. Write insoluble solids and gases using their normal chemical formulas followed by (s) or (s) as appropriate

­Once simplifying the total ionic equation by canceling out the spectator ions, it leaves us with the net ionic equation (chemical equation of a reaction that contains only the species that are changed by the reaction) Don't forget about the age old question of What are the ecological causes of evolution?

Precipitation Reactions:

­Compounds are not soluble when solute­solvent interactions (ion­dipole) are not strong enough to offset solute­solvent interactions (ion­ion) and solvent­solvent interactions such as hydrogen bonding between water molecules

­strength of ion­ion interactions increase with increasing charge and decrease with increasing ion size

­Precipitate: solid product formed from a reaction in solutionIf you want to learn more check out What is the culture in the 1900s?

­General solubility rule: in the compound MX, if the charge of M is greater than or equal to 2+ and the charge of X is greater than or equal to 2­ it is probably insoluble *Exceptions: Ag+, Hg+, Pb2+ w/ halide­

­How to determine if 2 solutions form a compound that has limited solubility: 1. Identify the ions that are dissolved in the 2 solutions after the 2 ionic compounds dissolve and separate into their component ions

2. Determine whether either of the new anion/cation combinations produces a product of limited solubility (use solubility rule)

3. Write total ionic equation and simplify to find the net ionic equation

­Aqueous solubilities of ionic and molecular solids increase with increasing temperature ­Saturated solution: solution that contains the maximum concentration of a solute possible at a given temperature

­Supersaturated solutions: solution that contains more than the maximum quantity of solute predicted to be soluble in a given volume of a solution at a given temperature ­Unsaturated solution: solution that contains less that the maximum quantity of solute predicted to be soluble in a given volume of solution at a given temperature

Oxidation­Reduction Reactions (Redox Reactions)

­Oxidation: occurs when an atom or ion loses electrons

­Reduction: occurs when an atom or ion gains electrons

*One cannot occur without the other*

­Reducing agent (reductant): donates electron, oxidized

­Oxidizing agent (oxidant): accepts electron, reduced

­Oxidation number: positive or negative number based on the number of electrons that an atom gains or loses when it forms an ion, or that it shares when it forms a covalent bond with an atom of another element

**Oxidation Number Assignment Rules**

­0 for atoms in pure elements

­equals the charge of monatomic ions

­Fluorine= ­1

­Oxygen= ­2

­Hydrogen= +1

­oxidation number values of the atoms in a neutral molecule sum to 0

­oxidation number values of the atoms in a polyatomic ion sum to the charge on the ion *Balancing Redox Reaction Equations*

­balancing the electrical charges

HOW TO:

1. Balance the chemical equation

2. Assign oxidation numbers for each element

3. Add H+ ions (if reaction is acidic) or OH­ ions (if reaction is basic) to one side of the equation to balance out the charges

4. On the opposite side of the equation add H2O to balance

Titrations

­Titration: method to determine the concentration of a solute in a sample by reacting the solute with a solution of known concentration

­Titrant: standard solution added to the sample in a titration

­analyte: substance whose concentration is to be determined in a chemical analysis ­equivalence point: point in the titration when just enough titrant has been added to react with all of the analyte in the sample

­quantity of titrant has been added that is equivalent to quantity of analyte ­end point: point in the titration when a color change or other signal indicates that enough titrant has been added to react with all of the analyte in the sample

Chapter 9:

Energy Definitions:

­Energy: capacity to do work or transfer heat

­Work: energy used to move an object against a force

­Heat: energy used to increase the temperature of an object

­Chemical Energy: potential energy stored in chemical bonds

­Internal energy: sum of all kinetic and potential energies of all of the components of a system

Forms of Energy:

­Kinetic Energy: energy of motion

KE= ½ MV^2

­Potential Energy: stored energy by virtue of position due to attractions and repulsions between objects

Energy as a Reactant or Product:

­First law of Thermodynamics: energy cannot be created or destroyed but can change from one form to another

­energy gained or lost by a system must equal the energy lost or gained by the surroundings

­System: part of the universe that is the focus of thermochemical study (3 types) 1. Open: matter and energy can be exchanged with surroundings (pot of boiling water) 2. Closed: energy can be exchanged with surroundings but not matter (balloon) 3. Isolated: neither matter nor energy can be exchanged (thermos)

­Change in energy (universe)=Change in energy (sys) + Change in energy (surr) = 0 ­Change in energy (sys) = ­Change in energy (surr)

­Change in energy = Energy(final) ­ Energy(initial)

­Exothermic process: releases energy into their surroundings; heat flows from a system into its surroundings; system DOES work on surroundings

­Endothermic process: absorbs energy from their surrounding; heat flows from the surroundings into the system; surroundings DO work on system

Enthalpy and Enthalpy Changes:

­Enthalpy (H): measure of total enegery of a system

­Enthalpy Change(Delta H): equal to the transfer of heat into or out from a system at constant pressure

­Enthalpy of Fusion: Energy required to convert a given amount (mol or g) of a solid at its melting point into liquid state

­Enthalpy of Vaporization: Energy required to convert a given amount (mol or g) of a liquid at its boiling point into gaseous/vapor state

­Heat Capacity: quantity of energy needed to raise the temperature of an object by 1 degree C

­Molar Heat Capacity: q= (moles)(heat capacity)(change in temperature)

­Specific Heat: q=(mass)(heat capacity)(change in temperature)

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