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School: Arizona State University
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Buried Cities and Lost Tribes
Professor: Perreault
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: ASB222
Cost: 50
Name: ASB222 Exam 3 Lecture Study Guide
Description: #1 Neanderthals #2/3 Origin and Spread of Modern Human #4 Origin of Agriculture #5 Chiefdoms Please msg me if there is any issue with viewing your document after you bought it. Phoebe.Chang@asu.edu
Uploaded: 11/12/2015
14 Pages 10 Views 57 Unlocks
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Neanderthals 


where did Neanderthals originated?



1. Neanderthals (Europe, 130-40 kya)

○ Disappeared 40 kya

■ Might be unable to cope with the cold (ice age)

■ Might be due to volcano eruption

■ Fewer plants = fewer grass eating animals = fewer food for  

neanderthals

■ Might be killed by modern humans (overlapped)  

○ Range— Europe, Near East, parts of Western Eurasia

○ World was much warmer from 130 kya - 74 kya

○ Cousin-spiece of ours / not direct ancestor

○ Physically like human beings

■ 1520 cc brain size (larger than ours [1450cc])

■ Heavily muscled (180lbs / 140lbs)

■ Robust people (large shoulder/ribs)  

■ Shorter than modern Europeans (5’5’’ / 5’10’')

■ Reason

■ Adaptation to cold environment

■ Body heat lost is proportional to body surface area

■ Increase overall body size = more heat reserved (fat)


what are the type of human society?



■ Reduce the size of limbs = more adaptable to cold weather

■ Crural index = Length of Tibia / Length of Femur  

■ E.g. Japanese Macaque; Sri Lanka Macaque  

○ Living like human

■ Burial

■ La Chapelle-aux-Saints (France)

■ Shanidar Cave (Iraq)

■ Finding a lot of good skeletons

■ Finding 7 spices of flowers  

■ knowing when the grave is laid

■ Rodens might be the one who brought the pollens  

■ Lacked language— not much room in skull for vocal area

■ Made Mode 3 tools (Levallois flakes)  

■ Levallois technique

■ Projectile points

■ Very systematic with specific shape

■ Progress

■ Flake the edge of the core

■ Prepare the surface of the core

■ Remove Levallois flake

■ From 1 pound of stone

■ 3 inches of cutting edge for mode 1 technique  


what is domistication?



■ 12 inches of cutting edge for mode 2 technique  

■ 30 inches of cutting edge for mode 3 technique

■ Hunting

■ Specializing in a certain specie = super efficient on hunting it If you want to learn more check out distrouted

■ Age distribution = major massacre

■ Hunted large animals  

■ Bison

■ Elk

■ Sheep

■ Auroch

■ Horse

■ Life expectancy

■ Lived short / difficult lives

■ Frequent injury in head

■ Taken care of each other  

■ Young age injuries all over one’s body yet survived through  

40s

■ Crippled yet survived through 40s

○ Recover DNA from fossil bone

■ Denisova Cave

■ Human outside of Africa has Neanderthal genes (4%)

2. Denisovans (50-30 kya)

○ Found a tiny bone in Denisova Cave

○ Having completely different DNA = a new specie

○ Interbreed with Neanderthals

○ 4% of people in Oceania or Tibetan (Asia) have their genes  

■ Can adapt high altitude environment

Origin of Agriculture  

1. Farming Arose Independently

○ Near East Asia— 8500 BC

■ Wheat, pea, olive

■ Sleep, goat

○ China— 7500 BC

■ Rice, millet

■ Pig

○ Western South America (Andes)— 3500 BC

■ Potato, manioc

■ Llama, Genie pig  

○ Central America (Mexico)— 3500 BC

■ Corn, beans, squash

■ Turkey

○ Eastern North America (USA)— 2500 BC

■ Sunflower, goosefoot

■ No animals

2. Farming depended on crops and animals domesticated elsewhere (borrowed) ○ Europe— 6000-3500 BC

■ Poppy, oat

■ No animals  

○ Indus Valley— 6000 BC

■ Sesame, eggplant

■ Humped cattle

○ Egypt— 6000BC

■ Fig

■ Donkey, cat

3. Farming begins with abrupt arrival of foreign people with foreign crops and animals  ○ Europeans If you want to learn more check out How might this body plan be beneficial for a parasitic life style?

