Intro to Entomology; Exam 2 Study Guide
Intro to Entomology; Exam 2 Study Guide ENTO 2010
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Popular in Entomology
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bethany on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes Format of Test 200 Points (20% of total grade) 40 questions (5 points each) 15 short answer (one word answers) 20 multiple choice 5 true/false Emphasis on: Order Names: 8 1.) Odanta 2.) Orthoptera 3.) Hemiptera 4.) Coleoptera 5.) Siphonaptera 6.) Lepidoptera 7.) Blattodea 8.) Diptera Human Diseases Genus name of disease agent Type of organism Insect vector Questions from quizzes Feb. 22 Order: Odonata Odous = tooth Common name: dragonflies Dragonflies and Damselflies Incomplete metamorphosis Biting mouthparts Two pair wings VERY large eyes Very small antennae Long abdomen Nymphs are aquatic Nymphs and adults are predators Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes Considered beneficial Dragonflies and damselflies Front and back wings beat independently Damselfly vs. dragonfly [Dg] Damselflies are smaller than dg Damselflies hold wings straight back at rest. Dg holds wings out to side Damselflies lay eggs in plant stems underwater; dg lays eggs on water surface Adults regulate their temperature Nymphs are predators Nymph stage lasts for 1 too 3 years Nymph to adult stage is dangerous Must first pump hemolymph into wings Dragonflies and damselflies Hunted prey by sight Use leg hairs to catch prey Excellent fliers Muscles are attached to wings [like birds or bats] Insect behavior: reaction of insects to specific conditions Males are territorial Mate in wheel position Male first removes rival sperm from female Male and female are in “tandem” during egg laying This keeps other males from mating with female Feb. 24?? Order: Blattodea Common cockroach Incomplete metamorhosis Chewing mouthaparts Two pair wings Nocturnal omnivore Flattened body Eggs laid in egg case = ootheca Domestic pests Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes omnivores both plant and animal material are eaten Cockroaches adapted to living with people Only 20 cockroach species are pests Peripheral vision Antennae detect food and water. They keep the antenna clear. Tail hairs are sensitive to movement Cockroaches defense pest control “bait” 1) smell bait at distance 2) touch bait with antennae 3) touch with the hairs on mouthparts 4) chew and taste bait 5) spread bait mechanically *termites evolved from cockroaches Cockroach (r ) fossils 300 million years old Some R eat wood Like termites, these R have protozoans (P) to digest cellulose Cockroach reproduction: 1) male strokes female antennae to identify her 2) male offers food gift to her 3) mate end to end 4) female mates once and then stores sperm 5) she can have 7 broods 6) ootheca have 40 eggs 7) nymphs burst the ootheca by gulping air & expanding Feb. 26 Order: Orthoptera Orthos = straight Ptera = wings Common name: grasshopper, cricket, locust 20,000 species Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes Grasshoppers, Crickets Incomplete metamorphosis Chewing mouthparts Front wings are narrow Back wings are fanlike Strong hind legs Males produce sound Sound receptors on leg or abdomen Oviposit eggs in soil or plant Plant eaters Major agricultural pests Stridulation: production of sound to attract a mate Cricket Songs Each species is different More chirps/seconds = higher temperature Establish territory Call a female Warn others of predators How is sound produced? Crickets and some grasshoppers rub a wing against a wing Grasshoppers and locusts rub a leg against a wing Wings/legs have bumps and ridges = “file and scraper” Wing can serve as amplifier Crickets and Grasshoppers “Call” to find a mate Mate at night to reduce danger from predators Some predators and parasites attracted to “call” It is safer to be a strong “silent” male Crickets Use Court case to lower rent China: raise crickets for fight Sell for fish bait A cricket genus = Gryllus Locusts [L] #1 Agricultural insect pest in the world Two phases: solitary [S]; gregarious [G] Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes Stimulation of hairs on back legs S L causes swarming: SL > GL Swarm may cover 500 square miles and have 50 billion insects Nymphs stay in soil several years during drought Blew/flew to Americas from Africas Locust Swarm Eat: 2,000 tons/day Travel: 65 miles/day Oviposit in soil 1 female => 500 nymphs Locusts have plagued us since biblical times Exodus Chapter: 10 “I will bring locusts into your country…” Feb. 29 Order: Hemiptera Hemi = half Ptera = wings Species = 68,000 Common names: Bugs, aphids, scales, cicadas Hemiptera Incomplete metamorphosis Piercing and sucking mouthparts Pest of crops Transmit disease “True” Bugs Mouthparts [beak] swing forward Many species are predators Base of forewing is hardened Back of forewing is membranous Many have stink glands Assassin bug: piercing/sucking mouthparts Hemiptera Bed bugs [BB] feed at night BB inject an anesthetic BB suck human blood Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes Vector: a means of biological transfer Human Diseases Common name of disease Scientific name of diseases agent Disease agent = what type of organism [protozoan, bacterium, or virus] Arthropod vector Chagas’ Disease Vector: assassin bug [= kissing bug] Disease: Trypanasoma cruzi (protozoan) One million people die per year Primarily in South America Attacks the heart Hard to diagnose; no cure Reservoir hosts = opossums and armadillos Spread of Chagas’ Disease [CD] Kissing bug [KB] feeds on victim [V] at night KB defecates on V’s face V rubs feces [F] + Trypanasoma [T] into wound Xenodiagnoses of CD Laboratory KB feed on patient 10 days later: look for T in KB F ∙ Xenodiagnoses: vector to diagnose disease Aphids Mouthparts [break] swing down Plant feeders Membranous wings Major agricultural pests Aphids [Ap] Ap have many predators Ap give birth to nymphs Plant defense = sticky hairs Ap are usually wingless Overpopulation results in winged Ap Honeydew: a sweet, sticky substance excreted by aphids Honeydew [H] Production by Aphids H allows water excretion Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes H attracts ants H can cause fungal growth H = manna Hemiptera Diversity Bugs Aphids Scales Cicadas Spittlebugs March 2 Order: Coleoptera Coleo = sheath Ptera = wings Common name = beetles, weevils Species = 300,000 Coleoptera Complete metamorphosis Chewing mouthparts Forewings hardened Hind wings membranous Thickened exoskeleton Pests of crops and trees Largest insect order Metamorphosis: change in the structure and habits of an animal Complete metamorphosis Egg Larva Pupa Adult Complete metamorphosis 4 stages often very different in: Appearance Habitat Host Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes Predators And parasitoids Ladybugs [L] L life up front wings and fly with hind wings L are beneficial; L eat aphids Adult L overwinter in massive clusters L are collected and sold for biological control Beware of insects with combined word names: Coleoptera: ladybug, firefly Odonata: dragonfly, damselfly Ephemeroptera: mayfly Diptera: housefly Fireflies Each species has a unique flash pattern [FP] Male flashes to attract female Female flashes in response Male and female have different FP Some females mimic FP of females of other species and prey on males Firefly larvae are aposematic They glow to deter predators Fireflies flash in unison only in India and Tennessee Fireflies Produce light with Luciferin, a pigment which yields light when combined with oxygen 98% of energy is released as light March 14 Dung is valuable food source Elephant Dung Beetles [DB] Many insects attracted to dung DB have specialized mouthparts DB roll dung into balls Civet cats [CC] feed on DB CC produce civetone [C] in anal gland C is used in perfumes Australia Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes Cows were imported Insects couldn’t cope with dung Grassland was lost Solution: Import dung beetles Ancient Egypt The SCARAB [S] = a stone beetle S was the symbol of the soul S was also the Sun God Ra Beetle metamorphosis may have inspired pyramid construction Spanish Fly [SF] = Blister Beetle SF produces a toxin: cantharidin [C] Hippocrates used C as medicine Marquis de Sade used C as aphrodisiac C causes burning sensation in groin C destroys mucous linings in the body Acorn Weevil [AW] Female AW has a long snout [mouthparts] AW drills hole in acorn with snout Then, AW oviposits into this hole AW lays 1 egg per acorn AW larva eats acorn Whirlgig Beetle [WGB] WGB is a scavenger WGB has divided eyes so it can see above and below the water WGB spins in circles to create waves that bounce back to WGB when they hit food item WGB carries air bubble to breathe underwater March 16?? March 18 Insect plant interactions: coevolutionary arms race Plant produces toxin Insect adapts to toxin Plant makes more powerful toxin Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes Plant defense against herbivores Silicon oxide in leaves [like eating glass] Proteinase inhibitors [animals can’t digest food] Secondary Plant Products [toxic compounds] Plant surface has hairs = trichomes [T] T may produce toxins T may be sticky T may be spines or hooks When a plant is wounded it wants to: Limit water loss Prevent fungal/bacterial infection Deter herbivory J. Park Fossilized plant resin = Amber = gem DNA found in fossil [F] insects Sequence F DNA Determine relatedness of insect species Recover dinosaur blood [DNA] from F m Carnivourous Plants Sundews Venus Fly Trap Bladderworts Pitcher Plants Sundews Bright colors attract insects Leaf tentacles have sticky glue Electrical signal causes leaf to curl Leaf uses enzymes to digest prey Venus Fly Trap [VFT] VFT has trigger hairs [TH] in Touching TH causes electrical signal [S] Two S cause rapid growth of outer leaf Leaf closes on insect; VFT digests it VFT only found in wetlands of NC and SC Bladderworts [B] B are aquatic Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes B have a bladder with a trap door When prey item hits trigger hair, it is sucked into bladder in 1/1000 of a second Pitcher Plants Flowerlike: nectar and color attract insects Inside: downward pointing hairs and loose I fall into “pool” and are digested March 21 Order: Diptera Common name flies and mosquitoes Species 90,000 Diptera Complete metamorphosis Mouthparts: piercing/sucking Pair of membranous wings No hind wings Halteres: Stabilizers (replace hind wings) Many larvae are aquatic Most harmful order: many cause disease Flies are the best insect fliers House Fly transmits disease mechanically: It picks up disease somewhere and carries disease to another location House Fly [HF] HF can “see” movement very well HF uses leg hairs to taste HF has SPONGING MOUTHPART Oily hairs on feet: walk on ceiling Fly Farms Maggots are used to eliminate animal farm waste Medical treatment Peal with poor circulation Leg [or arm] wounds heal slowly Add fly maggots to wound Maggots eat dead flesh Prevents amputation Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes African sleeping sickness Vector: Tsetse Fly Disease: Protozoans Trypanosoma Drug Treatment is Effective 65,000 deaths per year Sleeping sickness kills people and cows Wild animals = Reservoir host Africans can’t raise cattle People of Africa Need More Protein Tsetse fly = Guardian of Africa § Because Native habitat has been saved Tsetse Fly Female [TFF} TFF does not lay eggs 1 egg hatches inside TFF Larva develops inside TFF Mature larva [L] is born L burrows into soil and pupates Adult emerges from soil TFF produces only 8 larvae March 23 Mosquito Life Cycle Eggs laid in or near water Aquatic larvae Aquatic pupae Adults live 13 weeks Female mates in male swarm Male feeds on flowers Female needs “blood meal” Mosquito larvae have a siphon tube for breathing Mosquitos have piercing/sucking mouthparts Mosquitos [M] Female M attracted to host CO2 Sound of female M wings attract male M Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes Mosquitoes: piercing/sucking mouthparts [PSM] PSM have: Protective sheath Tube to suck blood Knifelike mouthparts Saliva injector (stops blood clotting) 1897: Ronald Ross showed that mosquitoes malaria 1900: Walter Reed showed that mosquitoes yellow fever Yellow Fever Vector: Mosquito; Aedes Disease: Virus Reservoir Host: Monkeys Worst in South America and Africa No Effective Treatment Dengue Fever Vector: Mosquito; Aedes Disease: Virus No effective Treatment South America, Africa, and Caribbean Zika Fever Vector: Mosquito; Aedes Disease: Virus No effective Treament South America, Africa, and Caribbean Special Concern: Pregnant women Zika may cause microcephaly Malaria Vector: Mosquito Anopheles Disease: Protozoan Plasmodium Drug Treatment is effective South America, Africa, and Asia Malaria Life Cycle: Mosquito [M] feeds on infected host [H] Plasmodium [P] mates in M’s stomach Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes P moves to M salivary glands M feeds on new H P move to H liver P attack H red blood cells H red blood cells rupture Cycle repeats in H: 24, 48, or 96 hours Mated Female Mosquito Eggs do not develop without a Blood Meal Head produces hormones needed for egg production Natural Selection in Africa A mutation changed structure of hemoglobin This change provided resistance to malaria People with one copy of the gene survive malaria People with two copies have sickle cell anemia Order: Siphonaptera Siphon = tube Aptera = wingless Common name: Fleas Siphonaptera Complete metamorphosis Piercing/sucking mouthparts No Wings Adults of both sexes are bloodsucking parasites Good Jumpers and runners Narrow boy Many are disease vectors Fleas Female needs blood for eggs Female eats 15X her weight/day Female lays 2000 eggs Eggs hatch in 1 to 10 days Larvae feed on adults Larva spins a sticky cocoon Cocoon is well camouflaged Life cycle = 12 to 174 days Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes Environment [temperature and humidity] is very important Fleas are attracted to Heat Co2 Light Movement Fleas Can jump 200 times their length Resilin = a protein in the back legs of fleas that works like a rubber band Miriam Rothschild is a world flea expert She showed that female flea [FF] reacts to sex hormones of a pregnancy female host FF adjusts her reproductive cycle to match that of her host FF lays her eggs on babies of host Bubonic Plague Vector: fleas Disease: Bacteria Bacteria Name: Yersinia pestic Antibiotic treatment is effective Found in: Russia, Middle East, Western US Major outbreak in India Bubonic Plague: How is the Bubonic Plague spread by a flea? Reservoir = Rodents Bacteria enter flea with blood meal Bacteria multiply in flea guy Bacteria block entry to gut Flea seeks new host Flea feeds on new host Regurgitates blood with bacteria Host is infected Elephantiasis [E]: Vector = mosquitos Disease organism = roundworms E causes swollen appendages 300 million people in Southeast Asia in E River Blindness Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes Vector: Black flies Disease: Round worms West Africa 20 million people infected Possible use of insects in war Modify plague bacteria Destroy crops War on drugs
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