FBA Assignment Study Guide
FBA Assignment Study Guide SPED 7007
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Compilation of Screencast and textbook Notes for Final Assignment Compiled by: Krista Anstead March 2016 FBA Notes • Focus on WHY rather than reducing behaviors • Assessment determines antecedent conditions of behavior and consequences that maintain the behavior (ABCs) • Teacher interview, student interview, parent interview, direct observations • WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE TARGETED BEHAVIOR? o Access (positive) or avoid (negative) attention, activities, etc. • Overall goal: teach student new, functionally equivalent replacement behavior to still meet his/her needs • Example core intervention components: accurate measurement of target and replacement behaviors, how well the plan was originally designed, consumer feedback, input on how behaviors are maintained over time and to new settings • Basic principle of FBA: “behavior that results in a positive outcome is more likely to be repeated, and behaviors that results in an unpleasant outcome is less likely to occur again” – NOT referring to difference between positive or negative reinforcement; rather the positive or negative outcome • First step: determine the operational definition of behavior (exactly what a person says or does), free of labels or judgments, by providing examples (student) and non-‐ examples (task) o 5 dimensions of behavior: § topography-‐ what the behavior looks like § frequency-‐ how often the behavior occurs § duration-‐ how long the behavior lasts § latency-‐ length of time that passes between behavior and signal/request § intensity-‐ how forceful is the behavior Key Steps of FBA • Defining the behavior o Behaviors are defined by their dimensions in a measurable and observable manner o Entails at least two dimensions that include topography of the behavior and some indication of the amount of behavior • Assessing predictable patterns (aka routines analysis) o Gather information to develop a hypothesis about the relation between antecedents, the problem behavior, and the consequences that maintain it o Done by collecting data via direct observations, interview, questionnaires, etc. o What are the problematic routines? Make a schedule of the student’s routine and mark when the problem behavior occurs § Helps focus attention only on those routines that are problematic § We can ask questions or conduct observations to determine why problem occurs during one routine and not others § The same behavior can be evoked by different antecedents and maintained by different consequences in different texts • Developing a hypothesis about the behavior’s function o Best guess about what events seem to predict the problem (antecedents) and what events maintain the problem (reinforcing function) o Allows for an easy display of the relation between problem behavior and events in the environment o Help determine how the consequences function to reinforce the problem behavior • Verifying the hypothesis in some manner (discussed in chapter 8) • FBA: Focus on understanding steps 1-‐3 • For assignment, choose a student in class who has daily attendance and has behavior that happens frequently and is chronic and daily. • Pick a behavior you want to change, replace with an equally reinforcing behavior • Negative: increases behavior; something you want to avoid; aversive; look at from point of view of two people involved • Punishment: decreases behavior; do by placing on to decrease behavior; usually from point of view of person giving punishment o Start by describing what the behavior looks like o Avoid being subjective by describing only the behavior you see or hear o Consult a list of action verbs for ideas about describing behavior o Narrow the target behavior if several relevant behaviors are observed o Include at least one of the operational behaviors to ensure it is measurable § Frequency -‐ # times occurs § Rate -‐ # times occur in time interval § Duration – length of behavior § Latency – time between behaviors § Magnitude -‐ intensity of behavior o use standards for academic skills o avoid using not/no and vague terms that are open to interpretation • Observable terms: describing behavior that one can see, not is presumed to happen • Measurable terms: defining a behavior that can be counted or timed • Positive terms: defining behaviors in terms of what the student is doing or will do • Ultimate goal of intervention is to increase occurrence of replacement or desired behaviors 6 dimensions by which behaviors are defined • Topography and locus should be part of any definition of behavior • Topography (what did it look like) o Observational properties o most important part of definition o describes exactly how you know a behavior occurred • locus (when and where did it happen) o provides context for behavior • frequency (how many were there) o reveals how often a behavior occurs or how many occurrences were observed • duration (how long did it last) o can measure total amount of time engaged in behavior o can measure average duration of behavior o can use variation of duration recording (latency) • latency (how long before it happened) o time between antecedent and behavior o important for monitoring whether there is change in response time • intensity (how hard was it) o measure of the force with which a behavior is displayed Graphing Data Selection of appropriate measurement systems based on behavior • frequency recording (EBR) o requires T to record each instance of behavior o consistency of observations is important, but can use time to make rates of incidents when consistency is not feasible o requires topographical definition with beginning and ending and for