New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Psych Cheat Sheet Chap 1-4

by: Amy Lipinski

Psych Cheat Sheet Chap 1-4 100

Marketplace > University of Massachusetts > Psychlogy > 100 > Psych Cheat Sheet Chap 1 4
Amy Lipinski
GPA 3.5
John Bickford

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Study Guide/ Cheat Sheet for Bickford's Test 1
John Bickford
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Lipinski on Monday January 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 100 at University of Massachusetts taught by John Bickford in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 358 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Massachusetts.


Reviews for Psych Cheat Sheet Chap 1-4


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/26/15
Test 1 Wiki Study Guide I Measurements Make No Wiki Entry gt Know the Measurement equivalents and abbreviations gt Use your Flash cards and the measurement quiz to study II Equipment Identi cation Make No Wiki Entry gt Be prepared to identify and know the purpose of all equipment on the list of Basic Commercial Equipment in the Lab 1 Orientation chapter of the manual gt Use the textbook equipment PowerPoint presentations in Moodle and your notes on the Orientation Worksheet to study this topic IHSanta on Terms Cross Contamination when hazardous microorganisms are transferred to a food from another foodsurface Ready To Eat Foods foods that do not need further cooking to be served Study Questions 1 Describe steps to prevent foodborne illness in the following areas a Personal hygiene wash hands b Food handling do not touch readytoeat foods with bare hands use barrier c Storage putting foods in proper food storage order prevents cross contamination in the fridge d Cleaning procedures clean and sanitize cutting board knife surfaces 2 What are the characteristics of potentially hazardous foods What foods speci cally are potentially hazardous gt a protein source readily available moisture and time are the three conditions necessary for bacteria growth meats poultry seafood tofu dairy products and cooked rice beans pasta and sliced melons sprouts and garlicoil mixtures 3 What is the fourhour rule gt the longest cumulative time foods can remain in the quotdanger zonequot 41135 before being considered adulterated and unrecoverable 4 In order from TOP to BOTTOM describe what should be stored on each level of a refrigerator ready to eat foods raw seafood raw whole meats raw ground meats raw poultry 5 What internal temperatures should the following foods be heated to when cooking a Hamburger patty 160 degrees F b Prime rib roast 145 degrees F c Fried chicken 165 degrees F d Grilled salmon steak 145 degrees F IV Meat Identi cation and Fabrication Terms Cryovac food packaging brand Natural Seams Muscle seams that act as a roadmap to de ne speci c cuts Makes it possible to cut across the grain and easily trim out any tissue or fat Portion Control Cuts Additional butchering after primal and subprimal cuts that prepare steaks chops roasts or ground meat Silverskin The tough connective tissue that surrounds certain muscles Does not dissolve when cooked and must be removed prior to cooking Study Questions 1 Describe the proper procedure for storing meats gt Wrapped and stored under refrigeration 2 Give two examples of SUBPRIMAL cuts found in each of the following PRIMAL cuts of beef a Round hind shank and shank stew b Loin short loin and ank steak c Rib short loin and portion cut short ribs d Chuck top blade and shoulder stew 3 How is the purpose of inspection different then grading What are the criteria for grading meat What are the grades for beef gt Inspections are required at the slaughterhouse and after butchering Grading is not required The criteria are carcass shape ratio of fat to lean ratio of meat to bone color and marbling of lean esh ln beef only small amount of meat produced is graded prime In addition to the terms and study questions in this Wiki review the information covered in your Lecture Team Exercise Meat Identi cation V Fish Identi cation and Fabrication Terms Beard Unlike clams and oysters mussels often have a dark shaggy quotbeardquot which is removed before cooking Belly burn when the viscera guts are left in the sh too long resulting in acid that burns the sh Pin Bones needlelike quot oatingquot bones that are hard to remove because they are not attached to the main skeleton of the sh Roe sh or shell sh eggs Shucking the removal of a mollusk39s meat from its shell Tomalley digestive gland of lobster which turns green when cooked Study Questions 1 How often should fresh sh be drained and reiced gt Fish should be drained as soon as it sits in a pool of melted ice and it should be re iced everyday to keep its freshness and quality 2 How are live CRABS and CLAMS stored gt Live shell sh such as crabs lobsters or clams should be packed in seaweed or damp paper upon delivery If lobster tanks are not available they can be stored in their shipping containers or in perforated pans at 39 to 45 degrees Fahrenheit until they are ready to be prepared Do not let lobsters or crabs come in contact with fresh water because it will kill them 3 Brie y describe the following categories of sh and shell sh Give a few common examples of each Round sh have one eye on each side and a middle backbone with one llet on each side Flat sh have backbone that runs through the center of sh with two upper llets and two lower llets both eyes are on the same side of head Nonbony sh have cartilage rather than bones Univalves single shelled mollusks any invertebrate animals with soft unsegmented bodies usually enclosed