Monument List for the Midterm Exam
Monument List for the Midterm Exam Art H 111
Popular in Ancient through medieval art
Popular in Art
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joanna Nawn on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Art H 111 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Bruhn in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Ancient through medieval art in Art at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Monument List for the Midterm Prehistoric • LionHuman (from HohensteinStaedel) • Oldest human sculptures • 30,00040,0000 years old • Made around 30,000 BCE • Found in Germany • Carved out of mammoth ivory • Discovered in 1969 presented in 200 tiny fragments • Finally reconstructed in 2001 • Arguments about whether it is a male or female figure • Woman from Willendorf • Found in 1908 in Austria • Made around 24,000 BCE • The limestone used to make this statue is not native to the area • It is very likely that this figure was carried from another place suggesting that she was important to the whomever brought her to Willendorf • A compilation of every aspect of female fertility • The figure represents an ideal of being well fed • With her vagina shown prominently, it can be seen as an ideal fertile figure • The name Venus was a joke due to the modern interpretations of beauty • Also called Venus of Willendorf • Female Head from Brassempouy • The finding was not recorded or lost • Sculpted around 30,000 BCE • Carved from ivory • Example of an abstracted representation of a human head • May have been a portrait • Spotted Horses and Human Hands (PechMerle) o Shows technique o The pattern was made possibly by throwing rocks at the painting o The horses heads seem delicate for their long and bulky bodies o An archeologist recreated the painting He chewed pieces of charcoal and blew the paint onto the wall using his hand For the spots he used a stencil with leather that had holes in it It was completed in 32 hours • Hall of Bulls, Lascaux o Located near the entrance o Concentrated towards the roof where the limestone was the most smooth o Reindeer are in this image but are very small o The bulls are huge, with one measuring 18 feet long o They were drawn thick and shaded with some completely filled in o Like at Chauvet Cave some animals are shown on top of each other indicating that more than one artist worked on the piece over time • BirdHeaded man with Bison, Lascaux o Only image in the cave that shows a story o A wounded bison is depicted with a spear through its stomach with its guts coming out Next to it is a male figure with a bird head, at his feet is a broken spear Beside him is a staff with a bird on top This is probably a spear thrower, which gives hunters better range and force The rhino seen in the picture is running off o Some people question why the man is drawn with such little detail • Clay Bison (Le Tuc d'Audobert) o 13,000 BCE o 2 feet long in high relief o Muscles are shown and engravings for fur make them seem more realistic • Skara Brae (plan, house view) • Had a workshop building • A field for barley and wheat cultivation • In 1850 the settlement was discovered after a big storm • In 1868 the work excavating the buildings was stopped with only 4 buildings uncovered • In 1925 a storm damaged some of the buildings The rest of the settlement was excavated and a protective wall was built to protect the site 8 dwellings were uncovered in total • 31003600 BCE • Due to a build up of sand and turf most of the items were preserved inside the dwellings • Dwellings were built with corbeled stone walls covered with earth to give protection from the environment • Roofs were made of organic material • Beams were probably made from drift wood and whale bone covered by animal skins, turf, seaweed or straw It was a local tradition to make thatched seaweed • Dwellings were either round or rectangular in shape, sometimes having additional rooms or cells for storage • The center of every house had a rectangular hearth that provided heat and light The hearth was the center of daily life in the dwellings • Around the hearth were built in bed boxes, shelves and sunken tanks made of clay for waterproof storage of live pigs • Only one house showed no evidence of bed boxes, but they did find evidence of craft and tool production • Pathways were made in between dwellings • Mattresses were made from heather (plant) and covered by thick fur to avoid people from getting hurt from the leaves • 50100 people lived in the dwellings here • Walls inside the dwellings were not held together by anything, they were stacked precisely on top of each other • Newgrange Tomb • 30002500 BCE • Called a Megalithic tomb Called this because it was constructed of huge stones The stones used weighed tons • It was a passage tomb • Covered with a mound 280 feet across and 44 feet high The passage is 62 feet Doleman Tomb o Similar to post and lintel form o Would be