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Test 3 - Org Communications

by: Charles Notetaker

Test 3 - Org Communications MGT3213

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > Business > MGT3213 > Test 3 Org Communications
Charles Notetaker

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Test 3
Organizational Communications
Susan Lack
Study Guide
Org Communications, Communications
50 ?




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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Charles Notetaker on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGT3213 at Mississippi State University taught by Susan Lack in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Organizational Communications in Business at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 03/29/16
Org. Communications: 1/15/16 Test 1: CHAPTER 1 **Communication types: ** Intrapersonal- one (intra- inside; within ourselves) Interpersonal- two Group- Three or more (not specifically addressing an individual person) Organizational- groups w/ groups (organization to organization) **You are representing YOUR organization** Public or mass- advertisements. One way channel; no particular person. 4 Strategic/ Contextual Forces: 1) Legal & Ethical constraints- Advertising laws: Ex: tobacco advertising restricted from TV. Employment laws- how you communicate with your subordinates. Must go through certain steps to fire people. Check with Human resources. Ethics- “Do the right thing.” Right and wrong. Certain ways to do things the right way. “If you cant figure something being ethical or not, picture it on your hometown newspaper” 2) Diversity Challenges- education, two people with higher or lower education. Age. People you begin to work with will be much older than you. Learning to communicate with people from different generations “Language.” 3) Changing technology- Cell phones; first could only call from the car, now you can text/ send pictures. As technology changes, you communicate in different ways. Never use electronic technology for confidential information. 4) Team environment- From intrapersonal to group communication. Nowadays, very little work is done by individuals alone. Groups and teams. If they think it is more productive. “If we work together then we will be more productive than an individual.” Companies move to groups and teams because they think it will wok out better in the interest of the company. **************************DATES FOR WORKSHOPS: **************************** - Wednesday February 10- professional online presence - Friday February 26- Plagiarism 1/20/16 Org. Communications CHAPTER 2: -Focusing on Interpersonal and Group Communication- Psychology: Explain how behavioral theories about human needs, trust and disclosure, and motivation relate to business communication. 1- Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: (Triangular Pyramid) 1 Self-actualizing needs: To be better at everything you do. “Good employee.” 2 Ego needs: Pay attention to you and not just blow you off. 3 Social Needs: Need for love and belonging. Need to be accepted in your department. 4 Security and Safety Needs: To not be laid off. Gravitate towards safety. 5 Physiological Needs: Food and Water Maslow says “If you want to communicate with someone, you must be on the same level as them on the communication ladder.” 2- Stroking: When you communicate with people, you have a positive or negative “stroke.” Not always purposeful, however don’t make negative unless you mean negativity. 3- As you trust someone more, you are more willing to share information. 1 Free or open area: Stuff you can tell anybody. (Name, Hometown) 2 Blind area: People know things about us we don’t know about ourselves. 3 Things we want to be but we do not share with other people. 4 Unknown area: Things you don’t know will happen. “How much we are willing to share depends on our relationship with that person.”- Johari 4- McGregor’s Management Styles: ALWAYS ONE OR ANOTHER. –Does not address what kind of workers you have. Theory X: Workers inherently dislike work, talent is narrowly distributed among a few, workers will do as little work as they can; use directive behavior. Theory Y: Workers like challenging work, talent is widely distributed, workers can be motivated to work independently, uses supportive behavior. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model: Directive behavior- Detailed rules and instructions with close monitoring. Supported behavior- Listening, communicating, recognizing, and encouraging. **Manager uses whichever style is appropriate for the situation** Uses one or another 1/22/16 Org. Communications CHAPTER 2 Continued: Verbal- with words** More important because of certain word choice. Nonverbal- without words - Metacommunication: Not expressed in words, but accompanies a verbal message. (The part of the verbal message we do not actually say.) “Don’t let it happen again.” - Kinesic- Visual: Kinesic- something you see or hear. (Gestures, eye contact, facial expression, attire & grooming- Look professional) & Vocal (tone of voice, loudness of voice, sound mad/happy) Nonverbal communication: - Cannot be avoided - Vary between people and cultures. (Sole of shoe) - May be intentional or unintentional, beneficial or harmful. (Sound of voice) - May contradict and receive more attention than the verbal message. (“No”- tone of voice) When verbal and nonverbal contradict, we typically always believe the nonverbal. Reasons for listening and styles of listening: 1 Interact Socially = Casual Listening 2 Obtain Information = Listening for information 3 Solve Problem = Intensive Listening (Pay attention to everything- WORK) 4 Share feelings = Empathetic Listening – Listening with heart, not ears. Bad listening habits: - Faking attention - Allowing disruptions - Over-listening - Stereotyping – deals with the speaker - Dismissing subjects as uninteresting – Deals with the topic - Failing to observe nonverbal aids – Pay attention to the nonverbal to get the whole message. 