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AU / Science / NUTR 2000 / the buildup of excess fluid in extracellular spaces is

the buildup of excess fluid in extracellular spaces is

the buildup of excess fluid in extracellular spaces is

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: Science
Course: Nutrition and Health
Professor: Michael greene
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Nutrition and Health
Cost: 50
Name: NUTRI 2000 Exam 3 Study Guide (Vines)
Description: This is the study guide for the 3rd exam (chapters 6 and 7). It includes 4 pages of important concepts, a practice test, and an answer key. This is a great study tool!! *****on chapter 7 important concepts, i accidentally put 20 for severely obese, the correct number is 40!
Uploaded: 03/29/2016
11 Pages 8 Views 15 Unlocks
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EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE


What is Amino acid?



Chapter 6 Important Concepts 

• Protein: food that is made by amino acids and is in the form of nitrogen, which is  easily used by the body. These contribute to important body processes like blood  clotting, hormone and enzyme production, and fluid balance.

- High quality (complete) proteins: proteins that contain big amounts of all the  amino acids. Animal protein contains a higher amount of the essential amino  acids.

- Lower quality (incomplete) proteins: contain low amounts of essential amino  acids or lack 1 of the 9 essential amino acids. Plant protein sources contain low  amounts of the essential amino acids.

- Complementary proteins: two protein sources that combine to make an  adequate supply of the essential amino acids.

• Amino acid: the building blocks of protein, which contain nitrogen, hydrogen,  oxygen, and carbon. The order, in which the amino acids are arranged, is what  determines the protein’s shape.  


What are Protein synthesis instructions?



- Branched chain amino acids: when the R group on an amino acid has a  branched tree shape. These specific types of amino acids include leucine,  isoleucine, and valine.

- There are 20 total amino acids.

o Non-essential amino acids: (11 total) amino acids that are synthesized in  sufficient amounts by a healthy body.  

o Essential amino acids: (9 total) amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the  body, and are derived from the diet.  

▪ Histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalnine, threonine,  tryptophan, valine

- Amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds.

- Amino acids will be used to make glucose in the events in which you don’t  consume enough carbohydrates.  

• Protein synthesis instructions

1. Protein synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm. We also discuss several other topics like behaviored

2. The messenger RNA does the job of transferring the DNA code from the  nucleus to the cytoplasm.


What is the Digestion of proteins?



Don't forget about the age old question of uf acg2021

3. After the messenger RNA transfers the code, it will travel to the ribosome in  which the code is translated into instructions.

4. The transfer RNA brings specific amino acids to the ribosomes as needed. • Digestion of proteins

- Denaturation: protein shapes can be altered if they are exposed to acid, heat,  alkaline substances, etc. (often happens in digestion)

EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE

- Enzymatic protein digestion begins in the stomach, where the proteins are  denatured further by stomach acid.  

o Pepsin: a stomach enzyme that digests proteins. The hormone gastrin  controls the release of pepsin.

- Then the proteins that are partially digested move into the small intestine, which  triggers the release of the hormone cholecystokinin.

- Cholecystokinin then goes through the blood stream and to the pancreas, which  activates the pancreas into releasing protein-splitting enzymes.  

o Trypsin: an enzyme that digests proteins which is secreted by the pancreas. • Absorption of proteins

- Active absorption takes place when the short amino acid chains are moved into  the absorptive cells that line the small intestine.  

- Amino acids travel through the portal vein, which drains the absorbed nutrients  from the intestinal tract.

- Excess protein intake leads to them being converted into fat.  

• Protein turnover: when proteins that aren’t needed are disassembled or proteins  that are needed in times of environmental change.  

• If an inadequate amount of proteins is consumed, then the concentration of  proteins in the blood stream drops, which causes fluid build up in surrounding  tissue.  If you want to learn more check out the first sanjo experiment is credited to kim ch´angjo on:

• Proteins that are produced by white blood cells are called antibodies.  • Positive protein balance: when the body is growing, and the protein intake exceeds  the amount of protein loss.  If you want to learn more check out georgia tech ie

• Negative protein balance: when protein consumption is less than the amount of  protein loss.  

• RDA for proteins

- The RDA is .8 grams of protein per kilogram of healthy body weight to maintain  protein equilibrium.

- The RDA is 15% of our total calories come from proteins.  

• Medical conditions related to proteins

- Kwashiorkor: a disease, which happens in children that already have another  disease and consume a marginal amount of calories but too few protein.  o A child with this disease suffers from edema, poor growth, weakness, and a  higher chance of getting another illness.

o Symptoms of this disease include apathy, diarrhea, unable to gain weigh or  grown, and listlessness.

- Marasmus: a disease which happens when an insufficient amount of both  calories and proteins are consumed.

EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE

o People that suffer from this have a skeleton like look, no fat stores, and very  little muscle mass.

o This usually develops in infants that do not get breastfed or have stopped  being breastfed.

- Edema: the buildup of excess fluid in extracellular spaces.  

- Protein calorie malnutrition: a condition that occurs when you consume too few calories and protein.

