Provided Study and Reading Sheet
Provided Study and Reading Sheet BSC 215
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Haney on Monday January 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 199 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/26/15
BSC 215 Spring 2015 Required Reading and St11dv Guide STUDY TIPS gt BEFORE EACH CLASS Read the assigned text for the chapter that is listed in the required reading Sections below For this rst read it is not necessary that you attempt to understand everything in the required reading It is more important that you read for the big picture concepts and gain familiarity with terms and key words Building vocabulary should also be your main aim here and many of the daily clicker activities will test you on this gt DURING EACH CLASS We will cover key topics of the chapter that will follow with your required reading I will provide notes online before each class so that you can follow along and take your own notes Try to use this time to grasp terms and concepts from the examples that I give We will also have several clicker activities to reinforce topics and as an incentive to keep up with the reading throughout the term gt AFTER EACH CLASS Review the notes It is best to rst make sure you understand the big picture concepts of each topic covered then move on to understanding details of each concept covered Once you have studied the notes go back and read the corresponding section in the textbook as you will be much more familiar with the topic after class and some review of the notes gt USING THE STUDY GUIDE OUESTIONS BELOW I have provided some study questions below to help you assess your knowledge on certain key topics KEEP IN MIND that questions in the study guide are simply there to help you assess your strengths and weaknesses of KEY concepts learning outcomes However the questions are NOT an exhaustive list of everything you should know for the exam In other words the study guide can be extremely helpful in your studies but it shouldn t be relied upon as your sole study resource It is recommended that you study notes and required reading BEFORE attempting to answer these questions Then you can return to the study guide questions below to determine your areas of strength and weakness Try to answer the questions without referring to the text ie simulate exam conditions gt BEST PIECE OF STUDY ADVICE Keep up with class material from day one Regular review before and after each lecture will go a long way toward longterm comprehension and success Last minute cramming will not work in a class like this Regular reading review of the notes and practice questions will best prepare you for the exams Rereading each section multiple times is the best way to comprehend and retain knowledge Required reading and Study guide Chapter lRequired Reading Section 11 All Section 15 The Hierarchy of Complexity Section 16 Characteristics of Life Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Positive Feedback and Rapid Change Deeper Insight 15 Medical imaging pages 2324 Atlas A Use as a guide This is a good reference for some things we will cover in lecture and lab Chapter 1 Study Guide Understand the levels of complexity in the human body atom to organism What properties distinguish living and nonliving things Can you define homeostasis Is the set point a point or a range of tolerable internal conditions Can set points vary For instance over the course of the day What is negative feedback Can you describe the roles of the receptor control center and effector in maintaining homeostasis How does positive feedback differ from negative feedback Does positive feedback help to return internal conditions to normal Can you provide an example of positive feedback Know your orientational and directional terms e g ventral lateral superf1cial etc Table Al Know your body planes e g frontal midsagittal parasagittal transverse etc Figure A3 Know your body cavities ventral dorsal and their subcavities e g abdominopelvic thoracic cranial Section A3 Figure A7 Understand the techniques used to visualize the body e g MRI fMRI CAT Chapter 2 Required Reading Section 21 All Section 22 Water Acids Bases and pH Section 23 All Section 24 All Deeper insight 23 pg 64 Trans fats and Cardiovascular health Chapter 2 Study Guide De ne matter energy kinetic energy potential energy element atom atomic number mass number atomic weight isotope compound salts electrolytes acid base Do you know the difference between an element and a compound Do you know the major elements of the human body and their symbols See table 21 Major elements Understand the law of conservation of energy Know the subatomic particles composing an atom and their charges Are atoms electrically neutral Why What makes an atom radioactive And what s a halflife What s the difference between an inert element and a reactive element Could you identify each type if given a picture of an atomic nucleus and its orbits with electrons Know how ionic bonds are formed and why this results in charged atoms What s the difference between nonpolar and polar covalent bonds What s the difference between covalent and ionic bonds Under what