encased in a mound of rocks or dirt, making it appear as a hill • Stonehenge Megalithic monument Many ridgeway trails were on this stretch of flat land (soleburry plain) Type of construction called a hinge unique to the British Isles Hinge circular, oval area of deliberately placed stones defined by a bank and ditch and accessible by one or two entrances Was built in 3 stages o 1 2800BCE construction of the bank and ditch The ditch was a bright white circle longer than a football field Aubrey Holes no one knows the purpose of them Either where stones that were moved or were burial pits Erection of the 35 ton heel stone Originally there were two heel stones to mark the entrance, only one survives today o 2 2100BCE Avenue was constructed on either sides of the heel stones to emphasize the entrance on the northern east side of Stonehenge Four station stones placed in a large rectangle inside the circle The earliest stone circle was erected inside Stonehenge Made of blue stones (light grey volcanic rock, not native to the area) o 3 20001550BCE Bluestone circle was dismantled and rearranged in 2000BCE Sarsen stone (which form a horseshoe shape) were brought from 23 miles away and were the same material as the heel stone • Ceramic Man and Woman (Cernavoda) Made of oven fired pottery which is extremely durable Represent a man and woman both found in a tomb Possibly made to represent the people buried in the tomb or gifts given to the deceased Highly stylized The artist focuses on the linear qualities of the body • Horse and Sun Chariot Made of bronze and a small amount of beaten coal Made with extreme attention to detail and valuable materials which shows it importance The horse, cart and disk were all cast in bronze On the horse the ornament is angular and emphasizes features of the horse Cast in two pieces Disk is the focal point the sun Ancient Near East • Uruk Vase Also called the Warka Vase Made of alabaster in covered in sculpted relief (low relief) Decorated with a series of reliefs divided up into registers o Lower registers show the natural world with livestock and plants o Middle register shows nude men carrying baskets of foodstuffs o Top register shows a Sumerian king gives offerings for Anana (the goddess of love and war) Shows some of the offerings behind a doorway along with two worshippers Anana is the only female painted on the relief She and the king are the largest on their register She is in front of a stone house with all of her offerings o This vase is thought to show a ritual that takes place during the new year festival each year The ritual ensured the fertility of the crops, animals and people and the continued survival of the city state in Uruk • Votive Figures Sculptures meant to represent those who commissioned them, standing in prayer in front of a god in a temple Largest figure 2 ½ feet tall All made from limestone, alabaster or gibsome decorated with shell and bitomban They simplified the figures to their most basic forms The faces are the most important Put on a low platform near the cella They had inscriptions placed on them some identify the patron and the sculpture • Nana Ziggurat, Ur Ziggurat dedicated to the moon god Nana Not built on other successive shrines and temples like the white temple Planned as a massive man made mountain The base is a rectangle with more than three sets of stairs that all meet at the top of the first platform A deep channel was made on the side for rain water Holes on the bottom to hold scaffoldings during construction • Steale of Naram Sin Limestone slab covered in relief images of Naram Sin, his army and defeated enemies Cuneiform on it tells us that it depicts Naram Sin’s victory over the Zigress mountains Steale an upright stone slab usually covered with relief sculpture Naram Sin was king of Akkad and the grandson of Zargon I Not in registers instead it is told from the bottom up The soldiers are trampling their enemies as they walk up the mountain The soldiers are shown in composite view o Chest and shoulders from a front view and everything else to the side Naram Sin is the biggest figure o Horned helmet shows his importance o His beard also shows his status o His muscular body is something only a god would have o His ascension up the mountain bringing him close to god status o Piece of propaganda • Gudea Votive Figures 20 surviving statues with inscriptions naming him as the patron along with some of his building campaigns Artist puts focus on his arms, shoulders, head (particularly his eyes) Does not wear anything showing him as a ruler Made of a hard stone Found in Gersue • Steale of Hammurabi Shows him in front of his Sameash Inscription is the code of Hammurabi Top is a relief image of Hammurabi standing in front of his god Sameash Below is a long inscription divided into an introduction and the law code Introduction lists some of Hammurabi’s accomplishments and the fact that he was given the right to rule by the gods and