in a hard shell Bivalves mollusks with two shells joined by a hinge Crustaceans hardshelled anthropods with jointed exterior skeletons or shells Cephalopods marine creatures whose tentacles and arms are directly attached to their heads like squids and octopus 4 Brie y describe the following market forms of sh Whole Fish sh that is completely intact referred to as quotin the roundquot Dressed Fish visceraguts scales gills and ns are removed the head may or may not have been removed Also known as pandressedtypically used for a single serving Drawn Fish only the visceraguts are removed head ns and scales are still intact Steaks a portionsized cross section cut of a dressed sh from large sh such as tuna or sword sh Fillets a boneless piece of sh that is removed from either side of the backbone skin may or may not be removed before cooking it is important to specify pinbone out when buying llets from purveyors In addition to the terms and study questions in this Wiki review the information covered in your Lecture Team Exercise Fish Inspection VI Baking Terms Caramelization the process of browning sugar in the presence of heat occurs between 320 360 degrees F Gluten a protein presence in wheat our that develops through dehydration and mixing to form elastic strands that build structure and aid in leavening Quickbreads require chemical leavener and liquid fat use straight mix method Study Questions 1 Name the categories for baking ingredients and their functions Stabilizer added to emulsion to prevent separation a protein or plant product egg yolks cream mustard Lique er Sweeteners that add avor and make baked goods more moist and tender and provide longer shelf life Leavener any ingredient or process that produces gas and causes the rising in baked goods can be chemicalbaking powder physical folding in air whipping biological yeast 2 What are the three categories of leaveners Give examples of leaveners for each category How does each type work to leaven a batter or dough quotCategories Examples How Chemical Baking Powder Interacts with an acid to leaven batter or Baking Soda dough requires moisture and acid or moisture and heat Physical I Using Air Folding Incorporates steam produced when liquids Whipping in batter or dough are heated causing the layers to separate and rise Biological Yeast carbondioxide gas lightens dough for exture 3 Describe the texture of the following two products after baking II IIBaked product s texture Product A The shortener has been completely The baked goods are tender and worked into the dough moist Product B The shortener has not been completelyll The baked goods are rough and dry worked into the dough 4 Indicate the mixin method used for the followin baked oods duct ixin Method und cake Creamin Method vers Strai ht Mix er cake Two Sta e Method LFeeds on sugars and produces alcohol and enoise Foamin Method el food Foamin Method hiffon Foamin Method la biscuits Rubbed Dou h Method Lady ngers Foaming Method IScones II Rubbed Dough Method II In addition to the terms and study q estions in this Wiki review the information covered in your Lecture Team Exercise Baking Mise en Place and Baking Mixing Methods Psych Cheat Sheet Chap 1 4 1 Intro to Psychology gt the scientist study of behavioral and mental processes Goals of Psychology 1 DescribeMeasure Behavior 2 ExplainUnderstand Behavior 3 PredictControl Behavior Affectemotion Behavioronly one to be directly observed Cognitivethinking Education PhD quotdoctor of philosophyquot PsyD quotdoctor of psychologyquottreatment of psychological disorder Psychiatrist can prescribe meds Historv of Psvcholoqv Wilhem Wundt quotfather of psychquot rst experimental laboratory for structuralism gt uncover fundamental mental components of perception consciousness thinking emotions gt experiment when subject must communicate when they are being exposed to certain stimulus gt gestalt focuses on mental organization in a quotwholequot rather than components of perception Perspectives of Psych 1 Cognitive examines people understanding and thinking about world 2 Behavioral observable behavior Nature HereditYVNUF Eure 3 Humanistic behavior can be controlled reach full potential free will EnVironment 4 Psychodynamic behavior is motivated by unconscious forces person has little control determinism 5 Neuroscience views behavior biologically functioning Psychological Research 2 Scienti c Method approach that psychologists use to systematically acquire knowledgeunderstand behavior 1 Question 2 HypothesisTheory broad explanationprediction 3 Experiment 4 Communicate Findings Operational De nition hypothesis into speci c testable procedures for measurement or observation Experiment research procedure in which psychologist manipulates one variable and measures the effects of manipulation on 2nd variable establish causality signi cant outcome desired gt characteristic of an object event person 2 values 0 Independent manipulated ex drug dosage temp o Dependent measured variable expected to change ex mood L tane amp Darleyi Bystander aggressiveness gt Controlcomparison group gt Experimental Ireatment Group gt participants are assigned to experimentamp control by chance cancels outside variable Archival Research existing data census are examined to text hypothesis Naturalistic Observation investigator observes surrounding wout in uencing Survey Research questioning a small group of people that represent larger population Case Stud in de th investigation of individual i research in which relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine if associated Some variables cannot be manipulated gt Smoking of children relationship