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Intro to Entomology; Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Bethany

Intro to Entomology; Exam 2 Study Guide ENTO 2010

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Entomology > ENTO 2010 > Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Study Guide
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This study covers all of the information covered for the course's second exam.
Insects & the Environment
Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bethany on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 03/29/16
Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Format of Test  200 Points (20% of total grade)  40 questions (5 points each)  15 short answer (one word answers)  20 multiple choice  5 true/false  Emphasis on:  Order Names: 8 1.) Odanta 2.) Orthoptera 3.) Hemiptera  4.) Coleoptera 5.) Siphonaptera 6.) Lepidoptera 7.) Blattodea 8.) Diptera  Human Diseases  Genus  name of disease agent  Type of organism  Insect vector  Questions from quizzes  Feb. 22  Order:  Odonata  Odous = tooth  Common name: dragonflies  Dragonflies and Damselflies  Incomplete metamorphosis  Biting mouthparts  Two pair wings  VERY large eyes  Very small antennae  Long abdomen  Nymphs are aquatic  Nymphs and adults are predators Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Considered beneficial  Dragonflies and damselflies  Front and back wings beat independently  Damselfly vs. dragonfly [Dg]  Damselflies are smaller than dg  Damselflies hold wings straight back at rest. Dg holds wings out to side  Damselflies lay eggs in plant stems underwater; dg lays eggs on water  surface  Adults regulate their temperature  Nymphs are predators  Nymph stage lasts for 1 too 3 years  Nymph to adult stage is dangerous  Must first pump hemolymph into wings  Dragonflies and damselflies  Hunted prey by sight  Use leg hairs to catch prey  Excellent fliers  Muscles are attached to wings [like birds or bats]  Insect behavior: reaction of insects to specific conditions  Males are territorial  Mate in wheel position  Male first removes rival sperm from female  Male and female are in “tandem” during egg laying  This keeps other males from mating with female  Feb. 24??  Order: Blattodea  Common­ cockroach  Incomplete metamorhosis  Chewing mouthaparts  Two pair wings  Nocturnal omnivore  Flattened body  Eggs laid in egg case = ootheca   Domestic pests Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  omnivores ­ both plant and animal material are eaten  Cockroaches adapted to living with people  Only 20 cockroach species are pests  Peripheral vision  Antennae detect food and water. They keep the antenna clear.   Tail hairs are sensitive to movement  Cockroaches defense pest control “bait” 1) smell bait at distance  2) touch bait with antennae  3) touch with the hairs on mouthparts  4) chew and taste bait  5) spread bait mechanically   *termites evolved from cockroaches  Cockroach (r ) fossils 300 million years old  Some R eat wood  Like termites, these R have protozoans (P) to digest cellulose  Cockroach reproduction: 1) male strokes female antennae to identify her  2) male offers food gift to her  3) mate end to end  4) female mates once and then stores sperm  5) she can have 7 broods  6) ootheca have 40 eggs  7) nymphs burst the ootheca by gulping air & expanding  Feb. 26  Order: Orthoptera  Orthos = straight  Ptera = wings  Common name: grasshopper, cricket, locust  20,000 species Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Grasshoppers, Crickets  Incomplete metamorphosis  Chewing mouthparts  Front wings are narrow  Back wings are fan­like  Strong hind legs  Males produce sound  Sound receptors on leg or abdomen  Oviposit eggs in soil or plant  Plant eaters  Major agricultural pests  Stridulation: production of sound to attract a mate  Cricket Songs  Each species is different  More chirps/seconds = higher temperature  Establish territory  Call a female  Warn others of predators  How is sound produced?  