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UA / Psychology / PSY 370 / a differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is

a differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is

a differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Psychology
Course: History and Systems
Professor: Steele
Term: Fall 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: study guide test 3
Description: here is all the notes for test 3 and the study guide
Uploaded: 03/29/2016
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Chapter 7 jrhyatt@crimson  


what is behaviorism?



Why behaviorism?  

 behaviorism  

 -the behaviorist movement begins in the late 1800's and carries us through the turn of the 20th century   -behaviorism is considered the first true academic tradition in psychology  

 -becomes the dominating field in psychology  

what is behaviorism?  

 -behaviorism: psychological school that stressed the study of observable actions to determine psychological   processes. Views cognition as passive and not active  

 - still experimental, it rebels against the introspective methods of Ebbinghaus and Wundt  why?  

 -the Social climate was right  

 - behaviorism sees human behavior on a continuum of animal and plant behavior   - evolutionary theory  

 -completely materialist  

 - progressive social climate  

 - people are willing to accept this now  If you want to learn more check out mesorrhine nose

behaviorism' roots  

 - 3 key fields contributed to behaviorism's rise  


What are the 3 key fields contributed to behaviorism's rise?



 -advancements in physiology  

 -pretty close to modern understanding  

 -the pursuit of new methods  

 -turning against introspection  

 -at the mercy of things we know don't work  

 -memory, attention, vocabulary  

 -animal psychology  

Animal psychology  

 animal psychology  

 - often called "comparative psychology"  

 -studying animals can tell us about humans  

 -stems from science's rule of parsimony  

 -the simplest solution is often the best  

 -Occam's razor  

 -if humans are animals we should be subject to the same natural laws as them   -hunger, thirst, comfort  

greatest achievements  

 -Nobel prize in 1973

 -Karl Von Frisch, Konread Lorenz, Nikolass Timbergen  If you want to learn more check out our liver cells store polymerized glucose as

 -were recognized for the contributions to science in their studies of animal behavior   -bee behavior  


how do we know which stimulus to follow?



 -see in ultraviolet  

 -do complex dances to communicate  

early animal psychologist  

 -Early on many researchers tried to attribute human characteristics to animals   -anthromorphism  

 -Lewis Morgan  

 -compared beavers to human builders  

 -central methodological flaw  

 -confirmation bias: animals are just like humans  

key differences  

 -researchers have tried to draw a line between animals and humans  

 -Joseph LeConte  

 -humans are rational while animals are not  

 -Jacques Loeb  

 -tropism  

 -stimulus-response to the environment  

 -John Bascom  

 -we can deceive even the most complex seeming of animal actions in simple terms   -reasoning separated the two  

 -we can plan for the future while animals were bound to the present  really it's blurry  

 -there is no clear distinction between animals and humans  

 -dogs can show emotions  

 -can display delayed gratification  

 -humans are often doing things they can't explain  

Operant conditioning  

 Edward Thorndike  

 -saw psychology and behaviorism as a way to improve society

 -if we could find why people perform hurtful or helpful acts we could objectively explain morality   -most famous for the puzzle box  

 -give an animal an incentive to get out of the box. There was a lever that the cat hit to be able   to get out of the box and get the food. Studied the cats intelligence  systematic  We also discuss several other topics like an exaggerated thoracic curvature of the vertebral column is called

 -Thorndike kept exhaustive records  

 -difference between experimental and observational

 -number of trials, total time, number of trials to habituate  

 -learning curve  

 -improvement over time  

 -connectionism  

 -pairing of situations and responses  

 -complex behaviors were just longer chains  

operant conditioning  

 -operant: learning process in which consequences of an action determine likelihood it will be performed in   the future  

 -law of effect: any behavior that leads to a "satisfying state of affairs" is likely to occur again, and any   behavior that leads to an "annoying state of affairs" is less likely to occur again  modern Skinner box  We also discuss several other topics like byu biology

 -mouse is given two switches  

 -1 gives the only source of food  

 -1 is hooked to electrodes attached to the pleasure center of the brain  

 -there is only one switch, but when the mouse pushes it  

 -gives food to the mouse and shocks another rat painfully  

principle of reinforcement  

 -primary reinforcers: satisfy biological needs such as food or water  

 -secondary reinforcers: events or objects that is appealing but does not satisfy biological needs  video games  

 -freemium games  

 -MMORPGs  

 -call of duty  

 -rewards you early and often  

 -link the behavior with a reward  

 -extends the reinforcement over time  

Classical conditioning  

 Ivan Pavlov  

 -at the same time operant conditioning was being researched in America, classical conditioning was being   established in Russia  