enjoyed their favor Overall inscription consists of 3500 of Akkadian cuneiform Hammurabi is generally remembered for his attempt to govern his people according to a universal and comprehensive rule of law Propaganda piece Hammurabi is in direct contact with a god Conversing with Sameash(the god of justice) Sameash is on a throne on top of a mountain Hammurabi is standing tall enough to look Sameash in the eye Hammurabi’s high status was shown by the artist placing him almost on the same level as a god Hammurabi has a marked beard showing his status • Relief of Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions Shows him killing lions as a propaganda piece He is in the chariot turning back to shoot a lion Appear calm with steady aim and a sturdy build Emphasis has been placed on the muscles on his lower arms He is shown as the same size as the other humans in the image His power has more to do with his actions and physical looks No hierarchical scale Emphasis placed on the lions showing the kings strength and fearlessness • Ishtar Gate Northern most gate that was rebuilt by the king A huge inscription about Nebuchadnezzar II was placed next to the gate Does not emphasize that it is a defensive tower Only a small portion of the gate was excavated Bricks were molded and glazed It was more than just defense • Lamassu (humanheaded winged lion) Larger than life statues with bulls bodies • Receiving Hall of Darius and Xerxes New audience hall built by Xerxes A piece of propaganda Either stairway was decorated with relief images of animals, humans and plants Made of limestone Center of the stairway featured Persian generals marching with lions Above the soldiers was a sun disk On the stairway itself were relief images Center piece of the staircase showed Darius seated on a throne with Xerxes behind him observing the audience • Palace and Citadel of Sargon II Palace was made on a raised citadel Only could enter the citadel through three grand entrances The citadel had a large ziggurat placed in between the temple and palace To get to the throne room a person would go through a big passageway with big lamassu’s Egypt • Pyramid of King Djoser • Built by the architect Inhotan • Took the form of a mastaba and multiplied it making one of the earliest known pyramids • At the center is a 26ft mastaba • Formed a stairway to the sun god Ka • Shaft lead to a granite lined burial chamber • The complex was meant to be a reflection of the living king located on the east side of the Nile • Had a north and south palace • Large court was built to look like one of the receiving tribute • Many of the buildings were unusable • Built of limestone instead of mud bricks like a living palace would have been made of • Ka statue was placed near holes to observe outside • His Ka statue was given a headdress and false beard associated with his statue as pharoh • Khafre Statue • Horse is sheltering the kings head with his wings • Lions form the legs of the throne and the kings authority • On the side of the throne are lotus and papyrus plants symbolizing upper and lower Egypt • Example of a sculpture in the round, but treated as four relief sculptures on top of each other • The statue is blocky • Statue of Menkaure and his Queen • Believed he is shown with Khamerernebty II • Shown in high relief • Both individuals are softer than the throne statues • Partially polished, may be unfinished • Menkaure may have been painted red • Portrait of a Seated Scribe • From the 5 dynasty • Made of painted limestone except for the eyes which are inlaid rock crystal set inside copper frames • Body was painted in red oaker and black was used for the hair and base • Kilt was painted white • His right hand may have once held a writing tool • The whites of the eyes were made up of red vade white magnesite • Inlaid with a disk of rock crystal and carefully polished • The reverse side of the disk was covered with calcite giving the iris its color and served as an adhesive • Each eye is held in place by two copper clips • Hatshepsut’s Funerary Temple • Located at DeirelBahri • Built next to an earlier temple from the middle kingdom • Temple faced the temple of Amun • Her tomb us not located here, it is in the valley of the kings • Her temple was used for processions • Her innermost shrine in the temple was not dedicated to herself, instead to the god Amun making a clear link between her and the god • Had a chapel dedicated to Hathor (cow goodess worshiped as the wife and mother of divine kings) • Had a shrine dedicated to Anunbus (god of mummification) • Emphasized her as a great ruler • Had herself depicted as Ocyrus on the upper part of her funerary temple as a male • Queen Nefertiti Portrait • Made of limestone • Most famous from this time period • Wife Akhenaten • Found in the studio of Tutmose • Thought to be a model to be used for other works • Elongated neck with perfect features • Wooden Throne • Sheathed in gold and some places sliver • Inlaid with semi precious stones and glass paste • Sun god Oton is shown giving the king and queen the sign for life • Tutankhamun is shown like his father with feminine like structures • Mask of Tutankhamun • 240lbs of pure gold • Decorated with inlaid semiprecious stones and glass • Shown to look like Ocyrus • Headdress has a vulture and cobra to represent upper and lower Egypt • The cobras also cover his chest in a protective gesture • False beard is also a symbol of his rule Aegean • Palace at Knossos • Built by the Minoans • Palace was built during the old palace period 19001700BCE • Destroyed around 1375BCE • Called a palace but we don’t know if royalty lived there • Knossos is part of a larger city that has only been partially excavated • Entrances to the complex on each of the four points on the compass • Rooms have been found that appear to have been shrines and an area that may have been an open air theater • On the east side are a series of workshops and storage rooms • Stairways connect the complex • The original old palace was built with walls of rubble and mud brick faced with cut and finished local stone • Columns were made of wood that was painted timber • Palace contained numerous wall paintings that were painted on plaster that survived in fragments • Bull Leaping Fresco • Most famous from the palace it was found in • Either an initiation, fertility ritual or athletic event • Two women and a man • Women were white skinned and men were red • Lion Gate • Triangular sculpture of lions • The ramp and protective walls held enemies out • The gate was meant to impress and intimidate visitors • Made without mortar • Had a relieving arch helped distribute the weight onto the sides of the post and lintel construction • The limestone lion sculpture is a relieving triangle • Lions are shown in profile flanked by a mynoan column • Heads were not sculpted of limestone • Burr holes were made to place the head on top • Treasury of Artious • Most famous and well preserved tholos tomb • Consisted of a huge circular chamber cut into a hillside • Preceded by a long corridor which leads to a doorway • Inside the doorway was a circular chamber covered in a corbal vault • The burial chamber was a side chamber located off the main circular chamber • • Mask of Agamemnon This piece is a fake It is a pastiche The seams around the ears leads to the idea that it is a fake It is believed to be a Heinrich Schliemann forgery that was placed in Mycenae to be discovered by his crew Greece • Theater, Epidauros o One of the best preserved Greek theaters o Constructed in the 3 century BCE nd nd o 2 tier of seats added in the 2 century BCE o Built into a sloping hillside o Consists of a semicircular performance area (orchestra) with a two tiered structure behind it o Tiered structured consists of a scenea (backstage dressing room and storage of props) and proscenean/proscenium (extension of performance space for the orchestra) o Scenea also provided a backdrop for performances o Audience sat in bench limestone seats with steps in between them o The seats closest to the orchestra had arm rests and backs o They were reserved for important people and priests of Dyanisus o Sacrifices to the god Dyanisus took place before the performance o 55 rows of seats could sit up to 12,000 people o Acoustics are louder in the center of the orchestra o The acoustics are dependent on the limestone seats • Dying Gallic Trumpeter o Roman copy in marble of a bronze original o Trumpet lies at his side o Hair and torc (heavy neck ornament) indentify his as a Gaul o Represented as a heroic nude o Seems barely able to support himself due to the sword wound on his chest o New way to show an enemy as a human deserving of our respect and sympathy o People of the pargamon may have honored their defeated enemies for their courage and determination o Shows he is about to collapse • Pergamon Altar (including sculpture) o Shaped like a rectangle with two projecting wings on the west side o 1870 excavation began by Carl Human o Most of the finds were shipped to Berlin Frieze from the Pergamon Alter o Shows Athena battling giants o Dramatic image o Left side snake (snakes are associated with Athena) attacks one of the giants (Alkionios male titan) o Right side Gi (earth goddess and mother of Alkionios) begging Athena to spare her son’s life o Above Gi is a winged Nike to crown Athena with a victory reef o Artist relied heavily on diagonals o Shadows around Athena’s legs show her powerful movement o Shadows around Alkionios’ head draws attention to his face • Old Woman o Could be going to market or going to make an offering to Dyonisus due to the chickens she is carrying o The ivy reef indicates that she is a follower of Dyonisus (god of wine) o Her messy clothes may be an indicator that she is drunk o Used drapery to show her decreped body o An uncomfortable subject demanding an emotional response Rome Part I • Etruscan SheWolf o 15 16 century