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Exam Study Guide ant 121 mid term

Author: Student Professor: Hromadzic Term:

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Enculturation

the process by which an individual learns the traditional content of a culture and understands its practices and values. Ex: Prof. Burdick sat in on a Shaman healing ritual on Dale. From Shaman and Psychotherapist

Ethnocentrism

Belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group. Ex: The Psychotherapist's attitude towards Shamans was close minded/ intolerant to Shamanism beliefs. From the Shaman and Psychotherapist

Shamanism

a religion practiced by indigenous peoples of far northern Europe and Siberia that is characterized by belief in an unseen world of gods, demons, and ancestral spirits responsive only to the shamans. Ex: Pam Yang's parents did not allow her to receive western medical attention since it was against their cultural beliefs. From Pam Yang Case

Trance

Sleep-like state of reduced consciousness and activity. Ex: Buddhists enter a trance when meditating to seek concentration, tranquility, and insight.

Cultural Relativism

understanding the ways of other cultures and not judging these practices according to one's own cultural ways. Ex: The Shaman's attitude towards the Psychotherapist was respectful and open minded. Even though he doesn't practice Western Medicine he was still able to appreciate their work (unlike the douche Psychotherapist). From the Shaman and Psychotherapist

Cultural Dialogue

gathering information and knowledge to generate new ideas and insights into people's behavior, values, and life experiences. Ex: Prof. Burdick stayed in a favela and gained insight on the people who are portrayed as criminals

Rite of Passage

A ceremony or ritual marking an individual's transition from one social status to another, especially marking the young person's transition to adulthood. Ex: FGC is a rite of passage ritual performed on girls when they reach the age of puberty. They aren't considered "Women" in their society until they have one. From Cultural Meanings of Female Genital Cutting

Ritual

A religious or solemn ceremony consisting of a series of actions performed according to a prescribed order. Ex: FGC is a ritual performed in Sierra Leone that consists of the removal of partial or the full external female genitalia typically used with a blade or razor with or without anesthesia. From Cultural Meanings of FGC

Myth

A traditional story that has been passed down generation to generation about gods, ancestors, or heroes, told to explain the natural world or the customs and beliefs of a society. These stories can either be true or false. Ex: Greek Mythology consists of various stories that are most likely fictional about the origins and significance of their ritual practices. From research

Ethnocide

occurs when a dominant society deliberately sets out to destroy another society's cultural heritage. Ex: the Holocaust

Cosmology

Ideas and beliefs about the universe as an ordered system, its origin and the place of humans in the universe through which, people in that culture understand the makeup and the workings of all things. Ex: Monism is the philosophical belief that everything is derived from one substance or essence. They don't believe in a distinction from mind and matter. From research

Cultural Survival

the concept of defending the human rights and cultural heritage of indigenous people and oppressed ethnic minorities. Ex: an organization developed in the Favelas have established Museums and apps to promote and spread their culture to the outside world. From Brazil's Favelas: Zones of Fear or Hope?

Collective Memory

the experiences shared and recalled by significant numbers of people. Such memories are revived, preserved, shared, passed on, and recast in many forms, such as stories, holidays, rituals, and monuments. Groups generate memories as collective entities. Ex: Easter Sunday is a holiday based on the account experienced by a group of people that Jesus resurrected from the dead.

Embodied knowledge

Information, intuition, or knowledge that comes from direct personal experiences and generally coded or perceived in parts of the body or mind. Ex: Reflexes that human beings develop throughout their lives such as shell shock

place-making

but space with meaning Ex: the favelas is not just a place to the people who live there. They have put in lots of hard work to make it a place of their own with their own culture.

Community Assets

properties within a community that can be used to improve quality of life. Ex: the poverty of the favelas makes the simple things in life much more enjoyable to them and also eliminates greed.

Social Capital

Refers to the knowledge and connections that enable people to cooperate with one another for mutual benefit and extend their influence. Ex: The tight-knit community in the favelas leaves them no choice but to cooperate with one another and work towards what is best for them as a unit

Place-Attachment

a place highly valued that holds significance in one's life. Does not have to have spiritual ties. Ex: The sacred burial grounds of the CRIT. Their ancestors lived and died on these lands before white man came to the Americas and in their culture, they demand these lands remain preserved as a sign of respect to their ancestors.

Body-Society Theory

People of the Sudan believe that infibulation is a cleanly thing to do and they also live a very clean life at home.

Spatial Triangulation

an idea that one cannot fully understand the significance of a place without understanding the complete network of sacred places. Ex: U can't build over any part of sacred Indian burial grounds without disturbing the ancestors. Leaving the CRIT people a fraction of sacred land is the equivalent to leaving them nothing. Ex: The Hmong belief that the body houses 7 spirits and if one of them wanders off, the body won't work properly causing the human to become sick

Place-memory

a memory with the connection to a place. Ex: where one's first kiss was. One will be reminded of that memory when returning to that place.

What were the causes of Dale's Illness and cure according to the Shaman?

One of Dale's souls wandered off, making him sick because every spirit needs to be in the body for it to work properly

What were the causes of Dale's Illness and cure according to the Psychotherapist?

Dale's mind was attacking his body. He developed a psychosomatic problem like mind over the body since the mind can become diseased like other organs

What are deep cultural meanings of FGC?

To be considered a real Woman, to reduce sexual desire to preserve virginity until marriage, and the clitoris and labia are viewed as male parts of a woman's body so they are removed to enhance femininity.

What is the medicalization of FGC?

When FGC is practiced in any category of health-care whether it is performed in a public or private clinic or even at home and during any point in a woman's life.

What are the main arguments towards the medicalization of FGC?

The procedure does harm the female genitalia and consists of removing the labia minora for non medical purposes.

Anchor of collective identity

The core of a culture that is mutually shared in common between the people. Ex: At SU we share a collective identity as being SU students and the core is Syracuse University itself. Without it, we couldn't identify as SU students anymore.

Essay Question 6

People of the favelas benefit from the thriving culture, economic flexibility, family-like community, creative collaborations with one-another. These positive aspects will show people that not all people in favelas are criminals.

Essay Question 3

Reasons for Medicalization of FGC are that the procedure is safer since it is professionally done and sterilized. It is also the choice of a female to go forward with the procedure like an abortion. Also accepts a ritual of a culture that Western culture may find peculiar. Reasons against it are that it does harm to the female genitalia. It consists of the removal of the labia minora and clitoris which are suppose to remain in the body. Uses the term medicalization falsely since FGC is never for medical purposes.

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