Chapter Two Outline
Chapter Two Outline Sociology 1101: Introductory Sociology
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Grese on Monday January 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 1101: Introductory Sociology at Ohio State University taught by J. Craig Jenkins in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 186 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 01/26/15
Alexandra Grese Chapter Two Outline 0 Approaches to Socio Research 0 scientific process to establish and ensure results objective and accurate 0 The Scientific Method 0 Ask a question 0 Create Operational definition specific explanations of abstract concepts that a researcher plans to study 0 Research existing sources 0 Conduct Literature review a scholarly research step that entails identifying and studying all existing studies on a topic to create a basis for new research 0 Must correctly cite o Formulate hypothesis 0 Hypothesis an educated guess with predicted outcomes about the relationship between two or more variables 0 Independent variable cause changes in dependent variables 0 Dependent variable changed by other variables 0 Design and conduct study 0 Draw conclusion 0 Report results 0 Method used to collect interpret and analyze data 0 Helps maintain objectivity focus and consistency 0 Seek Reliability a measure of a study s consistency that considers how likely results are to be replicated if a study is reproduced 0 Seek Validity the degree to which a sociological measure accurately re ects the topic of study 0 Interpretive framework a sociological research approach that seeks indepth understanding of a topic or subject through observation or interaction 0 not based on hypo testing 0 result more descriptive and narrative 0 lots of direct observation and interaction 0 Research Methods Used to design study Hawthorne effect people changing their behavior because they know they are being watched as part of a study Landsberger Four Main Methods of Social Investigation 0 Survey 0 collect data from subjects through responses to series of questions about behaviors and opinions often in the form of a questionnaire level of anonymity 1 people are more likely to be honest 0 poles do not contribute to a scientific study just ask a general response to something 0 target a specific population a defined group serving as the subject of a study 0 sample small manageable number of subjects that represent the population 0 Random sample a study s participants being randomly selected to serve as a representation of a larger population 0 Qualitative data comprise information that is subjective and often based on What is seen in a natural setting 0 Qualitative data comprise information that is subjective and often based on What is seen in a natural setting 0 Interview a oneonone conversation between the researcher and the subject 1 Different from survey or questionnaire because subject can engage in backandforth ask questions etc 2 Not an interrogation meant to be friendly relaxed and for the purpose of furthering a study 0 Field research 0 gathering primary data data that are collected directly from firsthand experience from natural environment WO doing lab experiment survey 0 enters new environment to observe and participate 0 intent to study specific behavior in specific environment 0 data based on correlation When a change in one variable coincides With a change in another variable but does not necessarily indicate causation 0 small sample size prevents firm conclusion on causal relationship between 2 variables 0 3 types of field research 1 Participant observation I researcher immerses self in groupsocial setting in order to make observations from an insider perspective 2 Ethnography I observing complete social setting I focuses on how subjects view their social standing and how they understand selves in relation to a community 3 Case study I indepth analysis of a single eventindividualsituation I criticized because you re using one case to make generalities about a much broader topic argue not enough info to substantiate a claim I On the other land studying one case for the long term allows for the gathering of many details and specifics that could not otherwise have been obtained 0 Experiment testing a hypo under controlled conditions Good for testing if then statements Two types 1 Labbased I research can be controlled so more data can be recorded in a certain amount of time 2 Field I data cannot be controlled but the information might be considered more accurate since it was collected wo interference or intervention by researcher 0 Secondary data analysis using data collected by others but applying new interpretations saves time money and can add depth to study can interpret old finding in a new way Nonreactive research using secondary data does not include direct contact w subjects and will not alterin uence people s behaviors Content analysis applying a systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as it relates to the study at hand Sometimes can t verify the existing data 0 Sometimes data not available right form 0 Sometimes out of date 0 Ethical Concerns 0 Code of ethics a set of guidelines that the American Sociological Association has established to foster ethical research and professionally responsible scholarship in sociology Must obtain informed consent Safety must be assured Max Weber Validity value neutrality a practice of remaining impartial Without bias or judgment during the course of a study and in publishing results 0 Some believe this is impossible to achieve 0 Does not mean having no opinion means being able to overcome it Must report exact results even if they do not support theory contract former studies etc Definitions provided by textbook
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