1/25/16 Org. Communications CHAPTER 2 *TEST WEDNESDAY- Feb 3rd* • Horizontal communication is more important than Vertical communication • Much communication involves Face-to-face meetings with team members rather than impersonal “hand-offs” – people in your organization – group- office etc. • Communication is open and more frequent. (Among people on the same level) Characteristics of effective groups: Common goals, Role perception, Longevity, Size, Status, Group norms (rules), Leadership (to work together correctly). Purpose of group communication: - Achievement or task purpose To serve on a decision-making or problem-solving group To get the job done - Maintenance or social purpose To assist in the betterment of individual members from a behavioral point of view To develop group morale. Types of Teams: Task force: Short term, to achieve a single goal in limited time. Quality assurance team (Quality circle): Focus on product or service quality. Cross functional team: Join employees from various departments to solve problems. Product Development: Focus on the development cycle of new products. Team behaviors: Commitment: Focus on mission, values, goals, and expectations. Cooperation: share sense of purpose. Communication: Know that information must flow smoothly. Contribution: Expect all members to share skills and abilities with the team. Chapter 3: Look at the seven steps Steps in the writing process: 1. Consider Applicable Contextual Forces: Determining how, whether, and when a message is sent. Organizational culture: “A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group has learned as it solved its problems . . . And which has worked well enough to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to these problems.” Dimensions of Context: 1. Physical context – place, location, setting 2. Social context – relationship between sender & receiver 3. Chronological context – time 4. Cultural context – organization & employees 1/27/16 CHAPTER 3: Step 2: Why are you preparing a message and what do you want to accomplish? Step 3: Envision the audience – What should you learn about your audience? - Age and cultural factors, economic and educational levels, work background, needs and concerns, rapport, expectations. Step 4: Adapt the Message to the Audience’s Needs and Concerns • Focus on audience’s point of view- “What is in it for us?” make it about the receiver. • Communicate ethically and responsibly- Write something in a way an average person can understand. • Build and protect goodwill- reputation. No goodwill, no customers. “Trust relationship” DO NOT DESTROY GOODWILL. • Write concisely; use simple words- “As short as possible.” - Eliminate redundancies - Use active voice verbs - Include only relevant details - Eliminate clichés - Do not restate ideas - Tighten using prefixes, suffixes, and compound adjectives • Project positive, tactful tone- For “bad news” only • State ideas using positive language • Make it about the “thing” not the “person” • Use passive voice verbs • Use subjunctive mood when necessary- “If it were possible.” • Include a positive idea in the same sentence with a negative one Customers do not want to hear what you cannot do. 2/1/16 Step 5: organize the message What is the main idea? How will they respond to that idea? Choose how to send the message. 1. Outline (I, II, III, A, B, C.) 2. Choose deductive (direct) or inductive (indirect) ON TEST- Direct (Deductively)- Pleased Indirect (Inductively)- Displeased Sender benefits from outlining: ● Encourages accuracy and brevity ● Permits Concentration on one phase at a time ● Saves time in structuring ideas ● Provides a Psychological lift ● Facilitates appropriate Emphasis of ideas ****Direct: Main idea then details ****Indirect: Details then main idea 2/1/16 CHAPTER 4 Step 6: Prepare first draft -get all ideas out on paper. -do not worry about errors ● Craft powerful sentences ─ Use correct sentence structure ─ Rely on Active voice ─ Emphasize important ideas ● Develop Coherent paragraphs ─ Position _____ sentences appropriately ─ Link ideas to achieve __________ ─ Keep paragraphs _______ ─ Vary sentence and paragraph ______ Don’t make it too long, use bullets not numbers. Do not use difficult words. Keep between 8 and 11 grade reading level. How to check: File- Proofing- show readability statistics 1. Look at the wording. What the message actually says. Spelling/ grammar/ readability. 2. Proof for content (dates, info), organization (logical? Deductive/inductive?), and style (meaning clear? Concise? Focus on receiver?) 3. 3. Proof for mechanical errors: -Grammar, capitalization, and punctuation. - Word substitution TEST 2: CHAPTER 5: Communicating Electronically 2/8/16 Bring bonus points paper Wednesday. Appropriate use of technology: What is the purpose of the message? Is the message straightforward and informative? Is the information personal or confidential? Would an electronic message sacrifice positive human relations? Advantages of email: -Facilitates fast, convenient flow of information among users at various locations and time zones. -Increases efficiency -Reduces cost and paper waste Guidelines for preparing email messages: - provide useful subject line - -Limit the message to single topic directed toward receiver’s needs. - Organize based on reader’s reaction - Use jargon, technical words, and shortened terms selectively - Use graphic highlighting for better readability - Revise emails for clarity, conciseness, and tone Elements of an effective subject line: - Helps readers sort through a crowded email - Specifically describes content of message but does not give away bad news - Will be meaningful in the future - Is followed with a restatement of the subject in the message Email fundamentals: Check email promptly Do not contribute to email overload Use email for appropriate messages - Send short, direct messages - Do not send messages when you’re angry - Beware of email hoaxes and viruses - Develop email organizational habits Electronic messages and the law: ● Assume responsibility for commitments made via email, as printouts serve as verification ● Abide by copyright laws (use of graphics, message forwarding . . .) ● Be familiar with laws that affect technology: — Electronic Communications Privacy Act —allows companies to monitor email usage for legitimate