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Chapter 8 Study Guide Sociology

by: valerie zaid

Chapter 8 Study Guide Sociology SOC 10000 - 016

Marketplace > Purdue University > Sociology > SOC 10000 - 016 > Chapter 8 Study Guide Sociology
valerie zaid

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A complete study guide for Chapter 8 of Sociology 100
Introductory Sociology
Dan M Weiss
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by valerie zaid on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 10000 - 016 at Purdue University taught by Dan M Weiss in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 03/29/16
Sociology Exam II Study Guide Chapter 8-Sex and Gender:  Sex: biological differences that distinguish males from females  Sexuality: desire, sexual preference, and sexual identity and behavior  Gender: the set of social arrangements that are built around normative sex categories (a social position)  Intersexed people: o About 18 out of every 100,000 babies are born with this condition  Transgendered: people whose identity, expression, behavior, or general sense of self does not conform to what is usually associated with the sex they were born in the place they were born  Transsexuals: people who transitions from one sex to another  Sex: o Many believe that there are only two sexes- male and female – and that all people fall into one group or the other o However, evidence suggests that we need to embrace a more expansive definition of sex that goes beyond two rigid and distinct categories  Gender: o Gender roles: sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one’s status as a male or female  Feminism: a consciousness raising movement to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life. The underlying belief is that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities and respect. o Feminism seeks to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life o Gender structures social relations on unequal ground, and thus power is fundamentally at play when we talk about gender differences  The “woman question” o Structural functionalism: theoretical tradition claiming that every society has certain structures that exists to fulfill some set of necessary functions o Psychoanalytical theories: According to Sigmud Freud, girls and boys develop masculine and feminine personality structures through early interactions with their parents. o Conflict theories argue that gender, not class, was the driving force of history. o Social feminists argue that the root of all social relations, including relations of production, stemmed from unequal gender relations. o Social constructionists argue that gender is also a process. They view gender roles as having open- ended scripts. o Black feminists: made the case that early liberal feminisms was largely by, about, and for white middle-class women o Middle-range theories may be the most useful in addressing the complicated subject of gender because they connect people’s day-to-day experiences to larger social forces  Sociology in the bedroom o Much like gender differences, sexual practices vary across time and place, supporting the notion that sexuality is as much a social construct as gender o Homosexual: social identity of a person who has sexual attraction to and/or relations with other persons of the same sex  Studies show that gender inequality is rampant in schools 2 o Sexism occurs when a person’s sex or gender is the basis of judgment, discrimination, and hatred against him or her o Sexual harassment is an illegal form of discrimination, involving everything from jokes to sexual assault, all intended t women fell uncomfortable and unwelcome  Women still face many challenges in the working world today, including unequal pay, sexual harassment, sexism, tracking to certain kinds of jobs, “feminization” of jobs, glass ceiling and more.  Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 o The bill amends the civil rights act of 1964 stating that the 180-day statue of limitations for filing an equal-pay lawsuit regarding pay discrimination resets with each new discriminatory paycheck.  Glass ceiling: an invisible limit on women’s climb up the occupational ladder  Glass escalator: the accelerated promotion of men to the top of a work organization, especially in feminized jobs  Mattew Shepard hate crimes bill passes o Sexual orientation added to the list of features in which a sentence enhancement can be sought o Passed 11 years after the brutal attack in Laramie WY o Gives DOJ the power to assist or prosecute crimes o Requires the FBI keep statistic on crimes based on gender or gender identity 3


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