Chapter 7 Important Concepts  

• Energy balance: the energy you take in (food) matches the energy you put out  (calorie burn)

- Positive energy balance: when you eat more calories than you burn. - Negative energy balance: when you eat fewer calories than you burn.  • Basal metabolism (BMR): the minimum amount of calories the body needs to  support itself in a fasting state (not eating).  We also discuss several other topics like marketing management study guide

- 1 kcal/kg for men per hour

- .9 kcal/kg for women per hour

• Resting metabolism: the amount of calories the body uses when a person hasn’t  eaten for 4 hours.  

• Thermic effect of food: when your metabolism is increased during the absorption,  digestion, and metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fats.

• Body mass index (BMI): the weight that a person should be at based on their  height.

- Underweight: less than 18.5

- Healthy weight: between 18.5 and 24.9

- Overweight: between 25 and 29.9

- Obese: between 30-39.9

- Severely obese: over 20

• Ways to determine body fat content

- Under water weighing: weighing a person under water on a standard scale to  determine body fat.

- Air displacement: when a person goes into a chamber and the volume space  they take up determines their body fat. We also discuss several other topics like what biomolecule is chonp

- Bioelectrical impedance: when a low energy electrical current is put through a  person to see how much body fat they have. The higher the body fat, the more  resistance from the current.

- Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA): multiple low energy x rays that are  used to determine body composition and bone mass. This is the most accurate.

EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE

• Obesity: a condition where too much fat on the body can lead to further health  complications.  

- Upper body obesity: this type of obesity is caused by insulin resistance and is  also known as central/abdominal obesity, where there is excess fat in the  abdominal region. (Apple shaped)

o This can lead to health problems like diabetes, high blood lipids, and heart  disease.

- Lower body obesity: this type of obesity is triggered by estrogen and  progesterone hormones and leads to larger thighs and gluteus. (Pear shaped) • Bomb calorimeter: a device that determines how many calories are in a food. • Direct calorimeter: measuring the heat released from a person’s body to determine  their energy use. This is done in an insulated chamber.  

• Indirect calorimeter: measuring the oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output to  determine the energy used by a person’s body.  

• Medications for weight loss: drugs that help a person lose weight. Usually used for  people with a BMI of 30 or higher or a BMI of 27 to 29.9 with weight related  medical conditions (heart disease, diabetes, etc.)

- Amphetamine: medications that enhance central nervous system stimulation. • Obesity treatments

- Very low calorie diets (VLCD): a diet that puts an obese person on 400-800  calories per day (more proteins that carbs).

- Gastroplasty: a surgery where doctors staple a persons’ stomach so that they eat  less.  

- Sleeve gastrectomy: a surgery where doctors reduce a persons’ stomach to  about the size of a banana.

• Types of diets

- Unreliable diets: weight loss diets that typically aren’t safe and possess the  following qualities

o Quick weight loss

o Limit food selections

o Recommend expensive supplements

o Claim that there is no need to exercise

- High protein, low carb diets: where most of a person’s calories come from  protein, and minimal calories come from carbs.

- Carb focused diets: where most all calories come from carbs, and minimal come  from fats and proteins.

- Low fat diets: where fats are kept to a minimum in a person’s diet.

PRACTICE EXAM 3

1) What types of proteins contain big amounts of all the amino acids? a) Complementary proteins

b) High quality proteins

c) Lower quality proteins  

2) What types of proteins use two protein sources to combine and make an  adequate supply of the essential amino acids?

a) Complementary proteins

b) High quality proteins

c) Lower quality proteins  

3) What types of proteins contain low amounts of essential amino acids or lack 1 of  the 9 essential amino acids?

a) Complementary proteins

b) High quality proteins

c) Lower quality proteins  

4) What types of amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body, and are derived  from the diet?

a) Non essential amino acids

b) Complete amino acids

c) Essential amino acids

d) Incomplete amino acids

5) What types of amino acids are synthesized in sufficient amounts by a healthy  body?

a) Non essential amino acids

b) Complete amino acids

c) Essential amino acids

d) Incomplete amino acids

6) What types of bonds hold amino acids together?

a) Nitrogen bonds

b) Peptide bonds

c) Valine bonds

7) Where does protein synthesis take place?

a) Nucleus

b) Cytoplasm

c) Ribosome

d) Cell wall

8) What type of RNA does the job of transferring the DNA code from the nucleus  to the cytoplasm?

a) Messenger RNA

b) Transfer RNA

PRACTICE EXAM 3

c) Translation RNA

d) Ribosomal RNA  

9) Where is the DNA code translated into instructions?

a) Nucleus

b) Cytoplasm

c) Ribosome

d) Cell wall

10)Where does enzymatic protein digestion begin?

a) Stomach

b) Mouth

c) Esophagus

d) Small intestine  

11)What stomach enzyme that digests proteins? (Released due to the hormone  gastrin)

a) Lipase

b) Pepsin

c) Trypsin

d) Valine  

12)What enzyme digests proteins? (Released by the pancreas)

a) Lipase

b) Pepsin

c) Trypsin

d) Valine  

13)Where do amino acids travel through when proteins are being absorbed? a) Liver

b) Pancreas

c) Portal vein  

d) Stomach  

14)What type of protein balance is it when the protein intake exceeds the amount  of protein loss?

