Popular in People and Environment (I)
Popular in Social Work
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Torres on Wednesday November 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ISS 310 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Lucero Radonic in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 250 views. For similar materials see People and Environment (I) in Social Work at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 11/11/15
Study guide exam 2 Demography Statistical study of the characteristics of human populations Population density average number of person depending on a given area Population growth changes of density of population over time takes into account immigration rates Death rate and birth rate number of rates and births per 1000 people every year Fertility rate number of children per women Thomas Malthus reverent Worried about population increase 1798 0 His idea was that population will increase exponentially but food production will increase arithmetically Meaning that the food production does not grow as fast as population Refers to Ecoscarsity 0 At this time period there was not birth control That is why wars famine and disease are natural limits to population growth Malthus ideas 1 Morality issues 0 The second part of Malthus idea was that welfare for the poor is contra productive 2 Poor people are bad money managers 3 They would manage the welfare irresponsibly and have a lot of children 0 Moral code Selfrestraint to avoid resource crisis 0 His theories about population were also issues about poverty 1 Example inequality He addressed political and economic problems 1960 Neo Malthusian arguments New arguments influenced by Malthus 0 Relationship between population economic development and environmental impacts Paul Ehrlich Population Bomb 1968 2 Assumed scarcity of resources nature and rapacity of population growth 3 He never talks about consumption and lifestyle 4 He blamed the developing countries The population bomb Rapid increase of population after the industrial revolution Reference to the video we saw in class Fear Paul Ehrlic and John Holdren 1974 Impact decline of the ecosystem example land degradation Population Number of people on a community Affluence Level of consumption of the population Technology The technology we have available to produce Ianxt Caring capacity Maximum people that an area can sustain during a period of time depending on the lifestyle Two arguments NEO MALTHUSINA Focus on population Disregards how people distribute resources Disregards scales economic vs political structures POPULATION CONTROL MALTHUSIAN vs NEOMALTHUSIAN The issue of fertility Malthus did not consider the possibility of contraceptives NeoMalthusians Considered contraceptives as a way to control population growth They do not consider other things that shape our impact with the environment technology and politics Population control is not the same as birth control Birth control is the right of women to decide how many children and when they are going to have cthren So basically Population control focuses on public policies and birth control focuses on the individual s right to decide when to have children Euginics Influenced population control 1 Selective human breeding selected superior humans Segregation and forces sterilization Laws against people from different races having children 1970 Population control movement 0 Sterilization India forced sterilization Most of the women did not know that they were being sterilized 13 million people were sterilized Many women died PWN 0 Doctor had to sterilize a minimum number of people 0 International governments tried to shape population Example China one child policy Preferred to have boys Sometimes female babies were killed or aborted Does not take into consideration women s health They just want to reduce fertility rates Family health and economy CRITIQUES TO THE TH EORIES Induced intensification theory 0 Population growth will create innovation and lead to a greater food production 0 Figure ways of adaption o Advocate to the green revolution 0 Amartya Sen Pay attention to ownership and distribution of resources He was concerned with famine Starvation is the results of bad distribution and social structures Political distribution Who decides how food is going to be distributed Bali s famine BOOK FOUR FAMINES Who owns the means of production DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION o How population changes through time in relation to three stages Commons Goods or services like oceans irrigation systems Difficulty of exclusion Meaning it is hard to enclose or exclude hard but not impossible Substractability If one user uses the resource it reduces the availability of the resource to the rest of the people The resources are finite The thing about commons is that these resources are not owned by private companies but locals like indigenous people have the right to make use and administrate them Meaning that these commons are an open resource for a community Again commons should not be used for privatization The pastor metaphor Rational individuals benefit from exploiting a common resource while costs are distributed across the group Lack of communication produce problems in the distribution of resources Solution Private properties Privatization via enclosure of the commons quotopen