Study Guide Test 2
Study Guide Test 2 His 151-21
Popular in Global History to 1500
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nia Hunt on Wednesday November 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to His 151-21 at DCH Regional Medical Center taught by Charles A. Desnoyers in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Global History to 1500 in History at DCH Regional Medical Center.
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Date Created: 11/11/15
STUDY GUIDE HISTORY 151 TEST II Questions to Ponder 1 What were the similarities and differences between the rst Chinese civilizations and those of India Egypt and Mesopotamia A Similarities They all were based near rivers so the rivers acted as an essential advantage within their societies They all have agricultural similarities were they shared a lot of the same farming strategies and goods ex Wheat barley etc Differences Had a lot of societal differences lndia Hinduism and Egypt PharoahGod were very saturated by religion Mesopotamia and China don t have much of a religious structure However Chinese societies organized many great efforts to contact the Gods using oracle bones didn t have religious structure but relied on the ancestors to predict the future and solve problems China was more technologically advanced than that of Egyptian or Indian society 2 What were the longterm legacies of the development of dynasties and the Mandate of Heaven on Chinese society A China has a life cycle were when a new family moves into power they tend to reform and expand the land under their ruling It is an ancient Chinese belief and philosophical idea that tian heaven granted emperors the right to rule based on their ability to govern well and fairly The concept of the Mandate of Heaven had several important effects on China and on other countries such as Korea and Annam northern Vietnam that were within the sphere of China39s cultural in uence Fear of losing the Mandate prompted rulers to act responsibly in carrying out their duties towards their subjects The Mandate also allowed for incredible social mobility for a handful of peasant rebellion leaders who became emperors Finally it gave the people a reasonable explanation and a consequential excuse for otherwise inexplicable events such as droughts oods famines earthquakes and disease epidemics This last effect may have been the most important of all 3 How has isolation shaped the direction of societies in the Americas What universal human activities can be found in these societies A They weren t immune or exposed to certain diseases other countries had They had a strong culture base possessing religious structure economic structure and guide lineslaws This is an advantage because they are allowed by isolation to develop their own culture and traditional beliefs Also they didn t have any close rivaling societies that they would have to fear being conqueredcolonized by Therefore they didn t have much too external in uence on their culture This was a disadvantage because they weren t immune or even exposed to these diseases so a lot of them were wiped out once they were exposed to a foreign disease 4 How did the nature of the Paci c islands shape the character of the societies there A 5 What has been the impact of geography and environment in shaping the societies of Saharan and SubSaharan Africa A The Nile River and Trade routes aided in the development of the Sahara and SubSaharan Africa They were in the middle of the trade routes so their economy was positively impacted The Red sea was also used as a way of trade With the positions for these societies the Sahara s land was very fertile and rich causing them to become agriculturally bound However from the development of civilizations they stripped this land and was forced to spread out and expand The Nile was main trade route and water source IS GEOGRAPHY DESTINY lt impacts trade because it intersects different trade route around EgyptMediterranean Impacts the environment ex Desserts can isolate and migrate people causing them to cluster around the rivers NigerNile Several waves of migration coming out of central Africa settles more in savanna Where village life reasserts itself 6 What are some of the de ning characteristics of Nubia Kush and Aksum A All 3 where states that rose in succession adjacent to each other Kush was successor of Nubia Nubia and Kush were substantial empire rival for Egypt Got rich from trade Kush and Aksum were two of the rst places to practice Christianity Aksum village agriculture How did the Persians structure their empire A Their Empire was loosely formed Persians started as nomads The people that they conquered were relatively free to practice their on religions as long as they paid taxes and ght for society when necessary The Jews had been conquered by the Babylonians but Persians came and conquered them The Persians were looked at as liberators Greeks revolted bc they felt they didn t have enough autonomy Persian Empire was big and was divided into provinces called satraps Religion was very big in the way Persia was structured How did the character of the Greek environment shape the political structures of the different poles A Greek had mountains and islands causing citystates causing separation and con ict What were the results of the two great Greek con icts the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian Wars A The Greeks were able to win the Persian wars Results of this after more than a century of war caused them to become worn out How did Alexander s conquests lead to the Hellenistic period A Alexander united Greeks in order to destroy Persian Empire Results in a lot of cultural interaction and golden age of science When How did the Romans develop their republic Why did Rome evolve into an empire A The Romans were good at problem solving within their society political architectural etc They lived by trial and error until they succeed on their project end goal The Plebeians common people and the Ptolemies were in disagreement of the Ptolemies ruling The Plebeians were agitated provoking them to ght for more rights power and representation to have their own assemblies etc Rome evolved into an Empire with all the extra land they had conquered during wars the armies would lute these conquered lands taking jewelry money anything of value making them more wealthy They would have the people they captured on their conquests as slaves do agricultural duties and gain money off of the land they had conquered through trade and goods Rome also developed an empire because of their location they were in the middle of the Mediterranean trade allowing them to become centralized in the middle of the trade center Because of its location acculturation was more powerful This aided in the building the Roman Empire s economy By the time of Christ Rome became very large wealthy etc Terms to Know Nubia Hannibal Ionia Salamis Meroe Phoenicians