Assignment 2: International Insecurity and the Use of Force
Assignment 2: International Insecurity and the Use of Force PRG211
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INTERNATIONAL INSECURITY AND THE USE OF FORCE 1 Assignment 2 International Insecurity and the Use of Force Naja J Kennedy Strayer University INTERNATIONAL INSECURITY AND THE USE OF FORCE 2 Part 11 International Insecurity and the Use of Force in Darfur The Media the People and Public Opinion Transnational actors interest groups public opinion and the media have monumentally in uenced the war in Darfur These outlets have been instrumental in intervention disseminating information while also keeping the public abreast of the current warfare in Darfur Categorically transnational actors are organizations that work across national boundaries but whose members are not states Transnational actors are involved in almost every important issue in the world Additionally transnational actors encompass transnational corporations and transnational advocacy networks Transnational corporations pursue global strategies for production sales research and investment Transnational advocacy networks also play a growing role in international politics Transnational advocacy networks or TAN are groups that organize across national boundaries to pursue some political social or cultural goal D Anieri 2014 An example of a transnational actor is the involvement of Human Rights Watch Humans Rights Watch is one of the world s leading independent organizations dedicated to defending and protecting human rights By focusing international attention where human rights are violated they give voice to the oppressed and hold oppressors accountable for their crimes Their rigorous objective investigations and strategic targeted advocacy build intense pressure for action and raise the cost of human rights abuse Human Rights Watch has worked tenaciously to lay the legal and moral groundwork for deeprooted change and has fought to INTERNATIONAL INSECURITY AND THE USE OF FORCE 3 bring greater justice and security to people around the world including the citizens of Darfur hrworg The role of interest groups is consistently emphasized in analyses of politics and policy Interest groups have a powerful stake in various aspects of foreign policy D Anieri 2014 An example of an interest group is Refugees International Refugees International funds independent effective lifesaving work Worldwide millions of people have been forced from their homes because of con ict and climate change in Darfur with millions more living as stateless people with no national identity Refugees International provides governments international agencies and nongovemmental organizations with effective solutions to improve the lives of displaced people refugeesinternationalorg If enough people mobilize for a specific concern this in itself can deem in uential Public opinion plays an integral part when formulating policy decisions In regards to Darfur the opinion of the public augers more towards providing assistance to eradicate genocide For example a PIPAKnowledge Networks poll of 812 Americans finds majority support for several forms of intervention in the crisis in Darfur Multiple polls have found that many Americans believe that if severe human rights abuses are occurring especially genocide the UN should have the right to intervene and the US should be willing to contribute troops worldpublicopinionorg Media advocacy involves promoting policy change through the media by generating media coverage that is favorable to the policy This approach is based on the contention that media agendas can in uence the policy preferences of the American public Effective in uence INTERNATIONAL INSECURITY AND THE USE OF FORCE 4 of media coverage of an issue should involve understanding beyond that offered by research in the media effects paradigm A clearer understanding of how to gain access and use media more effectively can enhance the likelihood of successful policy promotion Foster 2012 I find the in uence of media warranted the involvement of the Bush and Obama Administrations to actively involve them with the crisis in Darfur Collectively the involvement of these entities in international institutions expands the range of participation and offers a complementary channel for citizen in uence By mobilizing citizens for particular causes civil society organizations such as interest groups social movements and media outlets give voice to the stakeholders in global governance Transnational actors may thus help bring citizen concerns into the debate and onto the agenda Conversely civil society organizations may help raise the public s awareness of the decisions and actions of international institutions Bexell Tallberg amp Uhlin 2010 The Impact of Foreign Policies Positively or negatively morals and beliefs of the main participants will always impact foreign policies Moreover Sudan s government and the United States government were the main participants in formulating the foreign policies More specifically South African foreign policy under former President Thabo Mbeki attracted a great deal of criticism from human rights groups and Western governments As a member of the UN Security Council and the UN Human Rights Council Pretoria one of three capitals of South Africa attempted to block censure of regimes responsible for gross abuses most notoriously in the cases of Burma Sudan and Zimbabwe In relation to the humanitarian and human rights crisis that broke out in Darfur in INTERNATIONAL INSECURITY AND THE USE OF FORCE 5 2003 Pretoria was accused of appeasing Khartoum and turning a blind eye to its iniquitous conduct To many observers South Africa s posture was not only objectionable but also baf ing and anomalous wholly inconsistent with the country s historical struggle against oppression and its constitutional embrace of their human rights policies In the Human Rights Council Pretoria worked assiduously to dilute efforts to address the Darfur crisis For example in 2006 it opposed a resolution critical of Khartoum s aggression in Darfur supporting instead a weaker resolution that excluded any reference to followup action by the Council and to the Sudanese govemment s duty to protect civilians Pretoria also opposed a resolution condemning rape as a political and military instrument Willing to condemn the rebels at no stage during his presidency did Mbeki voice concern about Khartoum s ethnic cleansing atrocities and excessive violence against civilians Although the policy emphasis on democracy human rights and resolving con ict through negotiations and power sharing it does not explain the Africanist and antiimperialist world views and their dominance when in con ict with the human rights framework Pretoria s protective attitude towards Sudan in the face of the Darfur catastrophe was inconsistent with its commitment to human rights and democracy This strategy