circumstances are single bonds double bonds triple bonds formed What is electronegativity How does it contribute to polar covalent bonds What s a hydrogen bond Why are they essential for life Distinguish between synthesis decomposition and displacement reactions What is a Redox reaction What s the difference between substances that are oxidized vs reduced Difference between organic and inorganic molecules Understand the pH scale What s a buffer How does the carbonic acid bicarbonate system exemplify a buffer system What are the building blocks of carbohydrates How are disaccharides or polysaccharides formed from monosaccharides Can you provide examples of mono di and polysaccharides What are the building blocks of triglycerides Difference between saturated and unsaturated fats Why do they eXist as solids and liquids respectively What s a phospholipid How does it differ from a triglyceride What are trans fats and how do they affect cardiovascular heath How does the structure of steroids differ from other lipids What are the building blocks of proteins What distinguishes the different amino acids from one another Which structural elements do all amino acids share How are amino acids linked to form a peptide bond What s the difference between primary secondary tertiary and quaternary protein structure What defines the functionality of a protein What s an enzyme Can you describe the 3 steps of an enzymatic reaction How does an enzyme catalyze speed up a reaction What are the building blocks of nucleic acids What are the differences between DNA and RNA What is complementary base pairing Why is it important for the structure of the DNA double helix What makes ATP a highenergy molecule Chapter 3 Required Reading Section 3 1 All Section 32 All Section 33 All but focus on lecture notes for points of focus Section 34 All Table 34 is a good reference to Organelle Function Chapter 3 Study Guide Based on your knowledge of phospholipids why is the plasma membrane assembled as a phospholipid bilayer What s the difference between integral proteins and peripheral proteins What is the glyocalyX Its function Identify some basic functions of integral membrane proteins see Fig 38 Function of microvilli Do they move substances Function of cilia Do they move substances Function of tight junctions gap junctions and desmosomes See lecture notes and Chapter SSection 55 What is passive diffusion Understand the concentration gradient How does passive diffusion differ from active transport What is osmosis Understand how tonicity affects the movement of water across membranes Distinguish between primary and secondary active transport Can you describe the basic idea behind the sodiumpotassium pump Understand how symporter systems work Distinguish between exocytosis and endocytosis What are the three types of cytoskeletal elements know size and function of each Know your organelles and lLth their structure and function see lecture notes and table 34 for functions For the nucleus understand the structure and function of the nuclear envelope nucleoli and chromatin What makes up the endomembrane system What is the function of this system see lecture notes Chapter 4Required Reading Section 4 1 All Section 42 All Section 43 DNA replication the Cell Cycle Mitosis Section 44 the karyotype Genes and Alleles SeX Linkage Chapter 4 Study Guide Describe the structure of DNA and relate this to its function Know complimentary base pairing in DNA and RNA Where does uracil U come into play Explain how DNA and proteins are organized to form the chromosomes What are histones and how do they contribute to chromatin structure What are the 3 main types of RNA and what is the main function of RNA What is the genome How many nucleotides in the human genome How many genes in the human What is the main function of a gene Be prepared to describe the processes of Protein synthesis transcription and translation from start to finish Understand how DNA RNA organelles and enzymes are involved Understand the steps of gene regulation we will use the prolactin example in class see fig 412 Distinguish lnterphase and Mitotic phase of the cell cycle Distinguish the different phases of Interphase What is happening during each phase Can you describe the phases of the Mitosis What is happening during each phase Be prepared to describe the process of DNA replication from start to finish What enzymes are involved and what do they do Describe the paired arrangement of chromosomes in the human karyotype De ne allele and discuss how alleles affect the traits of an individual e g homozygosity heterozygosity Distinguish genotype from phenotype What does it mean to be a heterozygous carrier of a hereditary disease In the case of cystic fibrosis it is only expressed in offspring that are homozygous recessive rr How can this happen if parents are healthy they do not express the cystic fibrosis phenotype Be able to use a simple punnett square to estimate possible phenotype outcomes from parental genotypes Note this will be very simple similar to figure 418 on page 135 and we will do examples in class What is a sexlinked trait Why are men more likely than women to have redgreen color