exam 3 study guide
exam 3 study guide Psych 2010-004
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by azz0018 Notetaker on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2010-004 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Frank Weathers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Chapter 8 Monday, March 28, 2016 10:10 AM Key terms and individuals – these are roughly in the order in which they appear in the chapter. Types of problems -- inducing structure: The person must discover the relations among the parts of the problem (completion and analogy) -- arrangement: the person must arrange the parts in a way that satisfies some criterion (string and anagrams) -- transformation: the person must carry out a sequence of transformations in order to reach a specific goal (hobbits and orcs and water jar) Barriers to effective problem solving -- irrelevant information: leads people astray -- functional fixedness: the tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use -- mental set: exists when people persist in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past -- unnecessary constraints: effective problem solving requires specifying all the constraints governing a problem without assuming that don't exist Approaches to problem solving -- trial and error: involves trying possible solutions sequentially and discarding those that are in error until one works -- heuristics: guiding principle or "rule of thumb" used in solving problem or making decisions -- forming subgoals: intermediate steps toward a solution -- searching for analogies: we can facilitate innovative thinking -- changing the representation of the problem: variety of ways to represent a problem; list, graph, diagram, verbally, mathematically -- incubation: when new solutions surface for a previously unsolved problems after a period of not consciously thinking about the problem Decision making: involves evaluating alternatives and making choices among them Theory of bounded rationality: Herbert Simons; asserts that people tend to use simple strategies in decision making that focus on only a few facets of available options and often results in "irrational" decisions that are less than optimal Choice overload: undermines individuals' happiness and contributes to depression Deliberation-without-attention effect: when people faced with complex choices, they tend to make better decisions if they don't devote careful attention to matter Risky decision making: making choices under conditions of uncertainty Availability heuristic: involves basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind Representativeness heuristic: involves basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to typical prototype of that event Pitfalls in decision making -- ignoring base rates: ignores information based on rates (failure in starting a business) -- conjunction fallacy: occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone -- gambler’s fallacy: the belief that the odds of a chance event increasing if the event hasn't occurred recently -- overestimating the improbable: people tend to greatly overestimate the likelihood of dramatic, vivid--but infrequent--events that receive heavy media coverage -- loss aversion: people tend to assume that losses will have more impact than gains of equal size Intelligence quotient (mental age, chronological age): IQ= mental age / chronological age x 100 Normal distribution: symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in the population Deviation IQ: scores that locate respondents precisely within the normal distribution Reliability of a test: refers to the measurement consistency of a test Validity of a test: refers to the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure Family studies: can determine only whether genetic influence on a trait is plausible, not whether it is certain Twin studies: identical twins are more similar in intelligence than pairs of fraternal twins and adoption studies: some measurable similarities between adopted children and their biological parents Heritability estimate: estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance Flynn effect: the level of performance required to earn a score of 100 jumped upward every time the scoring was adjusted Chapter 9 Monday, March 28, 2016 10:11 AM Key terms and individuals – these are roughly in the order in which they appear in the chapter. Theories of motivation: involves goal-directed behavior -- drive theory: hypothetical, internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension -- incentive theory: external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior -- evolutionary theory: motives can best be understood in terms of the adaptive problems they have solved over the course of human history Biological factors in hunger -- stomach contractions: not the cause of hunger -- brain regulation -- lateral hypothalamus: show little to no interest in eating (controls hunger) -- ventromedial hypothalamus: ate excessively and gained weight rapidly (controls hunger) -- arcuate and paraventricular nuclei: play larger role in modulation of hunger -- neural circuits vs. anatomical centers: theories of hunger focus more on neutral circuits that pass through areas of the hypothalamus rather than on anatomical centers in the brain -- digestive and hormonal regulation -- insulin: hormone secreted by the pancreas, must be present for cells to extract glucose from the blood -- ghrelin: causes stomach contractions and promotes hunger -- CCK: delivers satiety signals to the brain, thus reducing hunger -- leptin: contributes to the long-term regulation of hunger Environmental factors in hunger -- incentive value of food -- palatability: the better food taste, the more you eat of it -- quantity available: people tend to eat what you put in front of them, amount available -- variety: humans increase their consumption when a greater variety of foods are available -- presence of others: individuals eat 44% more when they eat with other people versus eating alone -- food-related cues in the environment: -- learned preferences and cultural differences Evolutionary analyses of human sexual motivation -- parental investment theory: refers to what each sex has to invest in terms of time, energy, survival risk, and forgone opportunities to produce and nurture off-spring -- gender differences in patterns of sexual activity: males tend to show a greater interest in sex than females -- gender differences in mate preferences: women have more emphasis than men on the partner characteristics. -- critique of evolutionary analysis: Elements of emotional experience -- cognitive component: rely on individuals' highly subjective verbal reports of what they're experiencing -- affective forecasting: efforts to predict one's emotional reactions to future events -- physiological component: emotional processes are closely tied to physiological processes, but the interconnections are very complex -- autonomic arousal: activities of glands, smooth muscles and blood vessels; flight-on-flight response=largely caused by adrenal hormones -- neural circuits: autonomic responses that accompany emotions are ultimately controlled in the brain -- limbic system: seat of emotion in the brain (hypothalamus, amygdala, and adjacent structures) -- behavioral component: -- nonverbal behavior: smiles, frowns, furrowed brows, clenched fists and slumped shoulders -- facial-feedback hypothesis: asserts that face muscles sends signals to the brain and that these signals help the brain recognize the emotion that one is experiencing -- culture and the elements of emotions -- cross cultural similarities: different cultures have similar expressions / reactions to emotions such as happy, sad, anger, fear -- cross-cultural differences: different cultures have trouble reading expressions of emotions because they are different from what they are used to -- display rules: norms that regulate the appropriate expression of emotions Theories of emotion -- James-Lange: conscious experience of emotion results from one's perception of automatic arousal; different patterns of autonomic activation lead to the experience of different emotions -- Cannon-Bard: emotion occurs when the thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex and to the autonomic nervous system -- Schachter’s two-factor theory: emotion depends on two factors: 1- autonomic arousal 2-cognitive interpretation of that arousal --evolutionary theories: considers emotion to be largely innate reactions to certain stimuli; assume that evolution has equipped humans with a small number of innate emotions with proven adaptive vaules Chapter 10 Monday, March 28, 2016 10:11 AM Key terms and individuals – these are roughly in the order in which they appear in the chapter. Prenatal development -- course of prenatal development -- germinal stage: first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first 2 weeks after conception (zygote is created through fertilization) -- embryonic stage: second stage of prenatal development, lasting 2 weeks until the end of the second months (most vital organs and bodily systems begin to form) -- fetal stage: third stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 months through birth -- environmental factors and prenatal development -- nutrition: severe maternal malnutrition increases the risk of birth complications and neurological deficits for the newborn; vitamins and minerals are important to reduce birth defects -- stress and emotion: prospective mothers' emotional reaction to stressful events can disrupt the delicate hormonal balance that fosters healthy prenatal development -- drugs and alcohol: any drugs can slip through the membranes of the placenta -- maternal illness: interferes with prenatal development -- environmental toxins: exposed to a surprising variety of environmental toxins that can affect them Early childhood -- motor development: refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities -- developmental norms: indicate the typical (median) age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities -- cultural variations: environmental factors can accelerate or slow early motor development -- attachment: refers to the close emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers -- separation anxiety: emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment -- theories of attachment -- Harlow: cloth monkey mother vs wire monkey mother, young monkeys clinged to cloth mother when scared even if they weren't fed by her -- Bowlby: infants are biologically programmed to emit behavior that triggers an affectionate, protective response from adults; adults are programmed by evolutionary forces to be captivated by this behavior and to respond with warmth, love and protection -- patterns of attachment -- secure: visibly upset when mother leaves -- anxious-ambivalent: anxious even when mother is near -- avoidant: not distressed when mother leaves -- cultural and attachment: attachment is universal -- language development -- producing words: before making their first words, babies are making progress in learning the sound structure of their native language -- using words: after their first words, their vocabulary grows fro the next few months -- combining words: end of their second year; "telegraphic" Personality and cognitive development in childhood -- personality development: development period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established -- Erikson’s stage theory (all 8 stages): personality continues over life span 1 Trust versus mistrust: is my world predictable and supportive? 2 Autonomy versus shame and doubt: can I do things myself or must I always rely on others? 3 Initiative versus guilt: am I good or am I bad? t 4 Industry versus inferiority: am I competent or am I worthless? 5 Identity versus confusion: who am I and where am I going? 6 Intimacy versus isolation: shall I share my life with another or live alone? 7 Generativity versus self-absorption: will I produce something of real value? 8 Integrity versus despair: have I lived a full life? -- cognitive development: refers to transition in youngster's patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving -- Piaget’s stage theory: children's thoughts go through a series of 4 stages -- sensorimotor : birth to age 2; developing the ability to coordinate their sensory input with their motor actions -- preoperational : age 2-7; children gradually improve in their use of mental images -- concrete operational: ages 7-1; development of mental operations -- formal operational: age 11-onward; children begin to apply their operations to abstract concepts in addition to concrete objects -- critique of Piaget’s theory: 1- underestimated young children's cognitive development, 2. children often simultaneously display patterns of thinking that are characteristics of several stages -- development of moral reasoning -- Kohlberg’s stage theory (three levels): moral reasoning rather than overt behavior Preconventional level: Stage 1: punishment orientation: right and wrong is determined by what is punished Stage 2: Native reward orientation: right and wrong is determined by what is rewarded Conventional level: Stage 3: good boy / good girl orientation: right and wrong is determined by close others' approval or disapproval Stage 4: authority orientation: right and wrong is determined by society's rules and laws which should be obeyed rigidly Postconventional level: Stage 5: social contract orientation: right and wrong is determined by society's rules, which are viewed as fallible rather than absolute Stage 6: Individual principles and conscience orientation: right and wrong is determined by abstract ethical principles that emphasize equality and justice -- critique of Kohlberg’s theory: 1--its not unusual to find a person that shows signs of several adjacent levels of moral reasoning at a particular point in development; 2-evidence is mounting that Kohlberg's dilemmas may not be valid indicators of moral development in some cultures; 3- a consensus is building that Kohlberg's theory led to a constricted focus on reasoning about interpersonal conflicts while ignoring other important aspects of moral development Adolescence: rapid growth in height and weight -- physiological changes -- secondary sex characteristics: physical features that distinguish one sex from the other but that are no essential for reproduction -- puberty: the stage during which sexual functions reach maturity, which marks the beginning of adolescence -- primary sex characteristics: structures necessary for reproduction -- neural development -- myelinization and synaptic pruning: leads to enhanced conductivity in the brain; elimination of less-active synapses -- prefrontal cortex: last area of the brain to fully mature -- search for identity -- emerging adulthood: we ought to recognize the existence of a new developmental stage in modern societies Adulthood -- personality development: -- the question of stability: -- transitions in family life -- adjusting to marriage -- adjusting to parenthood -- aging and physiological changes -- aging and neural changes -- aging and cognitive changes
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