behaviors to be of equal duration • permanent product (EBR) o used when a behavior results in a product that can be saved and assessed at a later time o measures effects/outcomes of a behavior o does not require much supervision o needs to be used with permanent, durable outcomes • controlled presentation o appropriate when target behavior depends on antecedent event o answered in terms of percent of opportunities o advantage: allows observer to account for varying opportunities • trials to criterion (EBR) o used when you want to record the number of attempts needed to complete a behavior to some predestined criterion o most appropriate for use with instructional intervention as a measure of acquisition or fluency o must have a working definition of acceptable criterion • duration recording (EBR) o useful when behavior happens in unequal durations and without recognizable antecedent o used when T wishes to record amount of time S is engaged in behavior o always reported in intervals of time, either as a total or average o disadvantage: requires constant attention by the observer o should only be considered when T has sufficient time to complete all steps • Latency Recording (EBR) o Used when we wish to know the length of time between an antecedent and a behavior o Very similar to duration recording, except watch is started when antecedent occurs and stops when behavior occurs o Not concerned with length of behavior but rather how long it takes the behavior to begin o Suited for: stimulus-‐response situations o Not suited for: frequent antecedents or long latencies • Partial Interval Recording (TBR) o Can be used when people don’t have time for a duration instrument o Used when behaviors occur occasionally or at a low rate and EBR methods are inappropriate or not feasible o Record + if behavior occurred during interval o Disadvantage: overestimation can occur o Rule of thumb: make intervals shorter than highest number of behaviors observed during and observation period divided into the total amount of time observed • Whole interval recording (TBR) o Appropriate when behaviors are of high rate and duration but event-‐based methods are inappropriate or not feasible o + recorded only if the behavior occurred for the ENTIRE interval o disadvantage: tends to underestimate behavior o rule of thumb: whole interval sizes should be set near the length of the shortest observed occurrence of behavior • momentary interval recording (TBR) o requires T to observe S at end of interval to see if behavior is happening at that moment o appropriate when behaviors occur sporadically at high rates, when EBR methods are inappropriate/not feasible, and when T has little time to observe o used when partial would cause great overestimation and interval would cause great underestimation o disadvantage: tends to underestimate behavior o rule of thumb: interval size should be smaller-‐ T should consider baseline rate of behavior and develop interval size that will capture occurrence and nonoccurrence • Directions: o Graph data from all 3 weeks o Cut and paste on a word document o Upload to week 8 data on Bb • Steps o Data § List dates in column a § Number of disruptions in column b (be sure to include measurable term) § Highlight all data o Make graph § Click on charts: line: mark line § To get a blank white background: highlight arrow on vertical line, double click twice, choose no line § To get rid of line around graph: double click and select no line § Double click on line in graph and choose black color for all portions o Graphing information § Insert: text box • Title • Name of student • X axis • Y axis o Post in word doc § Select graph and all textboxes, group together, copy § Paste § Title figure: Capital letter for each important word • Make graph for off-‐task behavior AND on-‐task behavior AND teacher behavior FBA Assignment Screencast Notes Module 9 • due the last week of class or the following week, whatever works for you • Haydon, Mancil, & Van Loan 2009 document in course documents • Data should look something similar to data in article • Can reinsert another phase of intervention to make ABAB design if you want and have time • FBA assignment should compare baseline data • A phase: business as usual, how does student respond to behavior? • Graphs could contain two variables: i.e. disruptions and correct responses per minute • On-‐task behavior is done by percentage • motivAIDer app: sets vibrations to cue you to see if S is on task • expect to have a screencast as part of final assignment to describe what happened in class based on data; shouldn’t be longer than 10 minutes o describe behavior, hypothesis, intervention, ABC analysis Screen Cast Notes Module 10 General outline of expectations • ch.6 p. 107-‐114 in book: functional assessment for classroom environments (FACE) o copy, print, fill out, scan, and upload it to Db o should be included in our FBA o Ch. 6 p. 115-‐119 in book: Example of how to fill out the FACE • summary statement should only be a couple sentences • Chapter 10: think about table on pg. 179 Functional Replacement Behaviors and their Benefit o (predictor, undesirable behavior, replacement behavior, contingency, function of both behaviors, benefit of replacement behavior) (way to think; DOES NOT have to be written down) o ways to implement replacement behaviors with examples from ch.10 -‐ evidence based practices (errorless learning, shaping, and chaining, modeling, providing opportunities to respond, modifying task difficulty, constant time delay, and guided practice) • write up is open for us: view two articles on Bb under course documents as references (FBA Article and Germer Article) o do not make paper as long as articles o use APA style o title o