added the cast Bronze sculptures of Romulus and Remus o This is a pastiche o The she wolf was an important symbol for the Roman people o A wolf sculpture and sometimes a caged live wolf occupied a very important place on the capital line hill in Rome (the administrative center of the city) o According to legend Romulus and Remus are the sons of the god Mars (god of war) that were born to a mortal woman and abandoned on the banks of the Tiber River with their great uncle o The twins were found by a she wolf who suckeled and raised them until they were adopted by a shepherd o Upon reaching adulthood the twins decided to found the city close to the site where the she wolf had found them (Rome) • Apollo from Veii o Terracotta sculpture o An acroterion o Decorated the apex of the temple o Part of a group of sculptures depicting one of the labors of Hercules o Hercules fights for the possession of a deer scared to Diana (moon goddess and Apollo’s sister) o Diana and Mercury are observing the scene while Apollo strides forward arm outstretched to confront Hercules o Figure of Apollo is the best preserved from Veii o Wears a toga and looks like wet drapery to reveal the body beneath o Made long before Greek wet drapery o Has an archaic smile o Leg muscles made with insized lines o Hair is stylized o Like a Kouros figure, but with drama • Tomb of the Reliefs o Single chamber had openings in all the walls that were carved to resemble beds in an Etruscan house o Projections on the floor resembled wooden beams supporting a raised platform surrounding a lower central area o Two central pillars support the roof (they serve no true structural function) o Ceiling is carved with roof beams o Rock cut interior decorated with stucco reliefs to resemble the interior of an Etruscan home with all the possible comforts o Stucco slow drying form of plaster that is easily molded into reliefs o Arms and armor displayed in the upper zone o The family dog is represented in relief o It is possible that the dead were laid out on the beds in this tomb (not uncommon for wealthy Etruscans) • Sarcophagus from Cerveteri o Terracotta couple o Identical one in the Louvre o Seam in the middle due to it being fired separately o Life size couple reclining on a couch o They once held objects either goblets or perfume o Cheerful scene o Wide open eyes and archaic smiles • Male Portrait with Ancestor Busts (supplemental image) st o Late 1 century BCE o Made of marble o Busts of important family members o Amaganais masks showing a family’s history carried during a funeral procession and displayed in family’s home in a shrine called the malarium o These busts were important markers of a man’s status o Shown as an experienced and wealthy patrician with important ancestors • Pont du Gard o One of the most famous aquaduct bridges o Means bridge over the river Gardon o Located outside of Nimes in France o Roman relied on the government to supply vital need for them: food, water, sanitation, police and firefighters o The remaining aquaducts attests to the importance of supplying fresh water to Roman cities o Source of the water was a natural spring Fontaines d’Eure o 30 miles away from Nimes o The aquaduct needed to be at a low angle to be able to consistently provide water (gravity moved it through) o Received 5 million gallons of water per day (100 gallons per citizen) o Built by local workers using the stones plentiful to the area of France o No documentation of what it cost to construct o Most expensive aquaduct built in Roman controlled France o No documentation of how long it functioned o Based on calcium deposits within the water channel, archeologists believe it supplied fresh water over a period of 400500 years o Made of dried stone masonry meaning no mortar was used o Gravity and the stones being precisely cut to size holds it together o Durable structure • Augustus of Primaporta o One of the most effective images of propaganda ever created o Found in a villa of Augustus’ wife Livia in primaporta o Depicts a youthful Augustus in armor with his arm outstretched in the pose of an orator o Next to his leg a cupid rides a dolphin a reference to the divine ancestry that Augustus claimed o Originally brightly colored o His face has much more in common with a Greek one o Serene, untroubled facial expression o Wanted to be represented as ageless, youthful and godlike despite his long reign o His bare feet symbolize that he is a hero o Cupid refers to his family the Julians who claim to be descended from Venus (goddess of love and beauty, also the mother of cupid) o The dolphin is another reference to Venus who emerged fully grown from the sea o Pose copies the Spear Bearer (Doryphoros) o Contrapasto stance o Cuirass brest plate o Overall theme is Augustus’ establishment of the Pax Romana (Roman Peace) o The center shows a crucial event of his reign, which is referred to many times in his propaganda o Shows a Parthian dressed in baggy pants