MGT 350 Final Exam 2
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Date Created: 11/11/15
1) Critical thinking may be stored for use in future decision making. Examples of mechanisms used to “store” critical thinking for future programmed decisions include A. a Pareto Chart B. a Stakeholder Analysis C. a SWOT Analysis D. a regression analysis E. a troubleshooting decision tree 2) Decision tools and techniques influence the use of critical thinking in decision making. According to the decision steps model, what is a proper response when an unstructured problem is presented? A. Measure the impact of a decision B. Frame alternatives C. Make the decision D. Frame the problem E. Implement a decision 3) Decision opportunities arise when problems or opportunities are recognized through critical thinking. Which of the following components may be a reason that managers ignore problems? A. The manager’s sense of urgency toward problems precludes action. B. Some businesses exist in a problem free environment. C. The manager is exercising intellectual courage in the face of resistance to problem solving. D. The manager prefers risk over certainty. E. A lack of intellectual empathy makes it difficult to recognize stakeholder considerations. 4) When faced with a decision opportunity, a critical thinker must sort through a variety of readily apparent symptoms in order to focus on important considerations that may be hidden. Based on the decision steps model, when framing a problem a helpful step is to A. identify the problem B. determine root causes C. develop a contingency plan D. frame alternatives E. measure the decision 5) Despite all the measures followed, successful decisions are not always guaranteed so it is important to A. accept that some decisions will not work and move on to other issues B. develop appropriate measurements for the impacts of decisions C. only allow the most senior leaders to influence decisions D. develop contingency plans E. use logical thinking to guarantee a correct outcome 6) Jane has a term paper due, a sick child who needs her attention, and a major project due at work. To save time, she decides to submit a paper for school that is less than her best, but will earn a passing grade. The best description of Jane’s approach is A. satisficing B. optimizing C. analyzing D. creativity 7) One way for a leader to develop alternative perspectives for decision making is to A. increase the homogeneity of his or her team B. increase the use of the logical thinking style C. rely on the intellectual component of stereotyping D. assign the role of devil’s advocate for meetings E. apply past decision successes to current decision opportunities 8) Critical thought involves the consideration of diverse perspectives. Advantages of this include A. the leader maintains tighter control over decisions B. quicker decisions for urgent problems C. decisions that are more narrowly focused D. a decision that accounts for the interests of multiple stakeholders E. greater security over confidential information 9) Critical thought involves the consideration of diverse perspectives. Disadvantages of group decision making include A. a process that is more time consuming B. increased security of confidential information C. all of the above are disadvantages of group decision making D. a decision that accounts for the interests of diverse stakeholders E. a more autocratic environment 10) Conflict is a force of influence upon decision making, and may hamper decision implementation if not accounted for in the problem formulation and identification process. Conflict may stem from such factors as A. groupthink B. personal attributes C. a lack of a devil’s advocate D. inspirational leadership E. routine programmed decisions 11) During problem formulation, the decision maker must account for the interests of diverse stakeholders. An important step toward this outcome is the establishment of A. criteria, goals, and objectives B. measurements for the decision C. timelines and resource allocations D. contingency plans E. decision Implementation Processes 12) Considerations when framing a problem include A. identifying causes of the problem B. framing alternative courses of action C. developing contingency plans D. measuring the impacts of a decision E. identification of stakeholders affected by the problem 13) A valid deductive argument may lead to false conclusions if A. it is in improper form B. it uses the modens ponens argument form C. it contains a false premise D. a valid deductive argument cannot lead to false conclusions E. it is composed of multiple syllogisms 14) During problem formulation, the establishment of proper goals may be hampered by the failure to ask enough questions concerning a problem. This tactic can increase the use of the creative thinking style to increase the probability of asking the right questions. A. Deduction B. Starbursting C. Linear thinking D. Limiting the influence of external stakeholders E. Programmed decision rules 15) A form of critical thinking is fair-minded persuasive thinking. When engaging in problem formulation and identification with a group, the fair minded persuader would A. avoid all affective appeals B. emphasizes affective appeals over data and reason C. communicate only that information which supports the desired decision D. emphasize data and reason over affective appeals