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Intro to Psych Exam 3 Study guide

by: Kala Dunnigan

Intro to Psych Exam 3 Study guide Psyc 2010

Marketplace > Auburn University > Psychlogy > Psyc 2010 > Intro to Psych Exam 3 Study guide
Kala Dunnigan
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About this Document

cover chapters 8,9,10
Introductory Psychology
Frank Weathers
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kala Dunnigan on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Frank Weathers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
Chapter 8 Study Guide Key terms and individuals – these are roughly in the order in which they appear in the chapter. Types of problems -- inducing structure- find relations among things, to find the missing piece  Think of an analogy. Sun: Moon :: Day : _______ -- arrangement- arrangement of parts to satisfy criteria -- transformation- sequence of changes to get to the main goal Look @ examples of these on page 251 at the top Barriers to effective problem solving -- irrelevant information- Unnecessary information put into a problem to throw you off -- functional fixedness- thinking an item can only be used for one purpose (EX. thinking a screw driver is only for screwing nails in) -- mental set- using problem solving strategies that have worked in the past (EX. You continue to study with flashcards because it has worked in the past, but may not be great for this class) -- unnecessary constraints- “In the box thinking” imposed by the problem solver. The problem solver is not being creative enough. Approaches to problem solving -- trial and error and heuristics- trying different solutions in order, until finding one that works -- forming sub-goals- intermediate steps to reach a bigger goal -- searching for analogies- finding similarity in a previous problem to the current problem, and using the information you know about the previous problem to help find the answer to the current problem -- changing the representation of the problem- changing the structure of a problem to better approach it (ex. Changing a verbal problem to a mathematical problem, or spatial problem) -- incubation- sitting on a problem and hoping the answer will come to you. (Ex. Starring a problem on a test to come back to it, hoping you will be able to figure it out later) Decision making- evaluating alternatives and making choices among them Theory of bounded rationality- People tend to use simple strategies in decision making that focus on only a few facets of available options and often result in “irrational” decisions that are less than optimal Choice overload- People in modern society have too many choices in everyday life. Choices of cookies in the supermarket, choices of which college to go to, choices of salad dressings. An overload of choices can lead to people being overwhelmed and sometimes not make a decision at all, or feel like they made the wrong one. Deliberation-without-attention effect- When faced with a “simple” problem, people are more satisfied with their decision when they put thought into it. However, people are more satisfied with their choices in complicated problems when they DO NOT put much thought into it. Risky decision making- making choices under conditions of uncertainty Availability heuristic- Estimating the probability of something happening based on examples that come to mind. (EX. Can you recall a memory of when something like this happened?) Representativeness heuristic- estimating the probability of something happening based on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event. (EX. You will think flipping a coin is more likely to produce these results, HTHTTHTT, than this result, TTTTTTT, because the first one is similar to what you have seen happen in the past. But NOT based on a specific example like the availability heuristic_ Pitfalls in decision making -- ignoring base rates- ignoring the statistical evidence behind the probability of something happening (EX. Jim wont fly to Texas because he is scared of the plane crashing and killing him, so he will drive instead. Jim is ignoring the fact that in reality more deaths happen due to car crashes than airplane crashes) -- conjunction fallacy- when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone -- gambler’s fallacy- belief that odds of an event happening increase if the event hasn’t occurred yet (EX. I have pulled the slot machine 10 times now, so it’s bound to win soon) -- overestimating the improbable- estimating that an event will happen way more than it actually will (EX. Woman moves to the south and immediately builds a tornado bunker in her back yard because she thinks tornadoes happen all the time) -- loss aversion- People would rather NOT lose something, than gain something. Intelligence quotient- Child’s mental age, divided by actual age, multiplied by 100 Mental age- mental ability of a child typical to an actual age of a child Chronological age- actual age Normal distribution- symmetrical bell curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in the population Deviation IQ- locate people’s IQ scores precisely within the normal distribution Reliability of a test- consistency (EX. You hit the same spot on a dart board every time, but its not the bull’s-eye… so its not valid/accurate) Validity of a test- accuracy (EX. You hit the bulls-eye on a dart board every time. You are both reliable and accurate.) YOU CANNOT BE VALID WITHOUT ALSO BEING RELIABLE! Family studies- can determine only whether genetic influence on a trait is plausible, not whether it is certain. Go read the paragraphs for the subjects below. They cannot easily be summarized. The paragraphs are short and simple. I have listed what page they are on in the textbook! Twin studies- 270 Adoption studies- 270-272 Heritability estimate- 271 Flynn effect- 273 Chapter 9 Study Guide Key terms and individuals – these are roughly in the order in which they appear in the chapter. Theories of motivation -- drive theory- drive is a hypothetical, internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension -- incentive theory- incentive is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior -- evolutionary theory- natural selection favors behaviors that maximize reproductive sucess Biological factors in hunger -- stomach contractions- stomach contractions do not cause hunger but there is a correlation. They accompany each other. -- brain regulation- experience of hunger is controlled in the brain -- lateral hypothalamus- hunger ON switch- if damaged, subject will never eat because they wont feel hungry -- ventromedial hypothalamus- hunger OFF switch- if damaged, subject will never stop eating because they wont feel full -- arcuate and paraventricular nuclei- located in the hypothalamus -- neural circuits vs. anatomical centers- both take part in controlling hunger -- digestive and hormonal regulation -- insulin- hormone secreted from the pancreas, takes glucose from blood -- ghrelin- causes stomach contractions and promotes hunger -- CCK- reduces hunger -- leptin- long term regulation of hunger Environmental factors in hunger -- incentive value of food -- palatability- If it tastes good, we want it -- quantity available- The more food there is, the more we eat -- variety- a lot of different food makes us want to try it all and eat more -- presence of others- we eat more when other people are around -- food-related cues in the environment (EX. You seem hungry after you pass a billboard with a big mac on it) -- learned preferences and cultural differences- (EX. If someone lived in Japan for 12 years, then moved to America, they would enjoy Japanese food more than American food) Evolutionary analyses of human sexual motivation -- parental investment theory- what each sex has to invest in terms of time, energy, survival risk, and forgone opportunities to produce and nurture offspring -- gender differences in patterns of sexual activity Men- more interested in uncommitted sex, greater number of sexual partners over a lifetime, look for youth and attractiveness in partners Women- Less interest in uncommitted sex, smaller number of sexual partners over a lifetime look for income, status, and ambition in partners -- critique of evolutionary analysis- couldn’t cultural and economic factors affect sex preferences and drive? Elements of emotional experience -- cognitive component -- affective forecasting- efforts to predict one’s emotional reactions to future events -- physiological component -- autonomic arousal- pg. 305 -- neural circuits- pg. 307 -- limbic system- a complex system of nerves and networks in the brain, involving several areas near the edge of the cortex concerned with instinct and mood. It controls the basic emotions (fear, pleasure, anger) and drives (hunger, sex, dominance, care of offspring). -- behavioral component -- nonverbal behavior- body language -- facial-feedback hypothesis- facial muscles send signals to the brain and these signals help the brain recognize the emotion that one is experiencing -- culture and the elements of emotions- pg.309 -- cross cultural similarities- facial expressions for emotions widely the same -- cross-cultural differences- different cultures may have different expressions for different emotions. (EX. Tahitians have no word that explains sadness) -- display rules- Norms that regulate the appropriate expression Theories of emotion -- James-Lange – Your body responds, then you feel emotion -- Cannon-Bard- You experience emotions and physical symptoms of them at the same time -- Schachter’s two-factor theory- “You forgot to include the acknowledgement of emotion” People have to aknowledge that they feel a certain way --evolutionary theories- emotions are innate reactions to certain stimuli Chapter 10 Study Guide Key terms and individuals – these are roughly in the order in which they appear in the chapter. Prenatal development -- course of prenatal development -- germinal stage- first phase of prenatal development, first 2 weeks of conception 1) zygote creation 2) cell multiplication 3) placenta building -- embryonic stage- second stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 weeks until the end of the second month. 