ASB222 Exam 3 Book Study Guide
ASB222 Exam 3 Book Study Guide ASB 222
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Phoebe Chang on Wednesday November 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ASB 222 at Arizona State University taught by Perreault in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 540 views. For similar materials see Buried Cities and Lost Tribes in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 11/11/15
ASB222 Book#3StudyGuide Chapter 6 1. How did dining practices change over time and what archaeological evidence support this? a. 16th century i. In England • The use of chair by simple folk • Chairs are rare; associated with leadership and authority ii. In America • Chairs a. Diverse varieties within a household b. Classical furniture traditions with Georgian architectural style, chairs were made in matched sets, as were plates. c. The chairs were located in the hall • Bedsteads a. Also not universal • Chests a. Carved and painted b. Ones for Connecticut are easily distinguished from those made in Plymouth colony b. 17th century i. In England • Knives used to eat had blades with pointed ends; Italian invention • Fork appeared afterwards ii. In America • Used round-ended knife • Governor Winthrop of Massachusetts owned a fork • 1721- Marshfield; Plymouth Colony area probate inventories 1 • “European uses their forks upside down”- they’re the one who’s using it upside down though • Spoon a. intermediate utensil b. could cut food and transfer it to the bowl c. fork is similar to spoon c. 18th Century i. In England • Medieval cookery- combining all manner of foodstuffs into stews, pottages and other exotic mixtures- organic and corporate in form ii. In America • Ideal American meal: meat, potato, vegetable- very mechanical • Sudden change occurred in method of cutting up the carcass of an animal into portions that can be cooked a. Earlier quartering method- no closest control over the size of the portions nor small cuts production b. Renewed quartering method- The use of saws to divide up animal; controlled size of the meat 2. Why is garbage an excellent source of information about the past? How does it differ from historical texts? a. One of the most unconscious act; no bias while disposition unlike diaries or court clerk records b. Before mid eighteenth century (1750) — Refuse-disposal pattern; hardship because the artifacts are repeated disturbed by kids or animals c. After mid eighteenth century — Square pits, deep as 7ft contain artifacts and food remains; way better preservation; recovered large amount of fully restorable bottles, plates, cups, saucers d. Such change is due to population increases and concentration 2 3. What role did isolation from English culture play in the development of a specifically American culture? How did this affect American music? a. Brother-sister incest marriage i. To strengthen the solidarity of the local community and contribute to social isolation b. Virginia people (Appalachian highlands and west) i. Carried the old way of English life; so were their music ii. English ballads (a capella) and tunes • “Barbara Allen”; “Butcher’s Boy” — British Isles ballads • “Soldier’s Joy”; “Devil’s Dream” — British Isles tunes iii. Fiddle- main musical instrument • Double stopping • Two strings are bowed at the same time with one acting as a drone string (a single sustained note without change) • Played against the chest instead of beneath the chin (more traditional) iv. Dulcimer- main musical instrument • Characterized by drone strings • A derivative of German instrument (Scheitholt) • Used with ballads c. After isolated i. Banjo — five strings instrument (fifth as a drone); Adaptation to mountain music, played to parallel the melodic line of the fiddle identically ii. Banjo-fiddle music — used to accompany social dancing (held with house raisings, husking bees, harvest activities); no breaks when performed (10-15 mins); some had words yet most likely random if the musician felt like to sing (one verse only) d. After electricity i. Riados with industry ii. Influences from black music (jazz and blues) iii. Bluegrass music (1940s) • Scruggs picking — Uses three fingers • Instruments — guitar, banjo, fiddle, mandolin, acoustic bass fiddle • E.g. The beatles, reggae, Duke Ellington 3 4. How does Deetz describe the general philosophies and ways of life in sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth century America? a. 16th Century i. Social distance grew between individuals ii. The world was perceived as increasingly complex and chaotic iii. People struggled to maintain control over where they have direct access iv. Identical house fronts were a way to maintain a comfortable anonymity combined with stability b. 17th Century i. Religion provided a logical and comfortable accounting for a person’s place within the world and the universe beyond it both in life and in the hereafter ii. The Great Chain of Being • A tenet of all Protestant religion • One’s place in the hereafter was foreordained at birth • There was nothing that one could do to alter it c. 18th Century i. The Copernican universe theory is discovered (before 1650) ii. Religion become less and less as a central factor of life iii. The change in character of New England society from religious to mercantile not only reflects the secularization of life but the new legitimacy of wealth and person possession • The artisan were fixed into a social niche • Rapid breakdown is a result of rising importance of individuals who found a more promising way of life in mercantile system • In such condition, people can accumulate the material possessions that attested to their status in life 4 Chapter 7 1. How can archaeology to the understanding of the lives of oppressed peoples like American black slaves? a. Fragmentary written records i. Partial picture; lacking in important details ii. Examples • 1818 applied for pension based on reduced circumstances — 27$ worth property • Inventory when he died — 61.82½ worth • Military Reports— Date joined, discharged, if they gain freedom afterwards b. Excavating the site i. Parting Ways ii. Named for the fork of the road: Plymouth to Plympton or Carver iii. Cato Howe (a black veteran) lived there till he died (1824) iv. Four black families called New Guinea (Used over much of Anglo-America for separate black settlements) v. After they all died, the property belongs to the town government; on sale once “formerly occupied by man of color” 2. What material evidence indicates that American black slaves were blending their West African traditions with Anglo-American ones? a. Creole languages i. Hybrid language — Haitian Creole incorporates a French vocab while Dominican Creole employs a modified English vocab, but two share not lexicon but grammar, which in both examples is West African b. Folk house building i. Anglo-American set of rules can govern the combination of a diverse set of stylistic elements; more African American c. Burr house — Rectangular Pit (18 inch deep/ 12 x 9 ft) i. Mud-wall-and-post construction is for West African building methods; it occurred in Anglo-American tradition at earlier time 5 3. How does Deetz’s use the unusual finding of a high-quality stoneware jar in a cellar of a low status individual to better understand the life of slaves in America? a. Two concentrations (both produced terminus post quem in 1840s) i. No architectural materials or bone and shell were found but window glass, two nails and two bricks ii. Therefore they are not the result of domestic trash disposal nor the remains of a building of any kind iii. They are objects used by African Americans to decorate graves iv. Northerly one • Consisted of two sugar jar, a stoneware jar, miscellaneous pressed glass objects and a variety of bottles • One of the sugar jars had a hole broken through the base v. Southerly one • Consisted of English white earthenware and a few glass objects 6
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