did nothing to alter the inequities of the international system and yielded no benefits to South Africa or the South The only winners were the dictators and the clear losers were their victims The poor who were the intended beneficiaries of the antiimperialist project ended up sacrificed on its altar Nathan 2011 Contrastingly the United States have instituted policies to assist the Darfuri citizens and weaken the dictatorship in Darfur The Obama Administration is deeply concerned that ten years after the outbreak of war in Darfur the Darfuri people continue to suffer from increased INTERNATIONAL INSECURITY AND THE USE OF FORCE 6 insecurity human rights abuses and sexual violence The United States foreign policy strongly supports international efforts to bring peace security and humanitarian relief to the people of Darfur The US unequivocally supports UNAMID the joint United NationsAfrican Union peacekeeping force in Darfur and demand immediate unimpeded access for peacekeepers and humanitarians throughout Darfur Over the past decade the United States has provided over 75 billion in funding for humanitarian transition and peacekeeping assistance for vulnerable populations in Darfur and eastern Chad Ventrell 2013 UNAMID has been proactive in enhancing the protection of its personnel bases and equipment s and greater capacity in the provision of security for safe delivery of humanitarian assistance and protection of civilians Much as the deployment of UNAMID mission has brought semblance of security and militating against the achievement of durable peace in Darfur Luqman 2012 Although both participants have been active in this political process it is apparent that cohesion and adherence to these policies are not being fulfilled by the Sudanese government In order for this fulfillment to occur policy development and policy implementation must remain paramount International Insecurity International insecurity can derive from a gamut of illogical deductions As related to the war in Darfur international insecurity can be witnessed in terms of nationalism human aggression and misperception As a result of nationalism the drive for national self determination invariably involves giving one group control over a territory and either reducing other groups to secondclass status or ejecting them from their territory altogether It can also involve trying to conquer territory belonging to other states in order to bring an ethnic group INTERNATIONAL INSECURITY AND THE USE OF FORCE 7 under one government Thus this insecurity of national selfdetermination can lead directly to violence Next human aggression has also been a catalyst in the Darfur crisis Some scientists argue that war is simply another form of aggression which is hardwired into human beings through genetics Scientists also study variations in patterns of violence including those based on sex age and population density among other factors Moreover research has shown that violence can be conditioned by experience This research implies that human beings have the same predispositions toward violence as other animals Humans are only narrowly removed in evolutionary terms from an environment that truly was anarchic and in which the weak were at the mercy of the strong The final international insecurity facilitated by the dictators of Darfur is misperception According to this perspective war is almost always the result not of rational calculations but of irrational calculations and of psychologically driven misperceptions Such misperceptions lead states to begin wars that look crazy in retrospect D Anieri 2014 The aforementioned international insecurities displayed by the Sudanese government officials have gratingly impacting the quality of life for the citizens of Darfur These insecurities have caused hundreds of thousands to be murdered Additionally millions have been displaced from their homes to surrounding localities Lastly if these insecurities continue to go unchecked the remaining Darfurians will continue to be subjected to inhumane treatment Use of Force Force can be defined as the use of violence or the threat of violence to achieve a political goal The use of force involves killing wounding and starving people and destroying property Conjointly the threat of violence can also be considered the use of force D Anieri 2014 INTERNATIONAL INSECURITY AND THE USE OF FORCE 8 Unfortunately the Sudanese government officials inhumanely and unjustly used force on the citizens of Darfur In this instance I am totally against the use of force being used against innocent civilians According to the policy mentioned in the Impacts of Foreign Policy Section the Sudanese government role is to protect provide peacekeeping and foster humanitarianism These officials have allowed J anj aweed to systematically destroy Darfurians by burning villages looting economic resources polluting water sources and murdering raping and torturing civilians As of today over 480000 people have been killed and over 28 million people are displaced worldwithoutgenocideorg Conclusion In conclusion transnational actors including the media people and public opinion are in uential When making light of policy issues This enlightenment can aide in certain policy concerns being set on the agenda The mobilization of these individuals can play an integral role in policy development Moreover the main participants Who implement these policies must not allow their personal insecurities to impede the greater good of society Lastly the use of force cannot be arbitrarily used If the use of force is to be utilized it should only be utilized for the protection of citizens not to fulfill any ill means INTERNATIONAL INSECURITY AND THE USE OF FORCE 9 References Bexell M Tallberg J amp Uhlin A 2010 Democracy in global governance The promises and pitfalls of transnational actors Global Governance 161 81101 D Anieri P 2014 International politics Power and purpose in global affairs 3rd Edition Boston MA Wadsworth Darfur genocide 2013 Retrieved from httpwwwworldwithoutgenocideorg Foster C 2012 Agendabuilding in uences on the news media s coverage of the US food and drug administration 19932009 Journal of Health amp Human Services Administration 353 303330 Human Rights Watch 2013 Retrieved from httpwwwhrworg Luqman S 2012 From AMIS to UNAMID The African Union the United Nations and the challenges of sustainable peace in Darfur Sudan Canadian Social Science 81 6069 doi103968jcss1923669720120801590 INTERNATIONAL INSECURITY AND THE USE OF FORCE 10 Nathan L 2011 Interests ideas and ideology South Africa39s Policy on Darfur African A airs 110438 5574 doi101093afrafadq058 Refugees International nd Retrieved from httprefugeesinternationalorg The Darfur crisis African and American public opinion Retrieved from httpWWWWorldpublicopinionorg Ventrell P 2013 Ten years of war in Darfur Retrieved from httDZWWWStat 20V
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