blindness Chapter 5 Required Reading Section 51 Review for basic terms Section 52 All Section 53 All Section 54 All Section 55 All Section 56 Tissue Repair Chapter 5 Study Guide What are the 4 major tissue types and their representative locations see Table 51 Functions and basic characteristics of epithelial tissue Distinguish simple and stratified squamous cuboidal and columnar Be prepared to describe key characteristics and functions of ALL tissues provided in the powerpoint notes Difference between endocrine and exocrine glands Function of goblet cells as unicellular glands Difference between merocrine and holocrine glands Main types of connective tissue Main structural elements of connective tissue ground substance bers and cells What makes up the ground substance Types of bers of connective tissues Types of blast and cyte cells you expect to nd in different types of connective tissue See slide 18 on Chapter 5 Lecture notes for a good summary of connective tissue characteristics Why is blood considered a connective tissue Maj or components of nervous tissue Differences between skeletal smooth and cardiac muscle Understand the serous membranes Differentiate endocrine and exocrine glands What is a goblet cell What tissue is it most often associated with Understand the basic differences between cutaneous mucous and serous membranes De ne the two types of tissue repair Brie y describe the three steps of tissue regeneration Chapter 6 Required Reading Section 61 All except Skin Markings Section 62 All Section 63 Sweat glands Sebaceous glands ceruminous glands Section 64 Burns Chapter 6 Study guide What are the functions of the integumentary system What are the 3 primary regions associated with the integumentary system skin What type of tissue is the epidermis composed of What type of tissue is the dermis composed of What type of tissue is the hypodermis composed of Name the 5 main cell types associated with the epidermis Know their location and basic function What is keratin Where do keratinocytes originate which layer of epidermis Do keratinocytes undergo mitosis continuously throughout their life Why do keratinocytes die as they move towards upper epidermis layers Where are melanocytes typically found What is the function of melanocytes What is melanin and what functions does it serve Where are Merkel cells located What is their primary function in conjunction with the Merkel disc Where are Langerhan s cells located What is their primary function What are the 4 major layers of epidermis How would you distinguish them from one another under a microscope Which is most highly active mitotically Above which layer do keratinocytes no longer have access to nourishment from the underlying connective tissue What is the 5th layer that is only found in thick skin What type of tissue is the dermis composed of Is the dermis vascularized Innervated What type of tissue is the papillary layer of the dermis composed of What are the dermal papillae What are the dermal ridges And how do they give rise to your fingerprints Which pigments are related to skin color Where is melanin produced Do humans of different skin color have different of melanocytes How is Ultraviolet radiation UVR bad for humans How is UVR good for humans Which parts of the body lack sweat glands What s the difference between merocrine eccrine and apocrine sweat glands in terms of their structure location and function What is sweat Where is it derived and what is its function Can you name two types of modified apocrine sweat glands What type of gland is the sebaceous gland Where are sebaceous glands located Distinguish between whiteheads blackheads and acne What is hair composed of what kinds of cells What s the difference between the shaft and the root of hair Which part of the hair contains capillaries to nourish growing cells in the hair bulb Which part of the hair follicle contains actively dividing cells What is the smooth muscle responsible for goose bumps Describe the steps of the hair cycle see fig 69 What is the difference between 1 2nd and 3rd degree burns Chapter 7 Required reading Section 71 All Section 72 All Save identification of bone structures for LAB Section 73 All Section 74 Mineral deposition and resorption Calcium Homeostasis Section 75 Fractures and their repair Deeper insight 74 page 228 Osteoporosis Chapter 7 Study guide Where are hyaline elastic and f1brocartilages located in the body What is the function of the perichondrium Differentiate between appositional and interstitial growth of cartilage Know the various functions of bone bone the organ not the tissue Difference between axial and appendicular skeletons Structural differences between compact and spongy cancellous bone where are these two types of bone located for instance in long bones In long bone diaphysis vs epiphysis In long bone where is the yellow marrow located Red marrow What is the medullary cavity In long bone what type of cartilage sits on top of the epiphysis at the joint What is the ephiphyseal line What is the periosteum Where is it located What types of cells does it house Is it innervated and vascularized How is it secured to bone What functions does it