Solon Oracle Bones Oceania Teotihuacan Cara Supe Olmecs Zhou Dynasty Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Axis Age Ptolemies Cleopatra Seleucids Bactria Twelve Tables Pericles Herodotus Thucydides Punic Wars Satraps Marathon Struggle of the Orders Terms to Know Nubia is a region along the Nile River located in what is today northern Sudan and southern Egypt The Nile River was essential to life dealing with trade amongst the Egyptians 1 of Africa s earliest civilizations Monroe is the Capital African people from what is now the Sahara began to move toward the Nile in Nubia by around 5000 BC Meroe was the capital of Nubia still around today Wealthy metropolis of the ancient kingdom Kush today republic of Sudan Located in the crossroad of major trade routes and ourished from 800 BCE350 CE Oceania consisted of 4 majors cultural areas which provided cultural substance to Oceania Australia dealt strictly with huntergathering while Micronesia Melanesia and Polynesia dealt with farming and huntergathering Was also colonized by waves of migration Zhou Dynasty was formed 112ZBCE256BCE Leaders focused on the necessity of restoring moral leadership Zhou dynasty is where the mandate of heaven came about This was the longest dynasty of Ancient Chinese civilization Ptolemies It was the last dynasty of independent Egypt It is of Macedonia descent Started by Alexander The Great Ptolemy39s family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BCE Took over Egypt Cleopatra was last of the Ptolemy family Twelve Tables 1St Roman law code civil criminal amp religious formed in 451 and 450 BCE Give acts and consequences Created in efforts to strengthen Plebian rights Punic Wars a series of 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage 264 BCE 146 BCE Hannibal led Carthage in the 2nCI war 146BCE marks the time of destruction of Carthage when their land was burned by Rome so no one could live of Carthage soil Hannibal was a famous general consider one of the greatest military commanders in history He took very assertive actions In the 2nCI Punic war led his Carthage army straight to Rome his father led the 1St Punic War Was defeated in 146 Cannae 216 BCE he used the double envelope method surrounding your enemies so they have no power to resistretaliate Phoenicians dominated the sea trade in Mediterranean 1100 BCE Created 1st alphabet Greek alphabet which is still used today Started a colony in North Africa which became a strong civilization Teotihuacan early civilization in Mexico Xia Dynasty 1St Chinese dynasty Leaders used clan based rule and served as mediators with the spirit world A lot of ancient Chinese medicines such as Rhino horns and Dragon bones used to heal malaria Cleopatra had married her brother then later killed him so she could rule alone Had a child with Julius Caesar but he later died after leaving some money for her She later had an affair with Mark Anthony politically and sexuallypoiticalshe wanted them to rule together She committed suicide because Mark Anthony died amp she was afraid to be capture by Augustus or Octavius for slave purposes Used her son to continue to rule through her power of in uence Pericles which meant surrounded by glory His ruling ourished Greek society which caused the Golden Age of Athenian culture He was a Greek statesman and patron of the arts as he led the democracy of Athens from 460 429 BC Satraps a provincial governor in the ancient Persian empire Appointed by the king normally members of the royal family or of Persian nobility held of ce inde nitely The satrap collected taxes and was the supreme judicial authority he was responsible for internal security and raised and maintained an army lonia ancient region of what is now modern day Turkey Used to be a Greek citystate called lonia because it was by the Ionian Sea Solon is 1 of the 7 wise men He was a statesman and an Athenian poet Substituted a system of control by the wealthy and introduces a new more humane law code in comparison Draco39s older law codes Caral Supe a large settlement in the Supe Valley located near Peru Earliest known urban settlement Founded 2600 BCE and abandoned 2000 BCE Shang Dynasty was the 2nCI ancient Chinese dynasty This was a Bronze Age society The rulerskingdom stayed within the family Consisted of social hierarchy armies social classes religion based on ancestral communication Seleucids members of a Macedonian dynasty It was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty Existed from 312 BC to 63 BC it was founded by Seleucus l Nicator following the division of the Macedonian empire created by Alexander the Great Herodotus Sometime around the year 425 BC the writer and geographer Herodotus published his magnum opus a long account of the GrecoPersian Wars that he called The Histories As a writer who invented the eld of study known today as history He was called The Father of History Marathon In the 5th century BC the Persians invaded Greece landing at Marathon a small town outside of Athens The Athenian army was outnumbered by the Persian army so the Athenians sent messengers to cities all over Greece asking for help Also a Greek messenger was sent from the battle eld of Marathon to Athens to announce that the Persians had been defeated in the Battle of Marathon Salamis battle between Persians and Greeks naval battle for Persians in which they were defeated 480 BCE Oracle Bones oracle a wise person you go to for answers a group of inscribed animal bones and shells discovered in China and used originally in divination the practice of seeking knowledge of the future or the unknown by supernatural means by the ancient Chinese especially during the Shang dynasty Process in which they wrote questions on pieces of shellbones and heated them under re until the cracked Cracks answers to their questions Olmecs 1St major civilization of Mexico It ourished between 1300 and 400 BCE whose cultural in uence was widespread throughout southern Mexico and Central America Axis Age from 600 400 BCE The period in which questioning of trying to be freed from the punishment of reincarnation began taking place It was also the time of innovation for religion and thoughts Bactria is a province of Persian Empire located in modern day Afghanistan and Uzbekistan Alexander the Great conquered it with great dif culty 329 327 BCE Ancient country lying between the mountains of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya Thucydides was an Athenian historian political philosopher and general He was remembered for his history of the Peloponnesian War in the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens to the year 411 BC Struggle of the Order was a political struggle between the Plebeians commoners and Patricians aristocrats of the ancient Roman Republic lasting from 494 BC to 287 BC in which the Plebeians sought political equality with the Patricians
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