Earthquakes Study Guide
Earthquakes Study Guide GLY 110-004
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marina Subbotina on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GLY 110-004 at Northern Kentucky University taught by Sarah Evelyn Johnson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see The Face of the Earth in Science at Northern Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Questions 1. A fault which is not exposed on the surface of the earth is called a _______. 2. The intensity of shaking during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake varied widely in a very small geographic area due to _____. 3. The worldwide seismic network has played a role in human political history because it can detect not only earthquake waves but also _____. 4. Tsunami travel up to ____ mph across the open ocean. 5. Why was the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake so devastating? 6. A surface along which rock on opposed sides is offset by earthquake-induced slip is called a _______. 7. Which earthquake severity scale takes into account the type of rock that has been fractured? 8. A primary force opposing motion on all faults is ____________. 9. Generally, which type of earthquake waves travel fastest? 10. If, during an earthquake, a footwall slides upward relative to a hanging wall, the fault is termed ____________. 11. If, during an earthquake, a hanging wall slides upward relative to a footwall, the fault is termed ____________ if the fault is steep (closer to vertical than horizontal). 12. If, during an earthquake, a hanging wall slides upward relative to a footwall, the fault is termed ____________ if the fault is shallow (much closer to horizontal than vertical). 13. Interpret the travel-time curve shown. How many minutes between the arrival of the first P- wave and the arrival of the first S-wave? 14. Which earthquake intensity scale assesses the effects of an earthquake on humans and human-made structures? 15. Interpret the travel-time curve shown. Which line on the graph represents the S-wave? 16. Which earthquake severity scale measures the amplitude of deflection of a seismograph pen, standardized to an idealized distance of 100 km between epicenter and seismograph? 17. Seismic retrofitting is the process of __________. 18. Sandy substrate is susceptible to ____________ during an earthquake. 19. How many seismic stations are necessary to find the epicenter of an earthquake? 20.What is Magnitude? 21.What 2 factors is Richter scale based off of? 22.What is intensity? 23.What earthquake wave doesn’t travel through liquid or gas? 24.How can you figure out distance to epicenter? 25.Magnitude based on area of fault moved, distance and rock strength is _____. 26.Earthquake damage to buildings can be mitigated by ______. 27.Which type of wave will you feel first? 28.What type of boundary do tsunamis form on? 29.Tsunami can be generated on East side of U.S. by ______. 30.What causes foreshocks? 31.What are smaller earthquakes, following the major earthquake? 32.For how long after an earthquake can those (^) occur? 33.What is elastic behavior? 34.What is stick-slip behavior? 35.What is elastic-rebound theory? 36.What is plastic deformation? 37.What is brittle deformation? 38._____ is when movement along the fault occurs without generating an earthquake. 39.What is a compressional wave? Which earthquake wave(s) is a compressional wave? 40.What is a shear wave? Which earthquake wave(s) are shear wave? 41.What is a seismometer? What two basic configurations of seismometers? 42.What is seismogram? 43.What are seismic belts/seismic zones? 44.Seismic belts that coincide with plate boundaries are called_____. 45.Seismic belts that occur away from plate boundaries are called ______. 46.Most seismic belts coincide with which of the seismic belts? (answer to 44 or answer to 45). 47.How deep do shallow earthquakes occur? Intermediate earthquakes? Deep earthquakes? 48.What kind of fault(s) develops along divergent boundaries? 49.What kind of fault(s) develops along transform boundaries? 50.What kind of fault(s) develops along convergent boundaries? 51.Which type of plate boundary hosts intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes (that occur in the down-going slab)? What is this seismicity called? 52._______, meaning seismic events caused by actions of people. 53.What 4 factors affect the intensity of an earthquake? 54.What causes liquefaction? 55.What is recurrence interval? 56.Why do changes in groundwater or injection of waste-water by humans cause earthquakes? 57.Can earthquakes occur in the middle of plates? 