describe what was going on in classroom (anecdote in italics) o DO NOT NEED literature review o Use synonym for S o Heading § Methods § Describe participant and setting § Dependent measures • Define On-‐task behavior, disruptive behavior, correct responses, replacement behavior, that you were focusing on • Use quiz/test scores as good information to reference § NO inter-‐observer agreement or recording system § Do NOT need recording system info § Functional assessment procedures, outcomes, and hypothesis • Couple sentences • Include summary from FACE here § Intervention selection and design for S o Include AB graph § should just have baseline and intervention results on graph § Can do another A (baseline) if you want to but not needed § Can have graph for on-‐task and one for disruptive behavior o include short paragraph on behavior on what was replacement behavior and intervention o do Not need table on p. 23 of article o if possible to keep track of what you did, (i.e. increasing opportunities to respond) T and collect own data at same time; difficult to do; not expected but can be done if wanted o do NOT need table 2 o include table for mean baseline disruptive behavior across all data points (ex is table 3 on p. 27 in Germer article) § do NOT need SD, Slope, or IOA § do for all important data points (Baseline A1, Intervention B1, Baseline A2, Intervention B2, Maintenance) o social validity: how did you like the intervention? Discuss your thoughts and opinions here on how well the intervention was o DO NOT need to write up all of the results; table is sufficient; include table and one or two sentences for results o Discuss in a few sentences how well the intervention worked • Other option (more of a research article) o Skip introduction o Talk about participants, teacher, student in methods section o Do not need to do setting the terms o Do NOT worry about treatment integrity o Basically same info as other article, just organized differently • Complete FACE, write up paper with described sections (3-‐5 pages) Screencast Notes Module 11 • 3-‐5 pages, typed, double-‐spaced • Create title page o Include title and name, NO abstract • First heading: Introduction o include: 2-‐3 paragraphs describing problem seen in class, thoughts on problem behavior, talk about environment and what generally happens there, paragraph on functional analysis, purpose of study, research questions • Second heading: Methods o participant: describe teacher, student, setting of school and class, time of day, materials • Third Heading: procedures and implementation of the intervention o include: A-‐B assessment, hypothesis formation, baseline, academic intervention, what you collected data on, define disruptive behavior/on task behavior/student corrective responses o do NOT need teacher interview • Fourth Heading: results o talk about target behaviors, include graph, mean of data • Fifth Heading: discussion topic o summarize intervention, what results of study supported, tie into research questions, interesting info/finds, thoughts about how intervention worked (practical implications) • Sixth Heading: conclusion o only needs to be a few sentences • Seventh Heading: references o around 3-‐4 references Teacher: _________________ Class/Period/Grade: _________________ Date: ____________ PART I: BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR FACE STEP 1: IDENTIFY TARGET BEHAVIORS……………………………………………………………………………………….. TARGET BEHAVIORS (circle or write in all that apply) TO INCREASE: TO DECREASE: Attendance ___________________________ Disruption ____________________________ Transition efficiency ____________________ Out of seat ___________________________ On task ______________________________ _______________ _________________ On time ______________________________ _______________ _________________ Participation __________________________ _______________ _________________ STEP 2: DEFINE TARGET BEHAVIORS…………………………………………………………………………………………… Target 1: _____________________________________________ Goal: increase decrease What do students say or do? What does the behavior look like when it occurs? Target 2: _____________________________________________ Goal: increase decrease What do students say or do? What does the behavior look like when it occurs? STEP 3: IDENTIFY ROUTINES……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Identify routines to focus on, by completing a routines analysis or scatter plot (attached). • During which activity does the target problem behavior most occur? • During which activity would you like to increase a desired targeted behavior? Routine 1: Routine 2: Routine 3: Complete a separate FACE for each routine identified. PART II: SETTING EVENTS AND TRIGGERS IN THE CLASSROOM STEP 4: IDENTIFY SETTING EVENTS………………………………………………………………………………………........ Routine: ________________________________________________________________ Rating Scale: 1 = not at all Affecting the 2 = somewhat Rating target More information 3 = all the time/absolutely Classroom Arrangement & Supervision behavior? 1. Can you easily supervise students in all 1 yes areas of the room? 2 somewhat 3 no 2. Can students easily see you and see all 1 yes teaching materials from their seats? 2 somewhat 3 no 3. Is wall space used functionally but free 1 yes from clutter? 2 somewhat 3 no 4. Does the seating arrangement maximize 1 yes your style of teaching? 2 somewhat 3 no 5. Are traffic patterns clearly marked, 1 yes functional, and used properly? 2 somewhat 3 no Scheduling 6. Is the daily schedule in the classroom (or 1 yes routine) consistent? 2 somewhat 3 no 7. (For an entire day or class period) Is the 1 yes daily schedule posted or reviewed prior to 2 somewhat class each day? 3 no Rules and Expectations 8. Are general classroom expectations 1 yes developed, positively worded, and no 2 somewhat more than four in number? 