Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide 1101
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by awilson28 on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1101 at Georgia State University taught by jung kim in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Ashley Wilson Soci 1101: Reviewing for Exam 3 Chapters 10, 11-12 & 14 Go over notes (yours and lecture notes) Re-read summary sections in the textbook Go over key terms Types of social mobility (3 ways of thinking about mobility) o Upward: earning a college degree, landing a higher-paying job, or marrying someone who earns a good income o Downward: dropping out of school, losing a job, or becoming divorced o Structural: a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts o Intragenerational: change in social position occurring in a person’s lifetime, within own generation o Intergenerational: upward or downward mobility of children in relation to their parents, in between o Exchange o Horizontal: changing jobs at the same level Types of social system (open, close, total) o Open: class system (social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement) , permit much more social mobility o Closed: caste system (social stratification based on ascription or birth) , allows for little change in social position Types/history of human societies and the extent of social inequality o With simple technology, members of hunting and gathering societies produce only what is necessary for day-to-day living o In horticultural and pastoral societies, a small elite controls must of the surplus o Industrial productivity also raises the living standards of the historically poor majority o Greater inequality is functional for agrarian societies, but industrial societies benefit from a more equal system The Kuznet’s curve o High-income nations that have passed through the industrial era have somewhat less income inequality than nations in which larger share of the labor force remains in farming o Greater inequality is functional for agrarian societies, but industrial societies benefit from more an equal system o It was developed by comparing societies at different levels of economic development SES, social class system in the U.S. (names, approximate income levels, population size, etc.) o SES (socioeconomic status): difficult to place individuals (households squarely into one or another social class), composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality Wealth & income (differences, inequality) o Wealth: total assets that an individual/household controls (cash, saving, checking accounts and investments in stocks, bonds, and real estate, material possessions) o Income: earned wages o Upper class: ($205,000+) Ashley Wilson o Middle class: ($48.5K-205K) o Working class: ($27K-48.5K) o Lower class: (below $27K) o Under class: (“permanent class) Differentiation, inequality, stratification o Differentiation: recognizing various differences in society o Inequality: the unequal access to survival resources in society o Stratification: the institutionalized social inequality, “system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy Poverty, the poverty line, “who are the poor in the U.S.?” (demographic info.) o Poverty: o Poverty line: an official govt. measure that defines those living in poverty in the US o Who are the poor in the US: children, those under 18, 48% of US poor are under 24; 2/3 of poor people are white, 24% African Americans are poor and are 3x more likely than whites to be poor; women who are head of households are at greater risk of poverty; greatest concentration of poverty is found in central cities’ Theoretical look at classism (classic & modern theories) o Modernization theory: a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations 3 & 5 basic survival/social resources o Three basic needs: food, shelter, clothes o Five basic needs: food, shelter, clothes, education, health care Social class: pariah, 3Ps, the means of production, meritocracy o Pariah: negative status and social o 3Ps: Property, Prestige, Party o Means of production: capitalists (people who own the means of production) and working class (people who sell their labor) o Meritocracy: stratification based on personal merit The 3 (or 4, or 2) world system: population & income-wealth divisions o First W.: Europe, North America o Second W.: (previous) USSR, Eastern Europe o Third W.: most of Africa, Asia and Latin America NIEs, “four little dragons (or tigers)” o NIE: newly industrialized economies o “Four little dragons” in Asia: Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore o Since 1980s: China, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia o Since 2000s: Brazil 4 theories of global inequality: market-oriented, dependency, world system (and state-centered) Globalization, the world system theory: core, semi-periphery, periphery o Globalization: new, the increased economic, political, and political cultural interconnectedness of the world o Core: o Semi-periphery: o Periphery: Wallerstein, Marx, Weber, Davis & Moore, Wright o Wallerstein: analysis the world economy as global web (the core periphery, and semi- periphery Ashley Wilson o Marx: class is based on the means of production, 3Ps, explained that most people have one of two relationships to the means of production; they either own productive property or labor for others, explained that capitalists society reproduce the class structure in each new generation o Weber: claimed that social stratification involve three distinct dimensions of inequality; economic inequality, status, and power o Davis & Moore: thesis that stated the functional analysis claiming that social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of society, also the greater the functional importance of a position, the more rewards a society attaches to it o Wright: Types of poverty: relative & absolute o Relative: the lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more o Absolute: a lack of resources that is life-threatening Stratification based on income and wealth (domestic and global distribution of income and wealth) o High income countries: highly industrialized, 20% of world’s population, 77% of world’s income, 94%of world’s wealth o Low/middle income countries: agricultural or early phase of industrialization, 80% of world’s population, 23% of world’s income, 17% of world’s wealth, high population growth/density Colonialism, neo-colonialism o Colonialism: breaded the international slave trade, the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations o Neo-colonialism: a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations Race & ethnicity (definitions, differences, the process of classification) o Race; socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important a) Physical traits b) Social construct c) Definition can include biological, legal, and social meanings d) Process of “racialization” o Ethnicity; shared cultural heritage a) Cultural traits b) “enthnico” (nation/people) c) Social construct d) Definitions can include language, religion, values, regions of the country Prejudice (def., and theories) & discrimination (def., and types) o Pre-judgement, an attitude (positive or negative) belief, feeling o Theories a) Conflict theory: resource competition b) Social-psychological theory: “displacement” or "scapegoat” theory c) Culture theory: structural dualism d) Authoritarian personality theory o Discrimination: behavior, action, treatment a) Individual Ashley Wilson b) Small/large group c) Institutional d) Intentional (“direct”) e) Unintentional (“indirect”) Minority & majority o Minority: any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society set apart and subordinates Self identity & social identity (labels) Stereotype, scapegoat, racism o Stereotype: a simplified description applied to every person in some category o Scapegoat: a person or category of people, typically with little power, whom people unfairly blame for their own troubles o Racism: prejudice + discrimination + ideology, beliefs/attitudes in racial superiority/inferiority, conducts of mistreatment, the ideology that justifies racial domination/subjugation, a system of domination/subordination **IS REVERSE RACISM POSSIBLE? NO** Immigrant, emigrant, migrant worker, refugee, sojourner, bracero, un-/under-documented Segregation, genocide, lynching o Segregation: the physical and social separation of categories of people o Genocide the systematic killing of one category of people by another Assimilation, acculturation, amalgamation o Assimilation: the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture plurality (or pluralism) & diversity o pluralism: state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing “Dine,” AIM, API Interment camps/concentration camps (Significance of 1492, 1921, 1924, 1965, 1619, 1898)
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