Crickets and some grasshoppers rub a wing against a wing  Grasshoppers and locusts rub a leg against a wing  Wings/legs have bumps and ridges = “file and scraper”  Wing can serve as amplifier  Crickets and Grasshoppers  “Call” to find a mate  Mate at night to reduce danger from predators  Some predators and parasites attracted to “call”  It is safer to be a strong “silent” male  Crickets Use  Court case to lower rent  China: raise crickets for fight  Sell for fish bait  A cricket genus = Gryllus  Locusts [L]  #1 Agricultural insect pest in the world  Two phases: solitary [S]; gregarious [G] Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Stimulation of hairs on back legs S L causes swarming: SL ­> GL  Swarm may cover 500 square miles and have 50 billion insects  Nymphs stay in soil several years during drought  Blew/flew to Americas from Africas  Locust Swarm  Eat: 2,000 tons/day  Travel: 65 miles/day  Oviposit in soil  1 female => 500 nymphs  Locusts have plagued us since biblical times  Exodus Chapter: 10  “I will bring locusts into your country…”  Feb. 29  Order: Hemiptera  Hemi = half  Ptera = wings  Species = 68,000  Common names:  Bugs, aphids, scales, cicadas  Hemiptera  Incomplete metamorphosis  Piercing and sucking mouthparts  Pest of crops  Transmit disease  “True” Bugs  Mouthparts [beak] swing forward  Many species are predators  Base of forewing is hardened  Back of forewing is membranous  Many have stink glands  Assassin bug: piercing/sucking mouthparts  Hemiptera  Bed bugs [BB] feed at night  BB inject an anesthetic  BB suck human blood Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Vector: a means of biological transfer  Human Diseases  Common name of disease  Scientific name of diseases agent  Disease agent = what type of organism [protozoan, bacterium, or virus]  Arthropod vector  Chagas’ Disease  Vector: assassin bug [= kissing bug]  Disease: Trypanasoma cruzi (protozoan)  One million people die per year  Primarily in South America  Attacks the heart  Hard to diagnose; no cure  Reservoir hosts = opossums and armadillos  Spread of Chagas’ Disease [CD]  Kissing bug [KB] feeds on victim [V] at night  KB defecates on V’s face  V rubs feces [F] + Trypanasoma [T] into wound  Xenodiagnoses of CD  Laboratory KB feed on patient  10 days later: look for T in KB F  ∙      Xenodiagnoses: vector to diagnose disease  Aphids  Mouthparts [break] swing down  Plant feeders  Membranous wings  Major agricultural pests  Aphids [Ap]   Ap have many predators  Ap give birth to nymphs   Plant defense = sticky hairs   Ap are usually wingless  Overpopulation results in winged Ap  Honeydew: a sweet, sticky substance excreted by aphids  Honeydew [H] Production by Aphids  H allows water excretion Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  H attracts ants  H can cause fungal growth  H = manna  Hemiptera Diversity  Bugs  Aphids  Scales  Cicadas  Spittlebugs  March 2  Order: Coleoptera  Coleo = sheath  Ptera = wings  Common name = beetles, weevils  Species = 300,000  Coleoptera  Complete metamorphosis  Chewing mouthparts  Forewings hardened  Hind wings membranous  Thickened exoskeleton  Pests of crops and trees  Largest insect order  Metamorphosis: change in the structure and habits of an animal  Complete metamorphosis  Egg  Larva  Pupa  Adult  Complete metamorphosis  4 stages often very different in:  Appearance  Habitat  Host Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Predators  And parasitoids  Ladybugs [L]  L life up front wings and fly with hind wings  L are beneficial; L eat aphids  Adult L overwinter in massive clusters  L are collected and sold for biological control  Beware of insects with combined word names:  Coleoptera: ladybug, firefly  Odonata: dragonfly, damselfly  Ephemeroptera: mayfly  Diptera: housefly  Fireflies  Each species has a unique flash pattern [FP]  Male flashes to attract female  Female flashes in response  Male and female have different FP  Some females mimic FP of females of other species and prey on males  Firefly larvae are aposematic  They glow to deter predators  Fireflies flash in unison only