business purposes 2/15/16 CHAPTER 6: Delivering good- and Neutral- News Messages Claims: -Routine (deductive – chapter 6) Assume we get what we want. : Write What we want because of what happened. -Non-Routine (Inductive - Chapter 8) Not sure if we can get it. Prepared to argue. Explained what happened and then said what they want. (Persuade) Requests: Same as above (). Deductive: The main idea. Details: what is necessary to explain what you want. Responses: Good news – YES – Deductive Bad News – NO – Inductive Banks are conservative. If you do not go to a meeting with a business, they assume you are not interested. Business casual: Khakis and a collard shirt. Benefits of written appreciation messages: State exactly what you are thankful for. Be specific and meaningful. Main idea first. – “Thank you” – comes first. Talk about how it benefitted you or helped you. After an interview, the day after you need to thank the employer for the interview. Apologies: Written DEDUCTIVELY because the receiver is interested to hear your apology. To get customers to come back, you must tell them how you are going to handle the situation better next time. (what happened, and how are you going to correct it.) Mike, Please accept my apology for missing yesterday’s meeting of the Planning Committee. Had the plane from Denver arrived on schedule, I could have attended. - Main idea The report on tax considerations for the proposed site of the Windermere Apartments is ready. Let me know if you plan to include it on next week’s agenda. - Secondary info Main idea first – detail – “thank you” – Deductive 2/17/16 To “All Employees” – treated as proper noun. 1. What were doing 2. Steps and procedures 3. Call for questions Guidelines for procedural/Instructional Messages: Begin each step with an action verb. Itemize each step on a separate line. Number each step to indicate a certain order. Use bullets if order is not important. Include contact information for questions. Read through the instructions step by step. Ask a co-worker to read through the steps. TEST 2: Chapters 4-7 ALSO Letter format examples. Mr. John Doe Ms. Jane Doe doe. CHAPTER 7 Bad news messages: 1. Intro 2. Details with bad news (end of 2 ndparagraph) 3. Positive close Do not want them to be unhappy, want to preserve the relationship. Intro: begin with a buffer to cushion the bad news. Avoid revealing the bad news too early. Avoid building false hopes by starting positively. Explain something you may be able to try, do not directly say no. EXAMPLE: WORKSHEET 1. Students should not miss class. - Students should attend class. 2. Do not park on the sidewalk. - Park in designated areas only. 3. Talking is not allowed in the library. - Talking is permitted in study rooms only. 4. We cannot ship your order because we do not have the product in stock. - We could ship your order if the material was in stock. 5. Do not forget to reply to the customer’s email. - Remember to reply to the customer’s email. 6. I cannot attend the meeting because I will be out of town. - If I were in town, I would attend the meeting. / I will be available for a meeting next week. 7. People without tickets will not be admitted. - People with tickets will be admitted. 8. A resume should not be printed on colored paper. - Resumes should be printed on white paper. 2/22/16 Denying a claim: State what they are getting rather than what they are not getting. “Take a look at our catalog and we will get you a 10% off coupon.” Constructive criticism: Gives communicator a feeling of having exercised responsibility. Allows management to learn of changes that need to be made. Allows staff to modify techniques and become more successful. Helps staff perform better in the future. - GO TO YOUR BOSS and say, “I need help.” CHAPTER 8: Persuasion: The ability to influence others to buy my product, service, or idea. Never take a job based on just what they will be paying you. Look at benefits and if you like the company and people in the company. Do you see a future here? Evaluate the job first. Year major what job Selling features with source RESUMES: 4/7/16 Due: Monday after spring break! – March 21, 2016. ******************* Identification: Education: Do not consider high school. Name of school (MSU), city, state. Name of your degree, major, (minor), expected graduation date, GPA if 3.0 or better. Bachelor of Business Administration. Format: pg. Honors and activities: Organizations you belong to. MR. HUSTLE. HONORS SOCIETY. Special skills: References available on request. Michael B. Turfness use this example. Who can be a reference? - They have to know you and have credibility to a business person. - Parents friends, high school coaches, faculty. - Cannot use: Clergy (church) and Family. 3/21/16 Average employer spends about 30 seconds looking at your resume. Have at least 70% of the skills shown that are required for the job. Who is the customer for your resume? A list of achievements/ accomplishments. Tailor your resume to the job the company is posting for. Will the size of the department you worked with benefit you on your resume? Did you create, reorganize, or restructure anything? If so, explain. Any special talents. Technical or special skills knowledge. Do you have any experience training or supervising any staff? ANYTHING SUGGESTING ACHIEVEMENT. Make sure your resume reflects things to enhance the job description. Biggest turnoff is a SELFISH OBJECTIVE. Avoid selfish objective statements. **Resumes should be no longer than one page** : up to two pages MAX. At this stage, you should put ALL jobs you have ever worked. Only jobs relevant to the job youre applying for. Make sure your email address is professional. Use correct dates. Important factor: READABILITY Top questions to ask after every interview: What is a typical day like at this job? What type of people will I be working with? How many people have held this job in the last 5 years? What advice do you wish you would have been given when you interviewed? What have past employees done here? Do you enjoy working here? What type of person do you think will be most successful in this job position?


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