 -Russia always had a weird relationship with the industrialized world specifically Europe   saw academics as a way to "catch up"  

classical conditioning  

 -unconditional responses: a natural, inborn response to stimulus; reflex  

 -conditional response: a learned reaction including a reflexive action  

 -requires an unconditional underpinning  

 - learn a reaction that we weren't born with

vocabulary  

 -acquisition: the gradual formation of a conditioned response  

 -the most critical factor in the acquisition of a learned association is time, or contiguity   -the CR is stronger when there is a very brief delay between the CS and the US   -scary music in a movie  

 --animals must learn when associations are no longer adaptive  

 -extinction: a form of learning that the prior association no longer holds. The CR is weakened when the CS   is repeated without the US  We also discuss several other topics like stat 100a ucr

 -spontaneus recovery: a previously extinguished response emerges after the presentation of the CS   -the recovery will fade unless the stimuli are paired together again  Don't forget about the age old question of fiu calendar

how do we know which stimulus to follow?  

 -stimulus generalization: responding to stimuli that are similar but not identical to the CS produce the CR   -stimulus discrimination: a differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently   associated with the US  

higher neurons activity  

 -Pavlov, like Thorndike, felt these simple interaction could explain much more complex activity   -"higher" meant the brain  

 -"lower" means nerves and spinal column  

individual differences  

 -why do some people tense under pressure while others rise to the occasion  

 -competition between excitement and inhibition  

 -induction  

 -we are conditioned to respond by what has worked best for us in the past   induction  

 -the competition between complimentary systems is constant  

 -watching tv and having a conversation  

 -what if it is an electric shock instead of a bell?  

 -waiting in line  

mental illness  

 -Pavlov believed the route of mental illnesses was an individual's inability to form new conditioned   responses or and inability to solve induction  

 -stress-related illness  

big scope  

 -Pavlov believed he was on the verge of explaining all of human behavior  

 -from love to crime all of our actions are routed in simple reflexes we built upon  March 10, 2016

Behaviorism  

Vladimir Bekhterev  

 -worked in Russia at the same time as Ivan Pavlov  

 -received very little recognition in his time outside of Russia  

 -not many of his works were translated into English  

 -yet, he was one of the early international figures who championed what we now call "behaviorism"   -was an accomplished medical doctor and physiologists before diving into psychology   -his intimate understanding of the human body, particularly reflexive responses, shaped his theories   energy transfer  

 -applied the concept of energy conservation to psychology  

 -energy is neither created nor destroyed, it can only change forms  

 -psychologically speaking:  

 -our senses turn external energy into a form of internal energy  

 -"transduction"  

psychology as physics  

 -if psychological processes are energy based than our knowledge of physics should apply   -inertia  

 -people who stay in relationships, complain but don't change  

 -economy  

 -organisms only put in the minimum required effort to achieve a goal  reflexology  

 -heavy functionalist influence:  

 -organism (from Protozoa to humans) alter their behavior in response to their environment   -behavior is a product of 2 conditions:  

 -Impact if the environment  

 -what is the stimulus?  

 -organisms condition  

 -heredity, experience  

behavior as a continuum  

 -plants  

 -cannot move, so they have very little experience, so they are at the mercy of their environment   -animals  

 -mobility = more experience  

 -product of both stimulus and internal condition  

 -attack  

 -defense  

 -experience = stored energy = consciousness  

we are immortal

 -if energy cannot be destroyed, than technically we can never die  

 -yes, our bodies might die but our consciousness (stored energy) Carries on   -how have you influenced other people?  

hypnosis  

 -he believed that through hypnosis an energy transfer could cure others of their mental health problems   -came to this conclusion by he and his assistants telepathically influencing dogs behavior through a   special form of "shiny" energy  

 -arithmetic  

 -retrieval  

Bekhterev and Pavlov  

 -the 2 Russian researchers both lived through the Russo-Japanese war, world war 1, and the communist   revolution  

 -this period of heavy social, political, and technological change certainly influenced both men  experimental social psychology  

 -his belief in energy conservation led him to believe that energy transfers must happen organically in any   social group  

 -Revolution must come when energy levels in the group are high and are willing to pool their energy   together  

why?