in India and Tennessee  Fireflies  Produce light with Luciferin, a pigment which yields light when  combined with oxygen  98% of energy is released as light  March 14  Dung is valuable food source  Elephant Dung Beetles [DB]  Many insects attracted to dung  DB have specialized mouthparts  DB roll dung into balls  Civet cats [CC] feed on DB  CC produce civetone [C] in anal gland  C is used in perfumes  Australia Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Cows were imported  Insects couldn’t cope with dung  Grassland was lost  Solution: Import dung beetles  Ancient Egypt  The SCARAB [S] = a stone beetle  S was the symbol of the soul  S was also the Sun God Ra  Beetle metamorphosis may have inspired pyramid construction  Spanish Fly [SF] = Blister Beetle  SF produces a toxin: cantharidin [C]  Hippocrates used C as medicine  Marquis de Sade used C as aphrodisiac  C causes burning sensation in groin  C destroys mucous linings in the body  Acorn Weevil [AW]  Female AW has a long snout [mouthparts]  AW drills hole in acorn with snout  Then, AW oviposits into this hole  AW lays 1 egg per acorn  AW larva eats acorn  Whirlgig Beetle [WGB]  WGB is a scavenger  WGB has divided eyes so it can see above and below the water  WGB spins in circles to create waves that bounce back to WGB when they  hit food item  WGB carries air bubble to breathe underwater  March 16??  March 18  Insect plant interactions: coevolutionary arms race  Plant produces toxin  Insect adapts to toxin  Plant makes more powerful toxin Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Plant defense against herbivores  Silicon oxide in leaves [like eating glass]  Proteinase inhibitors [animals can’t digest food]  Secondary Plant Products [toxic compounds]  Plant surface has hairs = trichomes [T]  T may produce toxins  T may be sticky  T may be spines or hooks  When a plant is wounded it wants to:  Limit water loss  Prevent fungal/bacterial infection  Deter herbivory  J. Park  Fossilized plant resin = Amber = gem  DNA found in fossil [F] insects  Sequence F DNA  Determine relatedness of insect species  Recover dinosaur blood [DNA] from F m  Carnivourous Plants  Sundews  Venus Fly Trap  Bladderworts  Pitcher Plants  Sundews  Bright colors attract insects  Leaf tentacles have sticky glue  Electrical signal causes leaf to curl  Leaf uses enzymes to digest prey  Venus Fly Trap [VFT]  VFT has trigger hairs [TH] in  Touching TH causes electrical signal [S]  Two S cause rapid growth of outer leaf  Leaf closes on insect; VFT digests it  VFT only found in wetlands of NC and SC  Bladderworts [B]  B are aquatic Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  B have a bladder with a trap door  When prey item hits trigger hair, it is sucked into bladder in 1/1000  of a  second  Pitcher Plants  Flower­like: nectar and color attract insects  Inside: downward pointing hairs and loose  I fall into “pool” and are digested  March 21  Order: Diptera  Common name flies and mosquitoes  Species 90,000  Diptera  Complete metamorphosis  Mouthparts: piercing/sucking   Pair of membranous wings   No hind wings   Halteres: Stabilizers (replace hind wings)  Many larvae are aquatic  Most harmful order: many cause disease   Flies are the best insect fliers  House Fly transmits disease mechanically: It picks up disease somewhere and carries disease to another location  House Fly [HF]  HF can “see” movement very well  HF uses leg hairs to taste  HF has SPONGING MOUTHPART  Oily hairs on feet: walk on ceiling  Fly Farms  Maggots are used to eliminate animal farm waste  Medical treatment  Peal with poor circulation  Leg [or arm] wounds heal slowly  Add fly maggots to wound  Maggots eat dead flesh  Prevents amputation Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  African sleeping sickness  Vector: Tsetse Fly  Disease: Protozoans  Trypanosoma  Drug Treatment is Effective  65,000 deaths per year  Sleeping sickness kills people and cows  Wild animals = Reservoir host  Africans can’t raise cattle  People of Africa Need More Protein  Tsetse fly = Guardian of Africa  §  