■ California

■ Pacific Northwest

■ Agentinas

■ Australia

■ Siberia

○ African Bantu

■ Subequatorial Africa  

○ Austronesian from China

■ Philippines

■ Indonesia

4. Farming Original Reasons

○ It was unintentional

○ Mutation ones sometimes are more desirable

■ Selected consciously— visible qualities  

■ Size (larger stuff are harder to miss, easier to pick)

■ Taste (bitterness)

■ Fleshiness We also discuss several other topics like gabriella djerrahian

■ Seedlessness  

■ Oiliness

■ Selected unconsciously— invisible qualities  

■ The dispersal of seed  

■ Wild wheat with brittle seed heads → hard to harvest

○ Seeds got brought home by human

○ Survived through human digestion system or got thrown away due to whatever  reason

○ Trash started to grow the desirable plants We also discuss several other topics like vimas login

○ Spending less time hunting and more time harvesting

5. Domestication

○ The process whereby plants and animals change physically and genetically due to  human selection (artificial selection) We also discuss several other topics like uncc biology

■ E.g. Banana, Corn, Sunflower

○ Domesticated in a similar sequence around the world

■ Plants

■ #1 Cereals and pulses (pea, lentils)

■ Easy to grow

■ High yield within short time

■ Edible

■ Easy to store, less long

■ Not much mutation needs to occur to be crops  

■ #2 Fruits and Nut Trees (4000 years later)

■ Grow from cutting or seeds  

■ Long growing periods

■ Suitable for people who are settled

■ #3 Fruit Trees

■ Grow from seeds only

■ #4 Weeds

■ E.g. Radishes, beets, lettuce, turnips  

■ Animals

■ Size increase yet not too big

■ Less aggressive

■ Grow quickly  

■ Traits use in combats disappear (horns)

○ Domesticated animals and plants interact positively with each other  ■ Plowing

■ Manure (shit fertilizer)

○ Domesticated plants and animals are not distributed evenly  

■ 50% of calories consumed by world population come from

■ Wheat

■ Corn

■ Rice

■ Barley

■ Sorghum

■ Distribution of wild cereals species (56 types in total) ■ Fertile Crescent— 32 types

■ East Asia— 6 types

■ Mesoamerica— 5 types

■ Most domesticable animals are in Eurasia  

■ Southwest Asia (8000—6000BC)

■ Sheep

■ Goat

■ Cow

■ Pig

■ China (8000—4000BC)

■ Pig  

■ Water Buffalo

■ India (6000BC)

■ Cow

■ Ukraine (4000BC)

■ Horse

■ Egypt (4000BC)

■ Donkey

■ Andes (3500BC)

■ Llama

■ Central Asia (2500BC) If you want to learn more check out rel 180 textbook notes

■ Bactrian camel

■ Arabia (2500BC)

■ Arabian camel

6. Other farming species

○ Ants

■ Collecting

■ Using leaves to feed fungus

■ Ants eat the fungus  

7. Why now

○ Climate change

■ 10,000 years BP

■ Climate was shifting too much

■ Agriculture was impossible  

■ Lesser CO2 was produced so plants can’t survive

8. Farming consequences

○ Population size  

■ Higher birth rate

■ No need to space kids (used to be 4 years, now 2) ■ Allows food storage (food surplus)

○ New technologies

■ Permanent houses  

■ Storage technologies

■ Granaries (Burkina Faso)

■ Pounding grainer

■ Pottery

■ Grinding stone

○ Lethal  

■ More venerable

■ Disease from animals due to close contact  

■ Measles— Cattle

■ Tuberculosis— Cattle; Seal

■ Smallpox— Cattle

■ Flu— Pig; Duck

○ Diet

■ Less balance than hunter-gatherers

The Origin and Spread of Modern Human 

1. Modern Human Behavior Evolution

○ Revolution Model (BAD)

■ ~200 kya— Anatomically modern (looks)

■ ~70 kya— Behavior modern (living style)

○ Gradualism Mode

■ ~200kya till ~70kya— Anatomically and Behavior modern

■ Human behavior doesn’t suddenly show up

■ Happens gradually  

■ Herto Ethiopia (160kya)

■ Qafzeh (90kya)

2. Genetics— Informing the origins of modern humans

○ Facts

■ Modern Human evolved in Africa between 200-100 kya

■ All modern humans outside of Africa are all descended of a small population  that left East Africa 80-60 kya

■ The population spread rapidly along the southern coast of Asia

■ The population then moved north and west to Eurasia

○ Evidences

■ Less genetically variable than chimpanzees (fewer genetic differences)

■ Human descend from a population of about 20,000

■ 2 human individuals are really similar

■ Larger population = more genetic variation

■ Genetic drift removes variations

■ The further it is from the original, the lesser genetic you get  

each time

■ Lesser than lesser when it’s further away from Africa

■ Most in Africa

■ Last in America

3. Archaeology of Africa

○ Rely heavily on social learned traditions— Cultural individuals  

■ Started to see these in middle stone age in Africa (250-60kya)