serve What is the endosteum Where is it located How do short irregular and at bones differ in structure from long bones Do the former bones have a shaft or epiphyses marrow cavities What is the spongy bone called in short irregular and at bones Where is hematopoietic tissue located in long bones Short irregular and at bones What are the four main cell types associated with bone Where are osteogenic cells located What do they differentiate into What is the function of the osteoblasts Osteoclasts What is the chemical composition of bone Describe the process of intramembranous ossification When does it occur Describe the process of endochondral ossification When does it occur Describe postnatal bone growth When does it occur Where does it occur Understand calcium homeostasis and the body s response to increasing or decreasing blood calcium levels calcitriol calcitonin parathyroid hormone Describe negative feedback loops that correct hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia What is Wolff s law What is osteoporosis Describe the steps of bone repair in particular what s a hematoma When does the f1brocartilaginous callus form and what does it entail Chapter 8 Required Reading Section 81 All SKIP all other sections Note Most of Chapter 8 deals with skeletal anatomy that you will be learning in lab Thus I will not be repeating chapter 8 material in detail during lecture Just make sure you are familiar with the terms and concepts below Chapter 8 Study guide Do you know the difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton If given a bone name could you determine whether it came from the axial or appendicular How many bones does a typical human body have How many bones are there in the human body at birth Why is there a difference in bone number between infant and adult skeletons What is a sesamoid bone What are sutural wormian bones Chapter 9 Required reading Section 91 All Section 92 All but you can SKIP Movement of synovial joints This section will be covered in lab Section 93 The knee joint Deeper insights 94 pg 305 and 95 pg 307 Chapter 9 Study guide What are synarthroses amphiarthroses and diarthroses Which of the joint types fibrous cartilaginous synovial have a joint cavity What are syndesmoses How does the length of the ligament in uence movability What are gomphoses Can you give me examples of synchondroses and sympheses What kind of joint are they from both a structural and functional perspective What are the 5 basic characteristics of a synovial joint What are the two components of the articular capsule of a synovial joint Are synovial joints synarthroses amphiarthroses or diarthroses What are bursa and tendon sheaths What is their main function What types of things can stabilize a joint Can you distinguish between the 6 main types of synovial joint if given pictures Could you identify which ones are most or least movable the of planes that they can move through What are the 3 joints associated with the knee Can you distinguish between the three types of arthritis and what causes them Chapter 10 Required Reading Section 101 All Deeper insight 101 pg 317 103 pg 343 and 105 pg 374 Note Most of Chapter 10 deals with skeletal muscle anatomy that you will be learning in lab Thus I will not be covering sections 102105 during lecture Just make sure you are familiar with the terms and concepts below Chapter 10 Study guide What are the main functions of muscles Know the connective tissues and fascicles of muscular tissue and their main functions ie Endomysium Perimysium Epimysium Fascia fascicles What is the function of a tendon What are aponeuroses retinaculum What s the difference between a direct and indirect attachment of skeletal muscle to bone What s the difference between the origin and insertion of a muscle In which direction do muscles contract towards the origin or towards the insertion Which nerves innervate the muscles of the head and the neck Below the neck What is compartment syndrome What causes this syndrome What are the effects of this syndrome What are the treatments Page 317 What is a hernia What are the causes Know the 3 main types of hernias their locations and characteristics Page 343 Be familiar with the most common athletic injuries to muscles Page 374 Be able to diagnose each of them if given a description What are some methods of prevention and treatment of muscle injuries What is RICE Chapter 11 Required reading Note Your required reading covers all sections except 117 Use your lecture notes and study guide below to focus on the most important concepts covered in chapter 11 Because we do skip some details of the required reading sections Required reading may best compliment your studies if completed AFTER some studying of the notes and review of concepts below Section 111 All Section 112 All Section 113 All Section 114 All Deeper insight 112 pg 416 Rigor Mortis Section 115 All Section 116 All Chapter 11 Study guide What are the ve characteristics of muscle tissue Which one is ONLY found in muscles What are the 3 types of connective tissue associated with skeletal muscle and where are they found e g around a muscle fiber Be able to describe the following