Because Native habitat has been saved  Tsetse Fly Female [TFF}  TFF does not lay eggs  1 egg hatches inside TFF  Larva develops inside TFF  Mature larva [L] is born  L burrows into soil and pupates  Adult emerges from soil  TFF produces only 8 larvae  March 23  Mosquito Life Cycle  Eggs laid in or near water  Aquatic larvae  Aquatic pupae  Adults live 1­3 weeks  Female mates in male swarm  Male feeds on flowers  Female needs “blood meal”  Mosquito larvae have a siphon tube for breathing  Mosquitos have piercing/sucking mouthparts  Mosquitos [M]  Female M attracted to host CO2  Sound of female M wings attract male M Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Mosquitoes: piercing/sucking mouthparts [PSM]  PSM have:  Protective sheath  Tube to suck blood  Knife­like mouthparts  Saliva injector (stops blood clotting)  1897: Ronald Ross showed that mosquitoes malaria  1900: Walter Reed showed that mosquitoes yellow fever  Yellow Fever  Vector: Mosquito; Aedes  Disease: Virus  Reservoir Host: Monkeys  Worst in South America and Africa  No Effective Treatment  Dengue Fever  Vector: Mosquito; Aedes  Disease: Virus  No effective Treatment  South America, Africa, and Caribbean  Zika Fever  Vector: Mosquito; Aedes  Disease: Virus  No effective Treament  South America, Africa, and Caribbean  Special Concern: Pregnant women  Zika may cause microcephaly  Malaria  Vector: Mosquito Anopheles  Disease: Protozoan  Plasmodium  Drug Treatment is effective  South America, Africa, and Asia  Malaria Life Cycle:  Mosquito [M] feeds on infected host [H]  Plasmodium [P] mates in M’s stomach Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  P moves to M salivary glands  M feeds on new H  P move to H liver  P attack H red blood cells  H red blood cells rupture  Cycle repeats in H: 24, 48, or 96 hours  Mated Female Mosquito  Eggs do not develop without a Blood Meal  Head produces hormones needed for egg production  Natural Selection in Africa  A mutation changed structure of hemoglobin   This change provided resistance to malaria   People with one copy of the gene survive malaria   People with two copies have sickle cell anemia   Order: Siphonaptera  Siphon = tube  Aptera = wingless  Common name: Fleas  Siphonaptera  Complete metamorphosis  Piercing/sucking mouthparts  No Wings  Adults of both sexes are blood­sucking parasites  Good Jumpers and runners  Narrow boy  Many are disease vectors  Fleas  Female needs blood for eggs  Female eats 15X her weight/day  Female lays 2000 eggs  Eggs hatch in 1 to 10 days  Larvae feed on adults  Larva spins a sticky cocoon  Cocoon is well camouflaged  Life cycle = 12 to 174 days Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Environment [temperature and humidity] is very important  Fleas are attracted to  Heat  Co2  Light  Movement  Fleas  Can jump 200 times their length  Resilin = a protein in the back legs of fleas that works like a rubber band  Miriam Rothschild is a world flea expert  She showed that female flea [FF] reacts to sex hormones of a pregnancy  female host  FF adjusts her reproductive cycle to match that of her host  FF lays her eggs on babies of host  Bubonic Plague  Vector: fleas  Disease: Bacteria  Bacteria Name: Yersinia pestic  Antibiotic treatment is effective  Found in: Russia, Middle East, Western US  Major outbreak in India  Bubonic Plague: How is the Bubonic Plague spread by a flea?  Reservoir = Rodents  Bacteria enter flea with blood meal  Bacteria multiply in flea guy  Bacteria block entry to gut  Flea seeks new host  Flea feeds on new host  Regurgitates blood with bacteria  Host is infected  Elephantiasis [E]:  Vector = mosquitos  Disease organism = roundworms  E causes swollen appendages  300 million people in Southeast Asia in E  River Blindness Intro to Entomology Exam 2 Notes  Vector: Black flies  Disease: Round worms  West Africa  20 million people infected  Possible use of insects in war  Modify plague bacteria  Destroy crops  War on drugs


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All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.