access resources must be bounded and given over to individual owners or strong state management agencies Assumptions 0 Rational individuals are selfish 0 There is no social learning 0 Lack of communication between individuals 0 Resources are open access with no rules or norms in place Criticism Total absence of rules would mean degradation and destruction but there is not a total absence of rules We need to understand them What Heardy was describing was not open resources it was an open access scenario He oversimplified the system He overgeneralized There are more than just the two solutions that he stated Environmental commons are not open access free to all resources with no management rules Most environmental common are common pool resources meaning that they are common property Environmental commons are not free but governed by rules and norms that constrain behavior and encourage cooperation We have 3 main types of property 1 Group common property The resource s rights are held by a group of users that can exclude people 2 Individual property Resource rights that are owned by individuals or corporations They can exclude others 3 Government or state property Resource rights are held by the government they regulate how and who uses the resources Examples Mongolia Worked in group common property this allowed mobility Less resource degradation Russia State property Less mobility More degradation of resources China Private property Even less mobility bus environmental impact Commons management include 0 Restriction of access 0 Implementation of incentives to invest in resources instead of overexploiting them 0 Proportionality This means that whatever you invest you need to also obtain equal benefits 0 Collective choice The locals need to be engaged because they know the land 0 This has been passed generation by generation just orally The tragedy of commodification 0 Issues with the management of resources and how the market manages resources too 0 Commodity A good or service that is exchanged for a valuable resource like money They have use and exchange value Exchange value is what makes a commodity a commodity because all resources have use value The exchange value is money in our case US Dollars o Commodification The process of creating a commodity Read previous study guide or research the meaning of commodification Green revolution change the chemical compositions of the soil with fertilizers 0 Population growth and other aspects of the class We are part of a new era Anthropocene Humanly caused chemical biological and geological processes 0 An epoch caused by humans Paul and Eugene Stoermer 2000 We became a global geo bio and chem force in its own rights Humanized landscapes We have always modified the environment The amount on landscape that is modified today is what is new 0 The great acceleration The earth system moved out of the Holocene variability We are impacting the earth in a different scale 0 Widespread migration from rural to urban areas 0 Rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations Increase in nitrogen for fertilizers o The land converted to pasture and cropland increased too Environmental ethics A branch of philosophy that study the moral relationship between humans and the environment Dominion thesis Humans are made in the image of god We are the high point of creation We can use nature and use them to our benefit Stewardship Thesis It is our responsibility to take care of the environment and nature 0 These are two anthropocentric center in humans perspectives John Lock 1690 Political philosopher quotThe earth is granted by God to all human beings in common to provide for our survival influenced by the dominion thesis Freedom People have the right and the ability to acquire process and maintain property Property Is a right to the body and labor You have property over the land you work and the benefits that those might provide 0 Example If you grow apples from a tree you own the apples and the tree Using nature Transformation of nature to property through labor Utilitarianism The value of nature comes from the usefulness to humans Henry Thoreau Psychological and spiritual value of nature Places that help people to cultivate their spirit Nature strengths the body and imagination He wanted to turn society into a much more creative society Nature as a tool Nature have to be preserved for its own right John Muir Transcendentalism and utilitarianism influence modern ecologists Preservationist philosophy The management of the environment for its protection against human use 0 Wilderness Physical and mental health mean spiritual redemption Pinchot quotConservationist philosophy 0 Scientific forestry 0 Nature as natural resources Utilitarian values 0 Conservation The efficient and sustainable use id natural resources for the greatest good of the greatest number for he longest time influenced by utilitarianism Pinchot forest services Muir Non governmental conservation Aldo Leopold Ecologist 18871948 0 Humans are part of the environment and we need to survive 0 Land ethic echo centric perspective 0 quotThe land ethic 0 Understand how our use of the resources will affect the ecosystem 0 Use the land but guided by ecological connections and health Utilitarianism vs Transcendentalism The Hetchy Valley Yosemite San Francisco water supply Wilderness act 1964 There are