handing a Roman standard back to a Roman soldier o Some of the Roman military standards had been lost in battle and through diplomatic means he arranged for them to be returned, restoring lost pride and honor to the Roman soldiers o Takes place with the Roman sky god above and the earth goddess below symbolizing the fact that the Pax Romana represented by the return of the standards will endure throughout the empire o Mother earth holds a cornucopia full of fruit symbolizing plenty o Diana (goddess of the moon) and Apollo (god of the sun) at the bottom left and right symbolizing long lasting o Luna (moon diady) and soul (solar diady) riding across Augustus’ chest symbolizing the passage of time and that the Pax Romana will be eternal o Seated figures with weapons on the side edges represent the peoples who were subjugated by Rome o Sphinx’s on the shoulder straps represent Egypt being defeated by Augustus • Ara Pacis (including sculpture) o Alter of Augustan Peace o Now housed in a museum in Rome o Consists of a grand enclosure wall that surrounds a smaller alter that is raised up on a set of steps o Enclosure wall is decorated inside and out with relief sculptures o The inside walls are carved to resemble wooden fence posts on the lower portion of the wall o Garlands of fruit intersperced with bull skulls (bucrania) o Above the garlands are images of sacrificial basins o Garlands are carved with fruit for all four seasons as a reminder of the peace by Augustus lasted all year round o Reliefs on the exterior are divided into two zones o The lower zone is filled with elaborately carved vine scrolls o Upper zone contains allegorical and mythological images on the front and back and images of processions on the sides o The alter was placed next to the horologium (sun dial) o This was done so that the shadow of the obalist would align with the doorway of the alter on Augustus’ birthday Upper Frieze on the South Side o Relief of a procession with members from the imperial family lined up waiting for ceremonies at the Ara Pacis to begin after a procession to the alter had just ended o South side has images of Augustus and the imperial family o North side showed Roman senators and magistrates o All were recognizable people o From left to right Marcas Agripa, Agripa’s son, Livia, Tiberious, Antonia (middle seam, Augustus’ niece), Drusius (Antonia’s husband and Livia’s younger son), Germanicus (Antonia’s son holding his mother’s hand), Nius and Damica (children of Antonia’s older sister who has her hand on Nius’ shoulder) o Shows a particular moment in time o Inclusion of children on an official relief was new and demonstrates that the succession was ensured by the imperial family o Also shows the official opinion Augustus took on family values o Feet project off the surface showing good depth and crowding Relief on the East Side o Shows an allegory of peace o Center is the goddess Pax (peace) shown in a dual role as Pax and Tellus Mater (mother earth) o She nutures the Roman people as symbolized by the two chubby infants in her arms o They also symbolize the fertility of mother earth o On both sides of mother earth are young women bare to the waist with veils o The woman on the swan represents the earth wind o The one on the sea monster represents the sea wind o Sea wind with the waves represents Roman dominance in the Mediteranean o Land wind and vegitiation represent the fertility and abundance of the Roman lands o Peace and abundance are further emphasized by the flowers behind mother earth and the domesticated animals in front of her o This all represents the rewards of Augustan peace o Models for the figures are Greek, but there placement in a believable landscape setting is distinctly Roman • Gemma Augustea o Large onyx cameo o Celebrates Augustus’ triumphs over barbarian peoples and celebrates his deification after his death o After his death he was celebrated as a god o His step son Tiberious succeeded him he was the first of the Julian Claudian dynasty (named for the families of Augustus and Tiberious’ father who was Livia’s first husband) o Augustus is in the upper register being crowned with a victors reef o He is shown as Jupiter (ruler of the gods) with an eagle at his feet, which is a symbol of Jupiter o Woman seated next to him is Roma (female personification of Rome) shown with Livia’s features o Tiberious steps from a chariot on the left o Figures in the upper register are representations of deidies and other personifications o Lower register are representations of Roman dominance o Roman soldiers are putting up a post to display war trophies (the armor captured from a defeated solider) o Next to them are shackled barbarian prisoners waiting to be tied to the post o Idealized heroic figures evoke the Greek classical style while the dramatic action looks back to Helenistic art o Use of recognizable figures and crowding is Roman
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