E. acknowledges the difficulty that his or her position creates for the audience 16) Problems may become apparent to stakeholders through the use of tools which compare actual results to expected results. An example of such a tool is a A. Pareto chart B. Financial Report C. SWOT analysis D. Force Field Analysis E. Fishbone diagram 17) Problems may become apparent to stakeholders through the use of tools which compare actual results to expected results. An example of such a tool is a A. SWOT analysis B. Force Field Analysis C. Financial report D. Fishbone diagram E. Pareto chart 18) An important step toward framing a problem in a manner that is sensitive to relevant stakeholder perspectives is to A. do not allow public relations concerns to influence decision making B. be sure to remain situated in one’s personal context C. filter non-financial input from the process D. use projection when ascribing motivation to others E. determine who is affected by a problem 19) Jan is the owner of a retail store, and is evaluating the need for changes to the store’s commission structure for sales personnel. She has decided to exclude the sales personnel affected from the decision making process. Jan is probably seeking to minimize this force of influence on the decision making process. A. Resistance from external stakeholders B. Ethical considerations C. Resource availability D. Lack of political support E. Self serving bias 20) Urgent crisis conditions might call for a decision making style that is A. autocratic B. participative C. democratic D. collaborative E. consensus 21) Identifying programmed decision opportunities—problems with objectively correct answers, solvable through the use of simple rules, policies, or numerical computations—promises this benefit in terms of decision making. A. Ensures that problems are dealt with in a unique fashion according to their differences B. Ensures that multiple solutions are applied to common problems in order to find the best one C. Greater efficiency D. Provides senior managers with greater visibility to each routine decision made E. Provides decision makers with opportunities for creative problem solving 22) When a manager is attempting to identify root causes, the following tool may be helpful: A. SWOT analysis B. Financial Balance sheet C. Force field analysis D. profit and loss statements E. Fishbone diagram 23) A decision tool that can be helpful in identifying risks to contemplated decisions is A. a Force Field Analysis B. a Fishbone diagram C. a Pareto chart D. a periodic table E. a histogram 24) Managers would typically use this tool to develop an overall strategic approach to their business. A. SWOT Analysis B. Gantt chart C. Fishbone diagram D. Financial reports E. Surveys 25) In the course of developing a SWOT analysis, Bob determines that a large competitor is moving into one of his company’s key service areas. Bob has uncovered A. a weakness B. a positive trigger point C. a threat D. an opportunity E. a strength 26) The manager of the Gallery Restaurant noted that the restaurant had experienced a decrease in the number of evening customers. The manager promptly ordered the chef to rewrite the evening menu. Customer feedback later indicated that the problem had not been the menu but poor service from the wait staff. The manager's decision to have the menu revised suggests that she failed to A. evaluate the alternatives and consequences B. identify the problem C. properly diagnose the cause of the problem D. evaluate the decision and its consequences 27) When deciding between decision alternatives, this tool helps the manager to focus scarce resources on the most common causes of a problem. A. Venn Diagram B. Pareto chart C. SWOT analysis D. Force Field Analysis E. Benchmarking 28) One way to manage risk and uncertainty in decision making is to A. hold employees accountable for decisions that do not work well B. eliminate contingency planning so that direction is certain C. minimize input by external stakeholders to avoid disruption D. be sure to have 100% complete information before proceeding E. include processes for evaluating the decision so that decisions may be modified if needed 29) Chris operates a widget factory, and made the decision to accept a large specialty order of widgets made to custom specifications. At the end of an 8-hour production run, Chris discovered that all of the widgets produced varied from acceptable tolerances, and would not be acceptable to his customer. Chris’s implementation plan was most deficient in its consideration of A. ethical issues B. resource allocation C. timeline D. systems requirements E. measurement tools 30) A company planned to establish an attraction with a historical theme in an area adjacent to historically significant Civil War battlefields and cemeteries. Once plans were developed and announced, the project was abandoned in the face of objections from local residents, which made it impossible to secure the zoning variances necessary to move forward. This failure of implementation may be most accurately described as a failure to account for A. resistance from external stakeholders B. the legal/regulatory environment C. resistance from internal stakeholders D. resource availability E. organizational mission 31) When implementing a decision, a company must ensure that its actions remain consistent with its A. past practices and