exam 1 study guide
exam 1 study guide chem 152
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Popular in Chemistry
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shelby Logsdon on Monday January 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to chem 152 at University of Washington taught by munira khalil in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 192 views. For similar materials see general chemistry in Chemistry at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 01/26/15
Study Guide for Chemistry 152 weeks 14 AcidBase equilibria strong acids ionize completely in water 0 the conjugate base of a strong acid is a very weak base weak acids do not ionize completely in water 0 conjugate base of a weak acid is strong enough to ionize water Buffers 0 Solution contains signi cant amounts of a weak acid and its conjugate base or vice versa 0 Solution is able to absorb a certain amount of OH39 or H wo signi cant pH change 0 HendersonHasselbalch equation pHpKalogHaA39 o Buffer capacity The amount of a strong acid or base a buffer can absorb wo a signi cant change in pH Solved for by using HH equation Titration 0 Method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown concentration of a species in solution 0 Equivalence point when the of moles of titrating solution of moles of titrated solution 0 pH at equivalence point for a strong acidbase titration is 7 0 weak acid strong base titration equilibrium lies towards products species at equilibrium will be water and conjugate base Thermodynamics Energy potential vs kinetic 0 Potential energy the energy an object has by virtue of its placement in a eld of force like gravity PE mgh m mass g acceleration due to gravity 98 msquot2 h height 0 Kinetic energy the energy an object has by virtue of its motion KE 12 mvquot2 m mass v velocity Internal energy E EkEp System part of the universe you are interested in Surroundings the rest of the universe 1st law 0 E change in internal energy 0 q heat 0 w work work transfer of energy from system to surroundings and vice versa o work work done on the system or transferred to the system energy of the system increases 0 work work done by the system or transferred from the system to the surroundings energy of the system increases Heat a form of energy associated w temperature 0 Energy that is owing into or out of a system 0 q heat is added to the system energy increases 0 q heat is transferred to surroundings energy decreases 0 Heat does not equal temp 0th law de nes temperature 0 Exothermic process heat is released from the system 0 Endothermic process heat is gained by system De ning PV work 0 PextFextA I Iext Pext X A o w Pextx V or W Pext x V Enthalpy H enthalpy H E PV H q vP Constant pressure process P 0 qp constant pressure qp Enthalpy heat Speci c heat capacity The amount of heat required to change the temperature by one degree for one mole of a particular system substance At constant volume Cv dqvdT At constant pressure Cp dqpdT Units of C JKmol QvnCvT qpnCpT Thermodynamics of ideal gases All substances have some capacity to store heat energy as kinetic energy KE 32 RT lnternal energy o E EkEp o E n32RT o A change in internal energy results in a temperature change E n32RT 0 At constant volume E CVT CV32R Enthalpy o H E PV o H nCpT Cp52R Changes in enthalpy qp if a process is conducted at constant pressure all the heat transferred is the enthalpy Bomb calorimeter constant volume dV O W 0 qv heat change in reaction 39 AErxnqv Constant pressure calorimeter We can directly measure the enthalpy of a chemical process if we conduct that process at constant pressure By monitoring the change in temperature of the solution using the process we can determine the magnitude and sign of the enthalpy Sta nda rd states Compounds pure substances in their normal phase at P 1atm Solutions concentration of 1 M Elements most stable form of the elements at P 1 atm Gasses 1 atm Thermodynamic data are typically tabulated for 250 C but no temperature is speci ed for the standard state Since the standard state of a substance depends on its temperature the phases of all species must be indicated in a thermochemical equann Standard state indicated w superscript of 0 Le H0rxn Standardizing enthalpy calculations Standard enthalpy of formation Hof o The change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound from its elements w all substances in their standard states at 25 C By de nition H f0 for elements in standard states We can think of a reaction as a 2 step process 0 Take apart the reactants into their component elements in standard states 0 Assemble products from these elements In this way we are comparing enthalpy of formation for reactants and products to a common reference zero
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