structures associated skeletal muscle 1 sarcolemma sarcoplasm myof1bril A band 1 band Z disc Sarcomere Thick filament myosin 9 Thin filament actin 10 Troponin and its three polypeptide subunits 11 Tropomyosin 12 Sarcoplasmic reticulum 13 Terminal cistemae 14 T tubule 9999 What is a motor neuron and what is the point of its contact with muscle caHed Which structures in the axon of a motor neuron contain neurotransmitter Which neurotransmitter is released from motor neurons to induce muscle contraction What is the space between the axon of a motor neuron and the motor end plate called Which structure folds to create the motor end plate When a muscle is in resting phase the sarcolemma is polarized Is this polarization from a more negative charge on the inside or outside of the cell When acetylcholine binds its receptor which cation moves into the muscle ber How does movement of sodium ions into the muscle ber relate to depolarization What is depolarization Describe in as much detail as possible the sequence of events leading to muscle contraction and relaxation ie Excitation ExcitationContraction coupling Contraction Relaxation Start with the acetylcholine in synaptic vesicles in the axon of the motor neuron and go from there being sure to identify structures molecules etc that are essential for the process The following things should make it into your answer at some point axon terminal acetylcholine synaptic vesicle synaptic cleft acetylcholine receptor Na Ca2 sodium potassium pump sarcolemma sarcoplasmic reticulum terminal cistemae Ttubule troponin and its 3 subunits tropomyosin ATP ADP actin myosin polarized depolarization motor end plate Hint The detail in the lecture notes is suf cient to answer any question that may appear on the exam How does Rigor Mortis occur What is muscle tension Load How does muscle ber length relate to muscle tension What is a motor unit What is muscle twitch What are the three periods associated with a muscle twitch Are the durations of these three periods the same for all muscles What is wave summation and how does it relate to how the frequency of muscle stimulation affects contraction What is incomplete tetanus Complete tetanus Would you be able to recognize them on a graph What is the threshold stimulus for muscle contraction The maximum stimulus How do these relate to how the strength of a stimulus affects contraction Differentiate between the two forms of isotonic contraction What is isometric contraction and how does it differ from isotonic contraction Does skeletal muscle store a lot of ATP How does creatine phosphate replenish ATP in skeletal muscle What are the differences between anaerobic and aerobic metabolism Which factors drive muscle fatigue If given various characteristics could you distinguish between slow oxidative fibers and fast glycolytic f1bers Table 113 How do aerobic exercise and resistance exercise differ in their effects on skeletal muscle tissue Chapter 12 Required Reading and study guide Section 121 Read ALL 0 O O O O 0 Know the 3 basic steps of nervous system function Know the anatomical subdivisions of the nervous system Distinguish between the central and peripheral nervous systems Within the peripheral nervous system what distinguishes sensory afferent and motor efferent pathways Within the sensory afferent division what distinguishes the visceral from the somatic division Within the motor efferent pathway what distinguishes the visceral from the somatic division Within the visceral motor division what distinguishes the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions Section 122 Read ALL O 0000 0000 0 Understand the parts of a neuron for describing neuron function Save detailed identification of neuron structures for the lab What is the control center for the neuron What is the function of the dendrites What is the function of the axon Do you know the function of the axon hillock terminal branches and axon terminals of an axon Where are neurotransmitters concentrated Describe three functional properties found in all neurons Define the three most basic functional classes of neurons Can you distinguish between multipolar bipolar unipolar and anaxonic neurons Can axons synthesize proteins Why not Where and how do they get their necessary proteins Explain how neurons transport materials between the cell body and tips of the axon axonal transport Section 123 Read ALL 0 O O O 0 Use table 121 to know and understand the 6 neuroglial cell types and basic function Know whether they are found in the PNS or CNS Describe the myelin sheath that is found around certain nerve fibers and explain its importance in speed of nerve signals What are internodes and nodes of Ranvier How does the conduction of nervous impulses relate to axon diameter How is does myelination differ in PNS versus CNS neurons Explain how damaged nerve bers regenerate Which nerve fibers can regenerate CNS PNS both Section 124 Read ALL 0 O O 0 Explain why a cell has an electrical charge difference voltage across its membrane What is the resting membrane potential Describe how K Na and NaK pumps maintain the resting membrane potential What is a local potential What are the four differences