values that are not related with utilitarianism We should look out for nature 5 of nation s total land area Postcolonialism Green imperialism the imposition of wilderness Green modernism Nonhuman lives as services Technological optimism The idea that we already ruined the world Now we need to solve everything with technology and capitalism Pragmatic conservation Intrinsic value of nonhuman lives Respect nature Wilderness and rewilding Wilderness areas everywhere Remembered Aldo Leopold This part of the class is on the FILM A Fierce Green Fire Acts 12 and 3 I did not take notes on this because I believe that watching the video is more useful than just reading a summary on it Guest Lecture Brian Geyer Sekenani Centre o Is not a village o Is an economic center 0 Has a lot of immigrants o Ecotourism 1990 People living around the area are seminomadic In recent times the people became more sedentary because of the ecotourism They make a lot of money with tourism People build temporary homes if the homes decompose they build a new one a few meters away 0 Most of the people live as pastoralists Cows 0 Nothing is as pristine as the media shows This is not an area that is devoid from the touch of humans His research 1 Locals disallowed from a lot of things including entering the reserve and collect thing that they need like water 19701980 Communities accepted a number of adjustment policies about how they managed their national policies in order to get loans from national powers They privatized land The concept of commons In the last 15 years a company that wanted to run a private conservancy convinced people to create a longterm lease a chuck of the Ranch to this company Once community members understood they were very angry In the end the company pays a little money for using resources in the land The lease is legal for 100 years Dissolving the group ranch created more problems Environmental Justice Conservation movement The movement that we saw emerging in early 1900 Movement towards the conservation of habitat New environmental movement Look at the environment from a different perspective Environment is more than wilderness More intimate connected environment We need to protect environment We need to realize that environment can also hurt us If we do not take care of the environment can hurt us Relationship between health and environment 1 DDT and Silent Spring Rachel Carson 1962 In this book she explains two decades of research on DDT chemical that is used to kill insects DDT was used to help the soldiers in war to prevent malaria but they did not take into consideration that the chemicals can harm people They noticed that fish had mutations and discovered that DDT can cause cancer and other diseases in people 2 The love Canal mentioned in the video we saw last week Chemical waste was thrown People from different social groups and races where exposed differently to toxic chemicals Environmental Justice Movement Social justice Environmental movement Case study Cesar Chavez MexicanAmerican Organized a Boycott of the grapes Started as a strike They encouraged people not to buy Californian grapes until workers get fair salaries and pesticide control Since they were quota minority they were not awarded the right to a healthy environment PCB Study the US decide to ban its production Company decide to dump PCB in the side of the road 0 Soil was contaminated highly toxic o Puts the toxic material in a low income African American county 0 Peaceful protests 0 Safety regulations are not taking into consideration 0 No political representation 0 Start a lawsuit 0 The damp is built The damp leaks o Are minorities affected US government and students make research about human rights Ethnicity socioeconomic status 1 1983 toxic waste are seated in poor and black communities 2 1987Toxic Wastes and Race National Study 3 1992 National Lanournal quotUnequal environmental protection Environmental Justice argument All communities are created equal Environmental protection agency The right of people to be involved with the development implementation and enforcement of laws that shape the environment EPA2013 1 Everyone has the right to live in a healthy environment regardless of gender race class or nationality 2 Equitable distribution of environmental goods between people A few key terms Environmental racism Any policy of practice that differentially affects individuals or groups based on racial and ethnic minority status Institutional racism Patterns through which racial inequality is structured through key cultural institutions policies and systems Example Native Americans in the US Jim Crow expropriation of lands because they were considered racially different Environmental injustice Cases when you have a minority group that is disproportionally close to unhealthful and dangerous conditions 0 When inequitable distribution is the result of one group limiting or negatively impacting another group s ability to access and manage a healthy environment Example NJ took 50M away from child protection lead disease that affects the brain fund People in these area where black meaning that they unconsciously harmed them because they were not considered a priority 0 There is an association between race and the location of hazardous waste facilities even after considering variables Models about environmental injustice 1 Intentional