 John Watson address to the APA  

 Pavlov and Bekhterev  

John Watson  

 -had a meteoric rise  

 -one of the most engrossing, and controversial scientists that we will talk about  

 -youngest PH.D. At the university of Chicago  

 -youngest researcher at John Hopkins  

 -huge at the time  

Front and center

 -his boss, James Baldwin, has to resign in disgrace after being found in a brothel   -at 37, Watson becomes the head of one of the most prestigious psychology departments in the U.S   -editor and cheif of psychological review  

 -that same year he becomes the president of the APA  

 -Watson assumed all of baldwins roles  

 -comparative psychologist  

 -rats and brain lesions  

 -he was not as warm and fuzzy as Pavlov was with his dogs  

hard line  

 -angrily denounced introspective models

 -only observable actions could be studies  

 -looking at the smallest possible increments  

 -consciousness was the realm of philosophers  

 -psychology is an extension of the natural sciences and should reflect that   -thinking is just inner speech  

 -explain, predict, and control behavior  

principles of behaviorism  

 -Watson did not miss his time to shine  

 -championed and popularized behaviorism  

 -stimulus- response  

 -habit formation  

 -useful responses are repeated  

 -habit integration  

 -simple habits combine to form complex behaviors  

nature vs. nurture  

 -more so than anyone else, Watson championed the ideas of John Locke   -tabula rasa  

 -give me ten children, I can pick them at random to make them a doctor or a drug addict  mental illness  

 -habit disturbance  

 -developed the wrong responses  

 -could also be applied to crime and any anti social behavior  

 -they just needed to be taught the proper responses  

little Albert  

 -Watson created one of the most well known studies (case or otherwise) in demonstrating the role of   conditioning in phobias  

ethics  

 -mother removed her child from the study  

 -wouldn't you?  

 -Watson planned on performing counter-conditioning  

 -Mary cover jones  

 -get away with this today?  

popularization  

 -Watson broke the conventional mold and wrote prolifically in popular magazines and newspapers   -heavily criticized for breaking peer review  

 -wanted to share information with the common man  

 -and make a buck  

 -did not shy away from public contracts

help or hurt  

 -following ALL the way on James Baldwins steps  

 -Watson had an affair with a student (later married) and was ostracized from academia   -maintained working in popular culture  

 -believed behaviorism could cure societies ills and we were right on the cusp  legacy  

 -Watson really did not come up with any key part of behaviorism  

 -Thorndike, Pavlov, and Bekhterev  

 -Watson brought it all together and made these discoveries into a unified theory. He brought it to the   forefront and made it the dominating psychological tradition of the time   -by using his "bully-pulpit" he brought psychology into the mainstream  

 -his mix of celebrity and scientific acumen has rarely been seen  

 -P.T Barmum of psychology  

 -focus on applied psychology  

behaviorism  

 -left a model for experimental psychology that we still use today  

 -good: operant and classical conditioning  

 -bad: reflexology, over-reliance on nurture  

 -overly-reductionist in hindsight, the leaps on knowledge created by the behaviorist still have an impact today   -prisoner of their own time  

March 24  

Test prep:  

1. What key issue did behaviorists have with the experimental methods of Wundt and ebbinghaus?   - introspection was an unscientific method. Only observable phenomenon should be researched  2. Behaviorism : psychoanalysis :: Watson : Freud  

Adler and Freud  

 -Adler started as a fervent supporter of Freud  

 -Adler was second president of Vienna psychoanalytic society  

 -collaborate on papers  

 -personally acquainted  

 -Adler slowly developed competing theories using the same methods  

 -this led to a eventual split and permanent acrimony between the two

The split

 -Freud did not like that such a prominent student was questioning his theories  

 -Adler was focused on siblings and de emphasizing intellectual sexual frustrations   -you're paranoid!  

 -you're a power hungry fascist!  

Organ inferiority  

 -the body is a source of pain and dissatisfaction  

 -physical, psychological, nervous  

 -hitting puberty later  

 -near sighted  

 -hand eye coordination  

Compensation  

 -we do our best to overcome this real or perceived deficit  

 -humor appears to stem at least somewhat from depression  

 -class clowns to stand up comedians  

 -degeneration  

 -unsuccessful  

 -genius  

 -successful  

 -neurotic  

 -unable to move from difficulties to comfort  

Fantasies

 -if we have no way to compensate, children turn to fantasies to alleviate their organ inferiority   -Adler saw this incredibly negatively  

 -not a good coping strategy because you aren't dealing with the real world  

 -can't grow and mature  

Individual psychology  

 -where Freud saw the past as the main psychological motivator, Adler theorized it is people's perceptions of their   future  