status iEaCiUt tedQQmmg ig tig for AUtism gt Can be studied as naturally occurring 39 bra39n Worked bOth Positive one variable other variable I hem39SphereS When 1 hem39Sphere removed W create neurons to take over to make up for Megajgywe one variable other variable I Magnitude I strength of relationship between 2 variables amp Directiondirection of relationship only experiment can establish causation gt Big limitation of correlations research no random assignmentlj cannot establish a cause and effect relationship Ethics in Research informed consent w debrie ng using doubleblind procedure to avoid biased expectations 3 Neuroscience Neuron basic unit of nervous system W electrochemical signal cell body cluster of bers quotreceiving end from other neurons carries messages quotsendingquot end for other neurons Free Will individuals make decisions Replicated research 0 axonal branching Mirror neuron person 0 terminal button small bulges at end of axon that send messages to other enaCtS behaVIOF seen neurons 0 Myelin Sheath protective coat of fatprotein increases velocity of electrical impulses space between two neurons axon communicates with dendrites w chemical messages reuptake reabsorption of neurotransmitter Miter action potential electric nerve impulse travels through neuron s axon when set off by trigger changing neuron to o neuron is polarized 0 ion exchange across cell membrane 0 neuron depolarizes reaches critical level electrical signal travels down axon binary quotall or none lawquot 0 release of neurotransmitters chemical carrying messages across synapse l dendrite of receiver neuron Excitatory make postsynaptic neuron re Inhibator make postsynaptic neuron NOT re Seratonin sleeping eating mood gt brain amp spinal cord amp interneurons only talk to other Dopamine movement pleasure39 Parkinson s39 SChlZO neurons gt o ngmativc sensory amp motor neurons 0 Autganrvnvic involuntary 1 Sympathetic tenses you quot ght ightquot 2 Parasympathetic relaxes you Endocrine System hormones regulate growthfunctioning pituitary gland major gland secretes hormones quotOld Brainquot Central Core basic life functions eating sleeping Medulla regulate heart rate amp respiration Cerebellum muscle coordination balance Reticular Formation quotmiddle managerquot general body arousal Thalamus relay information about senses Hypothalamus homeostasis producesregulates vital behavior emotionself presentation memory amygdale hippocampus quotNew Brainquot Cerebral Cortex 1 Frontal motor area voluntary movement 2 Parietal sensory area 3 Temporal auditory 4 Occipital sight Neuroplasticity changes in brain through life new interconnections reorganization of informationprocessing Neurogenesis creation of new neurons Hemispheres quotlateralizationquot dominance of one side hemisphere ight reasoning controls left side of body Left artistic controls right side of body Corpus Callosum splits hemispheres 4 Sensation amp Perception process that senses pick up visual auditory amp sensory stimuli amp transmit them to brain gt Sensory Receptors specialized cells in sense organs detect amp respond to sensory stimuli visible light sound waves scent moleculesamp convert to neural impulses gt Transduction process receptors covert sensory stimulation into neural impulses Retina layer of tissue in back of eye that contains sensory receptors for visionight sensitive cells amp incoming image is projected by lens gt ngvs light sensitive receptors enabling vision in shades of black amp white in periphery not sharp vision gt Cones receptor cells enabling vision in color in ne detail with adequate light only in fovea Point of central focus all cones center of retina till Theories of Color Vision 1 3 t 2 es of cones producing all colors red green blue 3 types of colors but each represent pair of receptors working in opposition redampgreen yellowampblue gt One is activated other is inhibited process that sensory info is constructively organized amp interpreted by brain Sensory info is fragmented gt Occlusions in visual eld 0 Retinal structures blind spot environmental occlusionsomissions gt Blurriness outside fovea Perce tion lls a s p g p Absolute Threshold smallest mtensnty of stimulus present to be gt De th erce tion detected gt Create meaningful whole to fragments Difference Threshold smallest level addedreduced of stimuli required gt FaCIIItated rapid understanding w mInImal to sense change in stimulation just noticable difference effort gt Uses expectations from contextprevious experience 1 Bottom Up Processing analyzing components of sensory info a Feature analysis identifying various components that sensory info comprises ex scanning visual info for horizontalvertical lines motion b Facial features 2 Top Down Processing making meaning of sensory info by tting it with what you already know sometimes can lead us astray Kineticji39s Triangle a Expectations past experience motivations b Imposing order c Works in tandem w bottom up i whole gt sum of its parts Sound movement of air molecules by vibrations l eardrum gt Cochlea tube lled with liquid that vibrates w sound 0 Basilar Membrane vibration structure dividing into upper and lower chambers of sense receptors Pitch make sound seem high or low Frequency of wave lengths second Amplitude wave patterns to distinguish loud to soft sounds ill Place Theory of Hearing different areas of basilar membrane respond to different frequencies Frequency Theory of Hearing entire basilar membrane takes whole in response to sound Taste quotGustationquot 1 Sweet 2 Bitter 3 Sour 4 Salty Unamisavory Smell quotOlfactionquot


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.