Quiz 1 Review
Popular in Language in Culture and Society
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Date Created: 01/25/15
ANTH 100410 Language in Culture and Society Dr Alexander S Dent Study Guide In Class Quiz William Jones Welsh Studied in the 1700s Historical linguistics or synchronistic linguistics Noted sound correspondences Father EN gt vater DE pere FR gt padre SP Protoworld language the mother of all languages PROBLEM not interested in language in use treated lang as holistic living coherent wholes organisms Studied language diachronically Inside the language circle language and grammar Ferdinand de Saussure Swiss Student of Jones early study focused on the Sanskrit language as the mother of language arbitrary conventional nature of the sign 0 there is no intrinsic tie between the sign and the actual object Diachronic and synchronic study 0 Diachronic through time The study of the evolution of language 0 Synchronic Snapshot The study of language as it operates TODAY 0 Saussure focused his studies on synchronic o Signifier amp Signified outward amp inward Like a double sided coin 0 When a signifier is caused by the signified smoke caused by fire indexical 0 When a signifier suggests the meaning of the signified walk sign iconic o Signifier the concrete symbol or object o Signified the abstract concept to which you are referring problem drew the circle too tightly around language 0 langue the underlying patterns of a language 0 parole the messy stuff what we do with it putting language in motion how it s used in the everyday A descriptivist grammar I linguists shouldn t concern themselves w parole BIG MISTAKE Value 0 Slightly different meanings for words in different languages 0 Means that translation isn t easy 0 For example inside the language circle grammar and vocab Paradigmatic amp syntagmatic relationships Syntagmatic linear Jane eats food alone at home gt Joe dnnks paradigmatic not tangled must be able to fulfill relationship to verb consumes She He Franz Boas American Descriptive linguist linguistic relativity all langs are created equal none are more sophisticated than another Used language as a way to get to culture without agreeing that language was a part of culture He reacted to cultural evolution or the idea that culture evolved from simple to sophisticated forms a la biological evolution He said nuh bruh your data supporting cultural evolution comes from conquistadorsmissionaries not anthropologists The conquistadors used deficit theory to note what foreign cultures lacked and not what set them apart Ethnocentrism purely studying cultures by comparing them to your OWN The measured culture never got to speak for itself Said anthropologists had to go back to basics to scrap Bad Data from missionaries BoasianneoBoasian approach describe snapshot of a culture in a freeze frame Boas was not super respected within academia where theory was favored over descnp on He thought language was separate from culture and disregarded languaculture Linguistically and empirically no dialect or language is better than another teacher of Sapir Edward Sapir American student of Boas teacher of Whorf AmericanIndian Linguistics lang is the path you have to go down to get to culture Sapir prompted Whorf s interest in the Hopi study became the one student of Boas to develop most completely the relationship between linguistics and anthropology prominent contributor to Sapir Whorf hypothesis Benjamin Lee Whorf American Worked at Fire Insurance company before pursuing research Studied and immersed himself in Hopi culture in order to learn and document the language TMA Tense Mood Aspect 0 Tense time relativity o Aspectongoing or done imperfect in french o Mood how sure the speaker is of the action 0 IE Hopi language statement of fact vs statement of memory I levels of certainty I running statement of possibility I running statement of probability I running statement of fact I saw it Whorf proposed that SAE European languages are focused on time in English both from noun and grammatical perspective we discuss time as a substance Time is not a physical entity 0 hourglass vs clock are physical entities to represent time in English and SAE we think of time as a substance and having physical properties language shapes habitual thought people were at the mercy of their language to experience reality LANGUAGE SHAPES HABITUAL THOUGHT theres no Sapir Whorf hypothesis IF THE SAPIR WHORF HYPOTHESIS WERE LITERALLYA THING IT WOULD BE 0 Weak language shapes our habitual thought in our particular contexts o RadicaStrong language determines your thoughts It is impossible to translate between any given two languages if you do not have a word for a given concept you cannot perceive the concept in any capacity Whorf s point about time there is nothing spatial about time time is structureless entity and that different languages have different perceptions of time BrownLenneberg color experiments supported linguistic relativity They studied codability how quickly can you identify a color and availability the more available a conceptcolor is depends on having language for it o More codable should be more available Leonard Bloomfield American descriptive linguist Kicked semantics out of his study while Whorf almost exclusively focused on it He thought culture was irrelevant to the study of linguistics How are words pronounced He did NOT want to use language to study culture Definitely inside the circle Malinowski British built a linguistics on how people actually talk in ordinary situations this is called discourse Only way to do anthropological research is through field work Pioneered extensive participant observation research agrees with Boas in that culture is the important concept only way to get at it is fieldwork which is long term and immersive you must study language in the context of its circulation gt Nice belt buckle lt this is meaningless without the context Language means nothing without context who s the sender who s the receiver etc erases the circle drawn around language vocab and grammar Chomsky American NOT an anthropologist interested in the cognitive aspect of language approach to universality totally inside the circle amp against descriptive linguistics Malinowski thinks in terms of context discourse whereas Chomsky opposes this idea Deeply critical of Whorf and Sapir descriptive linguistics and argues that his predecessors are only using discovery procedures Loves Saussure and the idea of getting at the deep inner structure and the human universals of language ALL language can be distilled down to lowest common denominators finite set of rules gt infinite number of sentences after grammar stop treating world languages as fundamentally different suggests that language is hardwired into the human brain 0 doesnt matter what language you re raised in it won39t change your social reality 0 What can we learn about the innate structure of the brain by looking at language proceeds like a philosopher children can create sentences that they39ve never heard before Hypothesis children can do this because language is already in the brain it is embedded within the human brain language is like a plant soil and water is exposure to context Argument language is fundamentally and biologically a part of the brain that grows like a plan Folk theories Also known as language ideologies Deficit theory is a folk theory 0 implying that one language can be better than another because of lack Sound correspondence PmthndJEntnpeam Th ua etntantiie languagea eneh are Englieh and Eetrnan are genettiieallll related tn the linmanee languagee eneh ae Fteneh and Spantiiahm MINI theee nat nnal langnagee were nnee tegtiinnalll tlltiiallleeta Haw an we hnnw that the etntant e and Ramanee languagea have a enmntnn aneeetnt ne ellne Lia the Ilatge n nrnhet nt annnu l entt eepnnn eneea lt Fan have Studied a Ramanee language eneh ae Fteneh nt Spanleh Fan may have nnttiieetll that where an Engltieh wheel heglha tenth the entt eapnnthng wheel ht a i lHH EE language ntten hegtiine tenth pt 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leaquot Lattiln H Pre xGermanic en French in Spaniel H t t Elngllialltl39l39i39iF German Eff t t a
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