■ Signals of heavy reliance on culture

■ Complex technology

■ Mode 4— Blade technology

■ 280-240 kya @ Kenya

■ Blade cores / Blades  

■ Micro blades (72kya)

■ South Africa— Pinnacle Point

■ Complex tools (composite tools)

■ At least by ~200kya

■ From 1 pound of stone

■ x inches of cutting edge for mode 4 technique

■ Bone point tools in Congo

■ Regional variation in style

■ Cumulative culture in Africa (fashion)

■ Decorative / symbolic artifacts in middle stone age

■ Shell beads— Morocco (82kya)

■ Red ocher— Blombos Cave, South Africa (77ya)

4. Archaeology of Europe

○ The first Homo Sapiens in Europe (Upper Paleolithic)

○ Ecological range

■ Better adaptation to the environment (than Neanderthals)

■ Higher population density

■ Population dominated by older people (live older)

■ More cultural since old people can teach young people

■ Less likely to suffer from serious injuries or diseases

■ Further North and East

■ Complex shelters and clothing

■ Fur clothing

■ Needles  

○ Technology

■ Assemble highly standardized tools

■ Used blade tools— Solutrean tradition (symmetrical)

■ Used bones antlers, teeth to make tools yet different styles

■ Aurignacian (first made)

■ Solutrean

■ Magdalean

■ Gravettian

○ Social organization

■ Long distance exchange network

■ Exploited wider range of species (Hunting large herbivores)  

■ Red / Rose deer

■ Horses

■ Bison

■ Brown bear

■ Wolf

■ Domesticating Dogs

■ Descend from wolves  

■ 9000 kya ~ 33 kya

■ Dog skull @ Siberia

■ Central or East Asia

■ Hunting partner / Camps guard

■ Burial  

■ Sungir, Russia (~26kya)

■ Siberia, Russia (~24kya)

■ Buried their dead accompanied by ritual

■ Stone tools

■ Diamonds

○ Symbolic expression

■ Produce art— skilled artisans

■ Figures that are human body + lion head

■ Animal sculptures

■ Bison

■ Fish

■ Venus figurines (35-10kya)

■ Females

■ All around Europe and Eastern Russia

■ Sculpture out of stone and bones or ceramics

■ Exaggerated sexual characteristics

■ Huge breast

■ Big ass

■ Diamond shaped

■ Pregnant lady

■ Cave Painting

■ Le Chauvet, France (~32kya)

■ Horse hair + stick = brush

■ What’s on the wall

■ things can be hunted by human

■ Bison

■ Horses

■ half human half animal figures

■ detailed

■ movement drew

■ complex scene

■ correct portion

5. Archaeology in Australia

○ Human are present 50kya (Earlier than Europe)

■ Stay on the edge of Australia due to desert weather

○ The interior Australia is occupied by 25 kya

○ Earliest sites

■ Nauwalabila rockshelter (~60-53kya)

■ Stone tools

■ Shelter

■ Lake Mungo (~50kya)

■ Stone tools

■ Animal bones / Fish bones

■ Burials

■ Dry place

○ Arts

■ Shell beads (32 kya)

■ Footprints with painting pigments

○ Sophisticated Technology

■ Islands today were 2 big continental mass— Sunda + Sahul

■ Australia was separated from Asia by the Wallace Line (62miles)

■ Wide gap prevent all mammals movement (animal evolves in different  ways)

■ Modern human still manage to cross the gap

■ Had awesome boats— can’t find it now though

■ Experienced sailors

6. Archaeology in Americas

○ Modern human are the first Hominines in America (20-15kya)

■ Crossed by foot through the bridge (land) from Asia (Siberia)— DNA proved ■ The bridge connected Asia and North America from 35 kya to 11 kya

■ The bridge is now under the water

■ It was why warmer

■ Beringia

■ The bridge, grass land that is dry and cold with large  

communities of herbivores  

■ Covered by fuels

■ Shit from different animals

■ Produce a lot of energy and heat

■ Doesn’t smell bad; smoky

○ Earliest sites

■ Not in Alaska though that’s the entry

■ Can be under the water now

■ Can be due to hard for us to excavate the site

■ Can be due to ice sheet (2 miles thick)

■ People travel through the coast instead of ice sheets to get  

into inner America

■ Coast benefits

■ Sea resources

■ Boat uses

■ Monte Verde, Chile (15 kya)

■ Earliest human occupation

■ Seaweed— from the coast

■ Animal bones with meat

■ Stone tools

■ Woods

■ Pots

■ Plants

■ Meadowcroft Rockshelter, Pennsylvania (~14kya)

■ Cave— Stone tools

■ Around 13 kya

■ Human are everywhere all over America

■ Climate is getting warmer

■ Denali (10.7 kya)

■ Nenana (11.8 kya)

