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Psych 100 Study Guide Chap 5-7

by: Amy Lipinski

Psych 100 Study Guide Chap 5-7 100

Marketplace > Psychlogy > 100 > Psych 100 Study Guide Chap 5 7
Amy Lipinski
GPA 3.5
John Bickford

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John Bickford
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Lipinski on Monday January 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 100 at a university taught by John Bickford in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 423 views.


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Date Created: 01/26/15
Psych Cheat Sheet Chap 57 5 Consciousness gt Awareness of sensations thoughts feelings at a given moment 0 WW awake and aware o W dreams drug use hypnosis Sleep biological need normal range 511 hours gt Reduces functioning impaired attentionalertness impaired concentrationproblem solving irrationalitydiscomfort hallucinations mvivcvrgvslveep ose consciousness for a moment Becomes unbearable after 3 days record is 11 days No long term affects llll Brain is not dormant o EEG measures brain activity quotbrain wavesquot 1 Between wake and sleep a Alpha waves rapid lowvoltage waves b Possible vivid imagery hypnotic jerk 12 of total sleep a Theta waves slow more regular waves sleep spindles b Less easily aroused More dif cult to arouse a Delta waves slower w high peaks b Wkleep walkingquot Least responsive to environment a Delta waves slower and regular 2 3 4 5 REM Rapid eye movement a 90 minutes total b Skeletal muscle paralysis Circadian Rhythm biological processed occurring regularly on 24 hr cycle yprlgsivs trans like state of heightened susceptibility to suggestion of others Does not lose will of one39s own Medjtavtjgh refocusing attention that brings about an altered state of consciousness Psychoactive Drugs in uence emotion perception behavior Stimulate caffeine cocaine w dopamine Depressant slow nervous system alcohol Narcotics increase relaxation relieve pain amp anxiety Hallucinogen marijuana ecstasy LSD gt An state focused awareness on a subset of the available perceptual info gt quotFocused attentionquot gt Much of the available perceptual info in environment never enters awareness 53W choosing stimuli in environment that will enter awareness 1 Goaldirected selection purposeful attention 2 Stimulus driven captures attention a Unusual features repetition change 6 Learning amp Conditioning Intentional Failures failure to see an obvious visual stimulus when your attention is narrowed Change Blindness failing to notice changes in visual eld distractions multiple simultaneous internal representation of visual world is not as recise as you think gt Permanent change in behavior w experience gt Almost everything we do is in uenced by learning TrueFalse F People can learn to function well on just a few hours of sleep F Brain rests during sleep TampF People can die from sleep depnva on F Dreams occur during deep sleep E Cl flflnl39llllfn AI I IIV I nlknn flnn Alll Sleep de cit similar problems are deprivation may be cumulative Sleep Problems lnsomnia dif culty sleeping Sleep Apnea dif culty breathing when sleeping Sle for children Night Terrors awaken during REM in panic Narcolepsy uncontrollable sleeping WWW Unconscious wishes that dreamer wants to ful ll Manifest story line of dream Latent unconscious wish it represents Universal symbols Dreams for Survival Reprocessing of important info from daily life Possibly artifact from a time when people had limited brain power Dreams are inherently meaningful Critic dream of ying l never happened Wampum Dreams have no meaning at all Mental housekeeping o Flushing away unnecessary info accumulated throughout day Unlearning of material that serves no purpose and could be confusing Critics remembering dreams reoccurring dreams WW Brain produces random electrical energy w sleep Electrical energy randomly stimulates mental content Brain excels at making meaning of ambiguous stimuli Present fears emotions concerns experiences 2 gt Habituation decrease in response to stimuli o Newly weds stop noticing wedding ring 0 physical aspect of environment capable of exciting organism s sense organs 0 Visual auditory tactile overt act of movement SR Connection learning consists of connection of certain response to the erce tion of certain stimuli conditioning FUSd BUR I l OO l39QOi 39Van PaVIOV Pavlov39s Do 5 o New stimulus produces already learned response 9 3539 i lNOthmg STIMULUS SUBSTITUTION o Conditioned learned amp Unconditioned not learned N5 U5 UR W Bell 7 Food Drool Watson amp Rayner Little Albert baby scared of noise scared of rat gt Stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination extinction spontaneous CS CR Mary CoverJones I Peter j gt Systematic desensitation counter conditioning Happy feelings produced by holiday music Classical Conditioning does not create new behaviors only connects naturally occurring responses to new stimulus many visceral emotionalre ex responses Limitations throwing ball answering phone opening door playing piano Extinction a CR eventually disappears must end association of CSUS gt Spontaneous recovery may happen emergence of CR after period of extinction w no further conditioning Stimulus Discrimination 2 stimuli are suf ciently distinct from one another one evokes a conditioned response but other does not 0 Learning of involuntary responses 0 quotOperantquot emphasizes that people OPERATE on their environment to achieve consequence 0 Response Contingency RD S response is associated w consequence Reinforce gt Any stimulus that increases probability that preceding response will be repeated food money pain good rades Skinner Bgox rat pressing level in box by chance and receives food makes pressing lever more likely BILQQQLQSAL Punishment aversive stimulus decreasing probability that preceding response will be repeated 0 Many conditioned responses that are frequently reinforced answering phone irting 0 Why aren t we always engaging in these welllearned behaviors o What determines these circumstances where you live what s happening 0 Sd l R l S o Ringing phone answer phone sex 0 Not all learning can be explained in terms of pure SR conditioning o Observational Learning wout direct experience 0 Vicarious reinforcement observing a model being reinforced punished determining your probability of producing it capacity to encode record story retrieve info W a Momentary duration b Must be changed to another form or its lost forever 2 Short Term a 15 25 sec b info decays unless rehearsed c capacity is about 59 meaningful units chunks 3 mm a Relatively permanent storage of info that has ltered through sensory amp short term i Procedural memory how to do things ii Declarative memory for info 1 Semantic facts info 2 Episodic events personal memory stimulus increases probability of preceding behavior Fixedreinforcement based on o satis es biological need amp works naturally SPECI C 0f responses Eggs association W primary Variable reinforcement based on M 0 Token Systems random of responses 0 Positive Reinforces add to increase response 0 Negative Reinforces unpleasant thing whose removal increases response 0 Positive adding to remove behavior 0 Negative removing to remove behavior Schedule of Reinforcement gt Frequency amp timing of reinforcement following desired behavior 0 Continuous reinforce behavior always 0 Partiallntermittent reinforce behavior periodically Reconstructive Memory gt Theoretical memory structures gt Organized clusters of all info pertaining to particular topics gt Can color our memories w additional info that was never originally present Elizabeth Lotus memory is changeablemalleable gt Cannot give completely accurate eye witness account Fixed reinforcement after speci c amount of time Variable reinforcement after avg time Retrieval Recognition v recall Forgetting Decay Theory lnterference Proactive old info interferes w new Retroactive new info interferes w old Encoding Failures


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