Exam 2 study guide
Exam 2 study guide 12050-002
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katelyn Rinella on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 12050-002 at Kent State University taught by Ivanka Sabolich in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 166 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY in Sociology at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Sociology Exam 2 review Henslin, CH. 4,5,6, and 7 Chapter 4 Social structure and social interaction Social structure= framework of society that guides our behavior by providing us with directions and limits. Components of social structure: Social status= position/ location that a person occupies Achieved and ascribed statuses Master status- most important- can change Role= behavior/ obligations attached to a status The difference between role conflict and role strain Groups (collection of people who regularly and consciously interact with one another Social interaction= what people do when they are in one another’s presence Impression management= the effort to manage our impressions for different audiences Chapter 5 Social groups and formal organizations The difference between primary and secondary groups Examples of primary and secondary groups Other types of groups 1. In-group and out-groups 2. Reference groups- use as a standard to evaluate our behavior 3. Bureaucracies- reaching goal in most efficient way Bureaucracies (formal organization) The ideal type of bureaucracy= essential Characteristics of bureaucracy 1. Hierarchy of authority 2. Division of labor 3. Written rules and regulations 4. Written communications and records 5. Impersonality Dysfunctions of bureaucracy 1. Trained incapacity 2. Goal displacement Leadership Types of leadership 1. Instrumental leader 2. Expressive leader Styles of leadership 1. Democratic 2. Authoritarian 3. Laissez-faire On conformity and obedience Asch’s experiment- conformity Milgram’s experiment- obedience Groupthink- combination of conformity and obedience Preventing groupthink- leader has to be neutral Chapter 6 Deviance and social control Deviance= behavior that violates significant social norms that is disapproved by a large number of people in a society. Relativity of deviance Social control (used by society to enforce norms) Negative sanctions (punishments) show society’s disapproval of deviance Positive sanctions (rewards) show society’s approval of conformity Theories of deviance 1. Biological explanations What do different biological theories of deviance have in common? 2. Sociological explanations What do different sociological theories of deviance have in common? Sociological theories of deviance 1. Cultural transmission theory --- deviant behavior is learned Differential association theory- we learn deviant behavior from different groups we associate with 2. Strain theory- discrepancy between socially approval goals and socially approved Institutionalized- conformity, innovation 3. Labling theory- William Chambliss “the saints” and the “roughnecks” 4. Control theory- inner and outer control 5. Conflict theory- social class is related to the criminal justice White collar vs. property crime Crime statistics- under-reported Thomas Szasz- medicalization of deviance Chapter 7 Global stratification Social stratification- division of large number of people into layers according to power, privilege Open stratification system- class system Closed stratification system- slavery, caste, estate Social class: 2 definitions of social class 1. Karl Marx Class= relationship to the means of production Bourgeoisie Proletariat (wealth) 2. Max weber- multidimensional approach to social class A. Wealth B. Power C. Prestige Social inequality 1. Functionalist theory 2. Conflict theory- wealthier= more opportunity 3. Lenski’s theory of social inequality- a synthesis / combines both conflict and functionalist
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