3 no 9. Are 3-‐5 classroom rules developed, 1 yes explicitly stating what students should do 2 somewhat in observable terms? 3 no 10. Are rules posted in an accessible way and 1 yes easily observed location? 2 somewhat 3 no 11. Are expectations and rules taught at the 1 yes beginning of the year and retaught at least 2 somewhat 3 additional times throughout the year? 3 no 12. Are rules developed for functional class-‐ room routines, (the routine of concern) and 1 yes are there no more than 5 positively-‐stated 2 somewhat rules that define expected behavior in 3 no observable terms? Other Activities 13. Does the problem behavior occur shortly 1 yes after another activity ends? 2 somewhat 3 no 14. If 2 or 3 on item 13; does the problem 1 yes behavior reliably occur only if that prior 2 somewhat activity has happened? 3 no 15. If 2 or 3 on item 14; does the problem 1 yes behavior occur following the prior activity 2 somewhat regardless of what students are expected to be doing next? 3 no 16. If there is an upcoming planned activity, 1 yes does problem behavior often occur prior, 2 somewhat regardless of what students are doing now? 3 no 17. If 2 or 3 on item 17; does problem behavior occur when there is an upcoming activity, 1 yes 2 somewhat regardless of what students are expected 3 no to be doing at that time? STEP 5: IDENTIFY IMMEDIATE TRIGGERS……………………………………………………………………………………. Guiding Question: What events precipitate targeted behaviors in the routine you are focused on? 5a. Identify the trigger generally – get an idea about what it might be In the identified routine, what happens most often just before problem behavior? If you put this trigger in place 10 times, how often would it result in problem behavior? Does problem behavior ever happen when (opposite of trigger or trigger absent)? Based on your answers, check the appropriate trigger(s) below: ______ tasks ______ reprimands ______ structured, non-‐academic activities ______ transitions ______ unstructured time ______ isolated, no-‐one around 5b. Identify specific features of the trigger by answering relevant questions below. If tasks (e.g. group work, independent work, small -‐group instruction, lecture) are the trigger: Describe the task in detail (e.g. duration, ease of task), what features of it likely are aversive to students and why is this hypothesized? If unstructured time is the trigger: Describe the setting, activities, and who is around. If reprimands are the trigger: Describe who delivers the reprimand, what is said, and what the purpose is. If structured, nonacademic activities are the trigger: Describe the context, who is around, what activities are going on, and what is expected . If transitions are the trigger: Describe the activity that is being terminated and the one that is being transitioned to. Identify whether any of the activities are highly preferred or non -‐preferred, which are structures versus non-‐structured. 5c. Identify cues for appropriate behavior. What should students do? What cues are there to tell students what to do? PART III: CONSEQUENCES IN THE CLASSROOM STEP 6: IDENTIFY CONSEQUENCES MAINTAINING BEHAVIORS...................................................... Guiding Question: What consequences appear most likely to maintain problems in the routine you are focused on? 6a. Identify the consequences generally. (In the routine identified) When the trigger and problem behavior occur, what happens next? • What do you do? • What do other students do? • What activities happen or stop happening? CONSEQUENCES (circle or write in all that apply) things that are obtained: things avoided or escaped from: Adult attention _________________ Hard tasks adult attention Peer attention _________________ reprimands _________________ Activity ________Peer negatives _________________ Money/things _________________ Physical effort _________________ 6b. Identify specific features of the consequence. Narrow it down. Take each consequence identified above: • Would the behavior still happen if that consequence couldn’t occur (e.g. if peer attention and no other students were around; or if your attention, and you were not around? If escape, would the behavior still occur if the task was easier?) • Of the last ten times you saw the behavior, how often did this consequence occur? If adult or peer attention is obtained or avoided: Define who delivers attention, what they say, and how long the attention typically lasts. What does the student do following this attention – is there a back-‐and-‐forth that occurs? Does behavioral escalation occ ur? If an activity or request follows or is removed: Describe the specific activity, including who else is present, what the activity consists, of, and how long it lasts. If tangible items are obtained or removed: Describe the specific item(s) obtained, who else is present, and how long the student has access to them. If sensory stimulation possibly occurs or is removed: Describe the context. Who is around, what activities are going on, what behaviors are expected? 6c. Identify consequences for appropriate behavior. What happens when students do engage in the expected behavior? What happens following appropriate behavior? • Is this response the same or different from what occurs following problem behavior? How do adults respond? Same response Similar response Very different How do peers respond? Same response Similar response Very different Do students get or avoid/delay anything? Same response Similar response Very different PART IV: SUMMARY STATEMENT Routine: __________________________________
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