between a local potential and an action potential Defme depolarization Can you recognize depolarization if given a graph showing changes in membrane potentials Defme hyperpolarization Can you recognize hyperpolarization if given a graph showing changes in membrane potentials What is an action potential Can you label the major phases of the action potential on a graph resting depolarization repolarization and hyperpolarization Describe in detail how an action potential is generated including where on the neuron it typically begins and the roles of voltage gated sodium channels depolarization threshold membrane permeability voltagegated potassium channels and the sodium potassium pump the lecture notes may be useful for this as it is summarized on slides 4647 In which direction does an action potential propagate in a neuron Why Why are action potentials allornone phenomena What are the absolute refractory period and relative refractory period and how do these limit how quickly a neuron can re another action potential 0 How does the conduction of nervous impulses relate to myelination Can you describe salutatory conduction of nervous impulses Section 125 Read ALL 0 O 0 What are presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons What is a neurotransmitter what is a synaptic cleft Differentiate between axodendritic axosomatic and axoaxonic synapses Know the steps of an excitatory cholinergic synapse and the neurotransmitter involved Know the steps of an inhibitory GABAergic synapse and the neurotransmitter involved Know the steps of an excitatory adrenergic synapse and the neurotransmitter involved What are 3 effects of this synapse What is the first step of stopping a synaptic signal The second step involves 3 possibilities know them Chapter 13 Required Reading and study guide Section 131 Only read Functions 0 Know the 4 principal functions of the spinal cord Section 132 SKIP Section 133 Read ALL O 0000 O 0 De ne re ex and explain how re exes differ from other motor actions What are the four important properties of a re ex Describe the general components of a typical re ex arc Describe the parts of a muscle spindle and their function Describe the Stretch re ex and its basic function Is it mediated primarily by the brain or spinal cord Know the 7 steps of the tendon re ex Figure 1321 Is it mediated by the brain or spinal cord How do monosynaptic re ex arcs and reciprocal inhibition contribute to re exes Understand Flexor and crossed extension re exes and how they work together see text and Figure 1322 Are they mediated by the brain or spinal cord Understand the basics of the tendon re ex Chapter 15 Required Reading and study guide Section 151 Read ALL 0 0 Explain how the autonomic and somatic nervous systems differ in form and function see table 151 Explain how the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system differ in general function What distinguishes the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions Describe the properties of a visceral re ex Describe the parts of a visceral re ex arc and the order in which signals travel Using gure 151 be able to describe the visceral re ex correcting for high blood pressure including sensors nerves and types of signals involved What is the meaning of autonomic tone sympathetic tone and parasympathetic tone Understand that autonomic pathways involve two neurons what are they Section 152 Read ALL 0 0 Identify the anatomical components and nerve pathways of the sympathetic division What is the sympathetic chain of ganglia Describe the three pathways by which nerve bers leave the sympathetic chain What are the three major collateral ganglia and what are the target organs they feed Discuss the relationship of the adrenal glands to the sympathetic nervous system Identify the anatomical components and nerve pathways of the parasympathetic division What are the four cranial nerves from which parasympathetic signals leave the brainstem What are their target organs Section 153 Read ALL 0 0 Name the neurotransmitters employed at different synapses of the ANS Name the receptors for these neurotransmitters and explain how they relate to autonomic effects Explain how the ANS controls many target organs through dual innervation Explain how control is exerted in the absence of dual innervation Section 154 Read ALL 0 Brie y describe how the autonomic nervous system is in uenced by the central nervous system ie Cerebral cortex Hypothalamus Midbrain Spinal cord Chapter 16 Required Reading and study guide Section 161 Read ALL 0 O 0 De ne receptor and sense organ List the four kinds of information obtained from sensory receptors and describe how the nervous system encodes each type Outline three ways of classifying receptors and be able to de ne each receptor type Section 162 Only read Pain 0 O O 0 What is a nociceptor What are the two different nociceptors and what are the different pain sensations theydetect What is bradykinin what is its effect How does the CNS modulate pain What are the bodies three endogenous opioids what secretes them and what do they do Why are they called neuromodulators Describe the two mechanisms of spinal gating and how