a) Positive protein balance  

b) Negative protein balance  

15)What type of protein balance is it when the protein consumption is less that the  amount of protein loss?

a) Positive protein balance  

b) Negative protein balance  

16)What is the RDA percentage for proteins from the diet?

a) 20%

b) 25%

PRACTICE EXAM 3

c) 10%

d) 15%

17)What is the RDA for how much protein a person needs in order to maintain  protein equilibrium?  

a) .6 grams per kg of body weight  

b) .7 grams per kg of body weight  

c) .8 grams per kg of body weight  

d) .9 grams per kg of body weight  

18)What disease results in children that already have another disease and consume  a marginal amount of calories but too little protein?  

a) Marasmus  

b) Edema

c) Kwashiorkor  

19)What type of disease results in an insufficient amount of both calories and  proteins are consumed?  

a) Marasmus  

b) Edema

c) Kwashiorkor  

20)What type of medical condition is due to the buildup of excess fluid in  extracellular spaces?  

a) Marasmus  

b) Edema

c) Kwashiorkor  

21)What type of energy balance results in eating more calories than you burn? a) Positive energy balance

b) Negative energy balance  

22)What type of energy balance results in eating fewer calories than you burn? a) Positive energy balance

b) Negative energy balance  

23)If a person eats 2200 calories a day and burns 2500, what type of energy  balance are they in?

a) Positive energy balance

b) Negative energy balance  

24)If a person eats 2200 calories a day and burns 2000, what type of energy  balance are they in?

a) Positive energy balance

b) Negative energy balance  

25)What is the minimum amount of calories the body needs to support itself in a  fasting state?

PRACTICE EXAM 3

a) Basal metabolic rate  

b) Resting metabolism  

c) Body mass index

d) Thermic effect

26)What is the amount of calories the body uses when a person hasn’t eaten for 4  hours?  

a) Basal metabolic rate  

b) Resting metabolism  

c) Body mass index

d) Thermic effect

27)What is it when your metabolism is increased during the absorption, digestion,  and metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fats?

a) Basal metabolic rate  

b) Resting metabolism  

c) Body mass index

d) Thermic effect

28)What is the height to weight ratio that determines the healthy weight of a  person?

a) Basal metabolic rate  

b) Resting metabolism  

c) Body mass index

d) Thermic effect

29)A BMI of 23 would classify as…

a) Underweight  

b) Normal weight

c) Overweight

d) Obese  

30)A BMI of 32 would classify as…

a) Underweight  

b) Normal weight

c) Overweight

d) Obese  

31)What is the technique when a person is weighed under water on a standard  scale to determine body fat?

a) Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry  

b) Air displacement  

c) Underwater weighing

d) Bioelectrical impedance

PRACTICE EXAM 3

32)What is the technique when a person goes into a chamber and the volume  space they take up determines their body fat

a) Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry  

b) Air displacement  

c) Underwater weighing

d) Bioelectrical impedance  

33) What is the technique called when a low energy electrical current is put through  a person to see how much body fat they have?

a) Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry  

b) Air displacement  

c) Underwater weighing

d) Bioelectrical impedance  

34)What is the technique called when multiple low energy x rays that are used to  determine body composition and bone mass?

a) Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry  

b) Air displacement  

c) Underwater weighing

d) Bioelectrical impedance  

35)What type of obesity is also known as pear shaped, and gives the person bigger  thighs and gluteus?

a) Upper body obesity  

b) Lower body obesity  

36)What type of obesity is also known as apple shaped, and gives the person a  bigger abdominal region?

a) Upper body obesity  

b) Lower body obesity  

37)The hormone insulin, contributes to which type of obesity?

a) Upper body obesity  

b) Lower body obesity  

38)The hormones estrogen and progesterone, contribute to which type of obesity? a) Upper body obesity  

b) Lower body obesity  

39)What is the device that determines the caloric content of a food item? a) Indirect calorimeter

b) Bomb calorimeter  

c) Direct calorimeter  

40)What is measuring the heat released from a person’s body to determine their  energy use?

a) Indirect calorimeter

PRACTICE EXAM 3

b) Bomb calorimeter  

c) Direct calorimeter  

41)What is measuring the oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output to determine the energy used by a person’s body?

a) Indirect calorimeter

b) Bomb calorimeter  

c) Direct calorimeter

1)B 2)A 3)C 4)C 5)A 6)B 7)B 8)A 9)C 10)A 11)B 12)C 13)C 14)A 15)B 16)D 17)C 18)C 19)A 20)B 21)A 22)B 23)B 24)A 25)A 26)B 27)D 28)C 29)B 30)C 31)C 32)B 33)D 34)A 35)B 36)A 37)A 38)B 39)B

ANSWER KEY

40)C

41)A

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