 -self ideal: perfect perceived future self  

 -"striving toward superiority"  

 - be the best that you can be  

Cradle to grave

 -Adler saw psychology as developing over an individual's lifespan  

 -birth  

 -inferiority complex  

 -adolescents  

 -compensation

 -adult  

 -strive to superiority  

Carl Jung

 -started as close personal friends and collaborator with Freud  

 -"crown prince"  

 -pushed as Freud's heir  

 -began using psychoanalysis on his psychotic patients as a counterpoint to Freud's neurotic patients  Jung and Freud

 -while Adler split relatively quietly, this split was public and bitter  

 -Jung questioned the importance of sexuality  

 -Jung contended that the unconscious was not an individual phenomenon but a shared cultural history   -analytical psychology  

 -collective unconscious  

Collective unconscious  

 -not everything in the psyche is individualized  

 -impersonal, shared layer  

 -Jung was inspired by eastern philosophy  

 -reincarnation in Hinduism  

 -chided his fellow Europeans  

 -our religions, myths, and folklore a are reflections of this shared cognition  

 -crosswords  

Archetypes

 -ancient primordial exemplars that reflect our shared ancestry  

 -Jung and the psychotic  

 -schizophrenic  

 -fairy tales to religion  

 -being chased  

 -giants  

Romance

 -Jung believed these archetypes influenced everything in our lives  

Therapy

 -as opposed to using psychoanalysis to confront childhood traumas, Jung used it to probe your symbology for   the ancient archetypes you hold  

 -neurosis and psychosis came from an inability to process archetypes into an individual self  Psychological types  

 -jung was one of the first to believe we can seperate people based on wide psychological traits   -introverts vs. extroverts  

 -how you look at an investment opportunity

 -not a "right" answer  

 -Jung warned about over reliance on these broad strokes  

 -human personality is infinitely individualized based on a unique combination of archetypes  East west split

 -jung's eastern philosophy and focus on archetypes was seen as "backwards" by many of his contemporaries   -this afternoon walking between classes it suddenly starts to pour  

 -sole of your shoes splits, umbrella breaks, and a car flies through a puddle nest to you   -what do you think?  

 -bad luck  

Psychoanalysis and religion

 -Freud  

 -our fears need a physical manifestation  

 -Jung  

 -personification of our archetypes  

 -both felt religion shouldn't be necessary, but conceded that it served an important function  Women

 -all 3 men were rife with contradictions  

 -believed women were inherently inferior to men, and feminism was detracting from women's natural role   -Freud encouraged  

 -contraception, divorce, sex Ed  

 -Anna Freud became a world renowned psychologist in her own right  

 -all 3 pushed for compulsory education for women  

Pros and cons

 -pushed for the study of the unconscious, sexuality, childhood development, and developing therapeutic techniques   that could be taught  

 -overemphasized their importance, and the therapy was based on this  

Central issue

 -therapy was up to the individual therapist  

 -there was (and is) no way to experimentally test psychoanalytic theories as they all rely on the   unconscious  

 -this was specifically championed by Freud despite his public feuds with those who disagreed with him  Psychoanalysis  

 -while the theories remain untenable to the scientific method, it had many positive outcomes   -legitimized clinical psychology  

 -helped promote uniformity in practice  

 -increased pay and prestige  

 focused on topics outside of behaviorism

Freud believed in repressed sexual urges and Adler believed in organ inferiority  

Gestalt psychology  

What is gestalt?  

 -an experimental school of psychology that focuses on the holistic approach to consciousnesses as opposed to   individual parts  

 -the parts are better understood as a whole  

 -think of a bike vs. bike parts  

 - the whole is better than just the parts  

 -we do not perceive people, objects, ideas in a measured way (building Pieces together) we see it as a whole   -how do you tell my face from others?  

 -prosopagnosia: "face blindness"  

Why gestalt psychology?  

 -the gestalt school was squarely in the experimental side of psychology  

 -they saw the functionalist/ structuralist roots of the behaviorists as misguided  

 -still hated introspection  

Gestalt as a new field  

 -the gestalt movement did not set out to displace other schools or take over psychology   -did not want to get involved in clinical  

 -were willing to work with behaviorists  

 -for the first time, we see academic traditions being able to do exist peacefully  

 -mutual respect was earned by the rigorous experimental methodology being employed by both traditions  Why peaceful? 

 -we were all speaking the same language  

 -scientific method  

 -this universal language meant differing viewpoints would compete based on research, not on insults, sponsorship,   or ideology  

Why co-existence?  