2-8 weeks 1) body systems 2) 1- inch body 3) most miscarriages -- fetal stage- third stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 months to birth 1)skeleton hardens 2) physical movement 3) senses -- environmental factors and prenatal development -- nutrition- nutrition of the mother is essential because malnutrition could increase risk of birth complications -- stress and emotion- maternal emotions can have an impact on prenatal development, stress and anxiety in mother may increase behavioral problems in offspring -- drugs and alcohol- drugs and alcohol increase risk for offspring to have health risks and also increase risk in miscarriage * Fetal alcohol syndrome- collection of congenital problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy -- maternal illness- the placenta screens out many infectious things, but not all of them. -- environmental toxins- air pollution, exposure to chemicals, etc. may be linked to slower mental and physical development Early childhood -- motor development- progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities -- developmental norms- indicate the typical median age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities -- cultural variations- read small paragraph on pg. 328 -- attachment- the close emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers -- separation anxiety- emotional distress seen in many infants when they ae separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment -- theories of attachment -- Harlow- monkeys with wire mom and cloth mother, baby went to wire mother only to eat and spent the rest of the time with the cloth mother -- Bowlby- must be a biological basis for attachment -- patterns of attachment -- secure- play fine while mother is in there, when she leaves they cry, then they are comforted by her return -- anxious-ambivalent- always anxious, when mother is present, intensified when she leaves, and not very comforted when she returns -- avoidant- not very attached to mother, doesn’t care if she leaves, doesn’t care when she gets back -- culture and attachment pg.330 -- language development (too much to summarize, read the paragraphs) -- producing words pg.331 -- using words pg.331 -- combining words-pg.332 Personality and cognitive development in childhood -- personality development (just know the different theories) -- Erikson’s stage theory (all 8 stages) Pg. 333 -- cognitive development- refers to transitions in youngsters’ patterns of thinking including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving. -- Piaget’s stage theory -- sensorimotor – 1 stage in piaget’s theory (object permanence)- develops when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible -- preoperational (conservation)- awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance -- concrete operational – ages 7-11, perform operations with only visible or tangible things -- formal operational- around 11 years old- life; apply operations to abstract concepts -- critique of Piaget’s theory 1) underestimated young children’s cognitive development; research shows children have understood object permanence before Piaget thought 2) children often display multiple of these cognitive stages in patterns of thinking; mixing of stages is something Piaget did not acknowledge -- development of moral reasoning -- Kohlberg’s stage theory (three levels) Pg. 339 graph -- critique of Kohlberg’s theory 1) people can show multiple stages of moral reasoning at once 2) may not be valid indicators of moral development 3) constricted focus on reasoning about interpersonal relationships Adolescence -- physiological changes -- secondary sex characteristics- physical things that set male and female anatomy apart, but are not essential for reproduction -- puberty and primary sex characteristics puberty- the stage during which sexual functions reach maturity, marks the beginning of adolescence primary sex characteristics- physical features that set apart male and female anatomy but are essential for reproduction -- neural development- -- myelination- when more white matter becomes present in the brain -- synaptic pruning- elimination of less-active synapses -- prefrontal cortex- last part of the brain to fully mature -- search for identity- identity and confusion, who am I? Where am I going in life? *Read more on page 343 for better understanding -- emerging adulthood- pg. 344 Adulthood -- personality development- how stable is personality over a life span? these must be read in book to understand completely -- the question of stability- pg. 345 -- transitions in family life- -- adjusting to marriage- pg. 346 -- adjusting to parenthood- pg. 347 -- aging and physiological changes- pg. 348 -- aging and neural changes- pg. 348 -- aging and cognitive changes- pg. 349


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