they act to modulate pain Section 163 SKIP Section 164 Read The nature of sound The physiology of hearing and Equilibrium 0 You will become familiar with the anatomy of the ear in lab however you may want to review the anatomy of the ear section to better help you understand physiology of hearing and equilibrium that you will be tested over Explain how the ear converts vibrations to nerve signals and discriminates between sounds of different intensity and pitch How do the tympanic membrane and auditory ossicles work together to turn vibrations in the air to vibrations in the perilymph What is the tympanic re ex Explain in detail how the cochlear hair cells are stimulated and this leads to the generation of a nerve signal 0 Explain how the anatomy of the cochlea helps us to distinguish differences in loudness and pitch frequency Explain how the vestibular apparatus enables the brain to interpret the body s position and movements Section 165 Read All Accessory structures and anatomy of the eye will be covered in lab so you just need to understand the anatomy to relate to the physiology of vision 0 0 Discuss the structure of the retina and its receptor cells Explain how the optical system of the eye creates an image on the retina How are the cornea and refraction important in image formation What is Emmetropia and what are the 3 processes to focus an image at close range Discuss how the retina converts an image to nerve signals What 3 cell types are involved and what are their functions What are the visual pigments of rods Cones What do each of these structures allow us to perceive color no color What is bleaching and how are opsin transretinol and cis retinol involved at different stages of light or darkness What is the neurotransmitter used by rod cells When do rod cells secrete their neurotransmitter in light or dark Explain why different types of receptor cells and neural circuits are required for day and night vision How does neuronal convergence in rods contribute to our night vision How does the lack of neuronal convergence in cones give us sharp vision Why does this convergence also lead to poor vision in low light What is the basis for our perception of color vision What are the benefits and drawbacks of stereoscopic vision Chapter 17 Required Reading and study guide Section 171 Read ALL but SKIP hormone nomenclature O 0 Define hormone and endocrine system Name the organs of the endocrine system O O 0 Contrast endocrine with exocrine glands Compare and contrast the nervous and endocrine systems What are neuroendocrine cells Section 172 Read ALL 0 O 0 Describe the anatomical relationships between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland Distinguish between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary Explain how the pituitary is controlled by the hypothalamus and its target organs Use table 173 to understand the names and functions of the six hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones Use table 174 to understand the names and functions of the two hormones stored and released by the posterior pituitary and the names and functions of the six hormones made and secreted by the anterior pituitary Describe the effects of growth hormone Section 173 Read Table 175 0 0 Be able to list all organs other than the Hypothalamus and Pituitary that produce hormones What tissues and organs have a secondary function of secreting hormones Be able to list the source and principal effects of the following hormones Melatonin Thymopoietin Thyroxine and triiodothyronine Epinephrine norepinephrine and dopamine Aldosterone Cortisol Insulin and glucagon Estradiol and progesterone Testosterone Erythropoietin Angiotensin I Calcitriol Atrial natriuretic peptide Gastrin Cholecystokinin Leptin Section 174 Read ALL 0 0 Identify the three chemical classes to which most hormones belong Describe in general how the three types of hormones are synthesized No need to get into the detail of monoamine synthesis on pages 658660 Describe how hormones are transported to their target organs How do hydrophilic and hydrophobic hormones differ in their transport Can bound or unbound hormones leave the blood capillary 0 Describe how hormones stimulate their target cells How do steroid and thyroid hormones stimulate their target cells Are they hydrophilic or hydrophobic In general how do peptides and catecholamines stimulate target cells Are they hydrophilic or hydrophobic What is enzymatic ampli cation How does this contribute to the potency of hormones and their actions Explain how target cells regulate their sensitivity to circulating hormones How does upregulation differ from downregulation Discuss how hormones are removed from circulation after they have performed their roles Section 175 SKIP Section 176 SKIP Section 177Read ALL but skip adrenal disorders 0 Explain some general causes and examples of hormone hyposecretion and hypersecretion Brie y describe some common disorders of pituitary and thyroid function In more detail describe the causes and pathology of diabetes mellitus What is type 1 What is type 2 What are their causes and treatments
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