Bias Model Deliberate racial and social policy in LULU siting California WASTE Management board target communities that are not going to complain 2 Institutional Bias model Rules procedures and policies are biased against poor and minorities 3 Neighborhood transition Model Poor and minorities arrive after environmental hazard because they can t afford expensive houses The environment Central for the subsistence lifestyle and cultural identities Tribal sovereignty and selfdetermination Allow people the right to govern themselves Example Case Study Tohono and Akimel O odham VIDEO Health and water rights Context Tohono means desert and Akimel means river Desert and river people Remarkable agriculture They cultivate alongside the rivers o 1900 Everything changes Dam construction starts The idea was to have irrigation but they start experiencing drought because the dam retains the water They are not able to produce anymore Reservation were imposed to indigenous people Guest Lecture by Dr Kvle Whvte For detailed information on this lecture read the article Whvte Kyle P Forthcominq Food Justice and Collective Food Relations The person who wrote this article was our quest speaker and the whole lecture was on that article You can find the article on d2l under readings o Potawatomi Indian Americans 0 Indigenous government structures Seasonal government structure Depending on the plants they harvested 0 The way they lived was connected to environment 0 Politics were based on survival not like our current system 0 Nomadic o 1838 The US government forced the community to move to Oklahoma Different environment 0 Reestablished their politics 0 Great Lakes unique ecosystem for the Potawatomi 0 They have to live as refugees in their own community 0 Environmental justice Another perspective The same industrial and colonial activities that forced locals to move to Oklahoma are the same reasons that are polluting the atmosphere 0 Different levels of injustice 0 Environmental injustice Systematic injustice When the system blames you based on your race or economic status Case study video Chico Mendez Serigueiro people who subsist of the land 0 Defend the territory 0 Ecologist protest Stopped the cutting of the trees by standing in front of them 0 American environmentalist bring Chico Mendez to the US to fight The World Bank 0 Chico Mendez built alliances to save the Amazon 0 Cachoeira first reserve Chico grew up here 0 Chico Mendez gained enemies because of his fight for the Amazon 0 Chico Mendez is killed Climate changes Amazon is drying out Global south Environmental movement raised during 80s and 90s 0 Environmental issues and social rights became one Kenya Conservation of the commons Woman planted trees Chico was fighting for his quotsmall industry 0 He want to access and manage his resources Based on the reading Locals exposed to environmental injustice Storage of nuclear waste Agency Potentia power of individuals to contest existing structures and change power relations norms values laws Agency keeps cultures changing Collective organization main power in agency Social Movements Collective actions that want to make a difference Example El Chico Mendez strikes etc CHARACTERISTICS OF A SOCIAL MOVEMENT 1 Recognition of commonalities Why are we working together Example Shared identities What makes a group want to protest 2 You need to have an adversary Meaning that you need to have someone who wants access to the same thing you need Example industries and people who protect trees quotDefinition over the same values 3 Social movements engage in many different action in order to achieve what you want Political disobedience You go against the main political process Sometimes you start as a nonpolitical process but you end up dealing with politicians Environmental exploitation generates collective action Identity claims the people s claims over resources create livelihood claims Our livelihood shape who we are as a community Example Locals who feel that have the right to use the land because the land is part of their culture Livelihoods Methods you use to secure the basic necessities you need to live Example agriculture Livelihood as a social movement Environmental deterioration leads to livelihood problems and this end io in a collective action Example again El Chico Mendez Andean Livelihood movements 0 Green revolution and migration 0 High pest 0 Technology vs community 0 Results poor agriculturally yields Other results migration 0 End up introducing new yielding varieties they finally accept the green revolution 0 Goal of the indigenous Survival Chipko movement 0 Indian Himalayas quotTree hugging 0 They did not want to just save the trees The forest was being used for many different things 0 The forest was a humanized landscape They did not wanted to stop the cutting of the trees 0 They wanted to use the forest They used the forest to survive wood economic strategies 0 They protested against the state allotment Meaning that the Chipko did not wanted bis industries to cut their forest They did not wanted to be outcompeted PRESERVATION AND UTILITARIANISM The myth of ecological ethnicity Indigenous are primitive and only want to preserve nature Example The moment that Chipko became tree huggers we turned them into these people that are naturally environmentalists
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