○ Technology

■ Clovis points— the first American invention

■ 13.2 - 12 kya

■ Long and large

■ Channel removed at the bottom of the flake (both side)

■ Can make spear with it

■ Quickly spread across the continent  

○ Impact After Entry (Around 11kya)

■ Human may killed Australian and American megafauna

■ Large spices extinct

■ Type of spices  

■ Megatherium— giant sloth from South America

■ Arizona— hundreds of their shit

■ Los Angelos— their skeletons

■ Giant beavers

■ Giant camels

■ 45% of birds in South America

■ Reason

■ Might be due to climate change

■ No direct evidence of human hunting the giant sloth or beaver  

■ Unlikely for human to kill all the birds

■ Might be due to overhunting

■ Spices might be easy to kill because they haven’t seen  

humans

Chiefdom 

1. Type of human society

○ Four correlated aspects of human societies  

■ Population size

■ Subsistence— how the society acquire food

■ Political centralization— how are decisions made

■ Social stratification— social hierarchy  

○ Band Societies  

■ Mbuti pygmies (Congo)

■ Tiny group of people who knows everyone else (few dozen)

■ Live in simple shelters; still exist

■ Hunter and gatherers  

■ No political central

■ There is a leader in a hunt only; only to supervise others  

■ No social stratification

■ Status based on age, gender, skill only

■ Not inheritable  

○ Tribes 

■ Huli (Pupua New Guinea)

■ More population (few hundred)

■ Live in small villages (permanent houses); still exist

■ Farming, domesticated animals

■ Not political central

■ Democracy decisions

■ Leaders are more influential and wealthy than others; not inheritable;  

not recognizable

■ No social stratification

■ Do not inherit social status  

○ Chiefdom 

■ Trobriand Isand (Yam houses)

■ Larger than tribe (few thousands to ten thousands); don’t know everybody ■ Permeant large architecture; Extinct

■ Practice agriculture; more food surplus; exchange trading  

■ Farming → Surplus (not everyone have to farm to survive) → Specialists—

craft, religious, bureaucratic → Extensive trading crafts → Raise in status

■ There is political centralization

■ Some individuals have former authority to make decisions

■ There are office; can easily be recognized

■ Having income tax for people; accumulate food and wealth; somehow  

return to people (building church, giving supper overtime)

■ Can be religious authority (priest)  

■ Social Stratification— study of burial (sex, health, age, present or absence of  stuff buried with)

■ Social status can be ascribed (the result of inheritance)

■ Child burial with goods means the status is inherited  

■ Social status can be achieved (through hard work)

○ State Society 

■ Egypt

■ 50,000 individual

■ Complicated political

■ Complicated social stratification

2. Chiefdom Society Examples (Guess lecturer)

○ Argaric 

■ El Argar (Spain)— south eastern

■ Do not have written record

■ Bronze Age (2200—1550 BC)

■ Large fortified settlements on hilltops ( 200-400 people)

■ Cerro de la Encina settlement  

■ Farming and surplus

■ one style of farming one type of crop (intensification: level the hills)

■ not relying on irrigation

■ Losts of flint sickle teeth and grinding stones (increase of 300%)

■ Production can feed 1800 (population: hundreds)

■ Complicated political centralization

■ Settlement Hierarchy— ranking by size and importance within group  

of roughly contemporary sites

■ Dependency of smaller on larger settlements

■ Craft specialization— assignment of specific tasks to specific groups  of people

■ Standardized pottery production

■ Complicated social stratification

■ Burial richness— the number of types of different grave goods

■ La almoloya— Two individual buried together

■ Females are buried differently from males

■ Inequalities in access to metals and exotic goods

■ (40% have some; little percentage have a lot)

■ Ascribed status— kin-based

■ Cerro de la Encina

■ Significant concentration of wealth in burials corresponding to  

the family groups of the highest social status

■ Buried under the houses

■ Traditional assumption— warrior elite?

■ Unused weapons burry with them

■ Swords and halberds in male tombs

■ Axes, daggers, knives in female tombs

○ Cahokia 

■ Monk’s Mound Cahokia (Illinois)

■ AD 1150

■ Contains multiple mounds and plaza

■ Mound 72

■ Grand plaza

■ Large organization

■ 6000—40000

■ Larger than London

■ Complicated political centralization

■ More people living in outlying farming villages that supplied the main  urban center

■ Complicated social stratification  

■ Elite Status

■ United by Mississippian ideology

■ Standardized arrowheads

■ Never been used

■ Made to put into the burial

■ Birdman

■ Laid on thousand of shell

■ Industrial produced

■ Human sacrifice

■ 4 males buried without hands and feet

■ Large scale feasting to gain power from the people

■ Black drink; drugs

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