procedures B. organizational mission C. employee’s preferences D. manager’s thinking styles E. current resource allocations 32) Freda is analyzing the prospects for a new gambling casino that her company is considering. In the course of her analysis, Freda has identified potential stakeholder resistance to this venture, in that she has discovered that the areas is very densely populated with houses of worship. She has also discovered a potential source of support for this venture, in that the local government has established tax credits for new businesses in an effort to stimulate employment. Freda is, in all likelihood, developing a A. financial proforma income statement B. Force Field Analysis C. ROI analysis D. Scatter diagram E. resource allocation survey 33) Resistance to change during implementation could be a result of A. sensitivity to the needs of external stakeholders B. a decision that has been delayed by a lengthy collaborative/participative decision making style C. a problem statement that is not representative of relevant stakeholder interests D. The manager’s decision to allow discussion of both internal and external stakeholder concerns, which introduced conflicting objectives into the problem formulation and identification process 34) Susan has the opportunity to choose among several options, including going along with her coworkers and filling out inaccurate time records, telling her manager what is happening, attempting to persuade her coworkers to stop doing this, or, doing nothing. This is an example of A. a time when Susan should ignore the problem B. an ethical issue C. a moral rights issue D. a situation that is not a problem 35) Bill is an automotive mechanic, paid on the basis of the repair dollars that he generates for his employer. A customer has informed Bill that he believes he needs major repair work to his automobile. Upon examination of the car, Bill discovers that an inexpensive adjustment is all that is needed. He knows that if he informs the customer of this, he will miss out on the substantial commission he would earn by performing the work that the customer already expects. The compensation structure employed by Bill’s garage has created the ethical dilemma of A. proper allocation of resources B. a conflict of interest C. joint and several liability dilemma D. impartial third party mediator E. the good of the individual vs the good of society 36) Markus worked last summer as a receptionist in a lawyer's office. During a discussion prompted by the ethics chapter in your text, he commented that he was asked to tell callers that the lawyer was in court when in fact the lawyer was playing golf! He eventually quit the job because he believes that under no circumstance is it permissible to tell a lie. Markus appears to be following the ethical system referred to as a A. Virtue Ethics B. the Taylor Principles C. utilitarianism D. Practical Deliberation E. rule or deontological ethics 37) The objective to “reduce rework significantly within 6 months” is not sufficiently meaningful nor measurable because it is not sufficiently A. time bound B. relevant C. specific D. important E. achievable 38) Bob’s company regularly surveys employees concerning satisfaction with various attributes of their jobs, and their working conditions. This allows Bob to watch for positive or negative changes in measured satisfaction levels when decisions are made to change the nature of work or compensation in order to increase retention. Bob is applying this thinking style to evaluate his decisions. A. Creative thinking B. Metaphorical thinking C. Scientific thinking D. Deductive logical thinking E. Persuasive thinking 39) A measurement that evaluates the amount of inputs used to achieve outputs is a measure of A. organizational efficiency B. organizational fluctuation C. organizational precision D. organizational effectiveness E. organizational stability 40) When evaluating the decision processes in an organization, leaders will bear in mind that A. poor decisions never work out well B. stakeholders must all be satisfied C. not all good decisions have good outcomes D. a good decision is one that has a good outcome E. a good job of framing the problem guarantees a successful decision 41) As noted in our texts, a key measurement of our decisions is: “are they ethical.” In order to achieve a superior level of ethical behavior in its decision making processes, leaders should instill a(n) ______ in those charged with making decisions. A. legal approach to ethical considerations B. utilitarian approach to ethical considerations C. integrity based approach to ethical considerations D. compliance based approach to ethical considerations 42) When evaluating the decision processes in an organization, leaders should consider doing which of the following? A. Ensure that the process is consistent for all significant decisions. B. Make sure the process is sufficiently autocratic.Make sure the process is sufficiently autocratic.Make sure the process is sufficiently autocratic. C. Make sure to focus on results of the decision rather than the process. D. Make a list of those affected by the decision, and determine if those interests are represented in the process under consideration. E. Ensure that all of a company’s stakeholders provide input all of a company’s decisions.
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