 -the pioneers of gestalt did not set out to "win". They merely created an explanation framework for evidence   contrary to behaviorists teaching  

 -they didn't think they were the only ones who could be right  

Gestalt theory  

 -gestalt psychologists did not set out to explain ALL of human behavior  

 -they created a theoretical framework to explain their research  

Why now?  

 -gestalt psychology is the logical counterpoint to behaviorism  

 -as behaviorism looked smaller and smaller they began to miss the bigger picture

 -researchers with bigger ideas or counter-intuitive findings found a home in gestalt theories  Disagreement  

 -gestaltists found numerous phenomenon behaviorism could not explain  

 -incremental learning vs. insight  

 -apes and tools  

History and gestalt  

 -gestalt pioneers were all Jewish psychologists who were doing research as the nazis came to power (1930)   -all had to flee for their lives to America  

Government suppression  

 -"where they burn books, they will ultimately burn people"  

 -Heinrich heine  

 -fascism  

 -Germany, Italy, and Spain  

 -communism  

 -Russia, China, and Cuba  

 -both of these movements actively sought to crush any opposition to their views  

 -fascism: non-aryan superiority  

 -communists: pro-capitalists arguments  

 -you were told what you could and could not research  

 -if you didn't well.....  

Dangerous  

 -Germany, once the center of psychological progress, basically disappears  

 -Russia is not the same until the 80's  

 -the best minds were either killed or fled  

Great thinkers  

3 musketeers  

 -wertheimer, koffka, and kohler  

 -all students of Carl Stumpf  

 -all worked on building gestalt psychology together  

 -in papers and speeches would often use we  

 -this lack of ego is reflected in how gestalt is a school approached by other theories  The pioneer  

 -wertheimer was the first to develop the basis of what would be gestalt  

 -why does music sound the same?  

Music  

 -this initial "lightbulb" formed the foundation of gestalt  

 -focusing on the whole, not the individual parts  

 -melody vs. notes

 -wertheimer proposed the focus on unity and not parts as the true method for sensation and perception  Spokesperson  

 -koffka took over bringing the theory to academia  

 -spoke English  

 -took the findings they were discovering and actually out it into a coherent theory  Superstar  

 -kohler was the one who found many of the most interesting findings we attribute to the gestalt school   -he was the driving force in making discoveries that brought more and more scholars to the gestalt way of   thinking  

The scientist  

 -Kurt Lewin came a little after the 3, but he also studied under Stumpf and became one of the pinnacle   researchers in gestalt psychology  

Lewin  

 -what Lewin contributed was bringing in the hard principles of math to psychology   -B=f(P,E)  

 -behavior= the function of (current psychological state, current psychological environment)   -what you do is based on what you want and the restrictions on now you can get it   -sizable cognitive jump from ""stimulus=response"  

 -humans were not just passive "responders"  

 -we are active participants in r behavior  

 -early stirrings of humanism  

Bluma Zeigarnik  

 -Russian in wertheimer'a class  

 -became his favorite student  

 -volunteered for RA duties as she was a soviet  

 -was shouted out of a class wertheimer asked her to guest lecture for him  Zeigarnik effect  

 -accomplished gestaltist in her own right  

 -which order can a waiter recall?  

 -ones who haven't paid  

 -can study in the laboratory  

 -some participants get to finish their tasks while others got interrupted  

 -how much do participants remember?  

Gestalt examples  

"Gestalt laws"  

Gestalt vs. behaviorist  

 -what gestaltists believed is that our perception, and thus our cognition, cannot be boiled down to facts   -the brain takes a more holistic approach. Things are not so simple

 -figure vs. ground  

 -Law of closure  

 -law of proximity  

 - law of continuity  

 -law of similarity  

Conclusions  

 -Gestalt psychology revolutionized the way we treated academic traditions  

 -it was no longer a winner take all mindset  

 -different viewpoints could exist in the same field  

 -Gestalt focused on the big picture as opposed to breaking behavior down into its smallest parts   -consciousness was more complex than behaviorists believed  

 -Their focus on perception quickly became common knowledge and spread quickly   -gestalt psychology showed there are unexplainable phenomenon in our perceptions and thus our consciousness   -lasting impact let's focus on one area and not try and explain everything  

Study guide  

 -three academic schools  

 -behaviorism, psychoanalysis, and gestalt  

 -know what they stood for  

 -know what movements stood for and what they did  

 -the Great thinkers and what they contributed  

 -know, compare, and contrast  

 

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