58.What two magnitude scales measure earthquake magnitude? 59.What are the most damaging waves? 60.What is the location under the ground where the earthquake originates? What is the location on top of the ground, right above that originating point? Answers 1. Blind fault 2. Different parts of the city were built on different types of ground 3. Underground nuclear explosions 4. 500 5. There was no tsunami warning network in place 6. Fault 7. Seismic-moment magnitude scale 8. Friction 9. Body waves/P-waves 10. Normal 11. Reverse 12. Thrust 13. 7 minutes. Explanation: The P-wave is the wave that arrives first. The first wave on the graph is marked by line B, since its ‘time’ is 2 minutes, versus the other wave on the line A, whose ‘time’ is 9 minutes. The second wave, on line A is the S-wave, because it arrives later. To find “how many minutes between the arrival” on these two waves, you subtract: 9-2, which ends up being 7. 7 minutes is your answer. 14. Wave A. Explanation: P-wave comes first, while S-wave comes second, so you have to find the wave whose arrival time is later. Wave B time is 2 minutes, while Wave A time is 9. This means Wave A is the answer. 15. Richter scale 16. strengthening existing buildings and structures 17. Liquefaction 18. Mercalli scale 19. 3 20. How much energy is released in an earthquake. 21. Distance (S-P interval) and amplitude of s-waves on seismograph. 22. How much damage occurs in an earthquake, which depends on individual reports by zip code. 23. S-wave. 24. by using S-P interval. 25. Moment Magnitude 26. designing buildings at the right height 27. P-wave 28. Subduction zone 29. A landslide or an impact 30. Development of smaller cracks in the vicinity of what will become a major rupture. 31. Aftershocks 32. For weeks or years 33. Same phenomenon that happens when you stretch a spring and then let go. 34. Alternation between stress buildup and slip events 35. When during a movement, the once-bent rocks adjacent to the fault “twang” back to their original, unbent shape, thereby relieving the elastic strain. 36. When a rock flows, very slowly, without breaking. 37. When material breaks along fractures or cracks and separates into pieces. 38. Fault creep 39. Waves that cause particles of material to move back and forth parallel to the direction in which the wave itself moves. P-wave. 40. Waves that cause particles of material to move back and forth perpendicular to the direction in which the wave itself moves. S-wave and surface wave. 41. An instrument that can record the ground motion from an earthquake, also called seismograph. One for measuring vertical (up-and-down) ground motion and the other for measuring horizontal (back-and-forth) ground motion. 42. The deflections traced by a seismometer that provide a record of the earthquake (the lie- detector looking graphs that were shown in questions 14 and 15 of the “questions” sheet). 43. The relatively narrow strips of crust of Earth under which most earthquakes occur. 44. Plate-boundary earthquakes 45. Intraplate earthquakes 46. Plate-boundary earthquakes 47. 0-60 km. Between 60 km and 300 km. Up to depth of 660 km. 48. Normal faults and strike-and-slip faults 49. Most are strike-and-slip faults, while some, such as San Andreas fault are stick-slip faults. 50. Thrust faults 51. Convergent boundary. Wadati-Benioff zone. 52. Induced seismicity 53. 1-magnitude, because larger magnitudes release more energy. 2-distance from focus, because amplitude of vibrations decrease as waves pass through the Earth. 3- the nature of substrate at the location, because earthquake waves tend to be amplified in weaker substrate. 4- the “frequency” of earthquake waves- high frequency vibrations are not as dangerous as low-frequency vibrations. 54. Ground shaking causes the sediment grains to try and settle together, but the pores increase and push the grains apart, causing water to rise, becoming a slurry- quicksand. 55. The average time between successive events- earthquakes along a given fault. 56. Insertion of water into an old fault, can decrease friction that resists slipping, therefore, activating the slipping movement. 57. Yes. 58. Richter Magnitude scale and Moment Magnitude scale. 59. S-waves and surface waves 60. Focus. Epicenter. Additional Notes 1. Tsunami don’t create tall waves in the open ocean. 2. Tsunami do NOT form due to horizontal movement on the plate boundary. 3. Damp sand will shake the least during an earthquake. 4. The 1811 New Madrid earthquake shook a larger area than the 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake. 5. Resonance is the enhancement of motion of swings on a playground (or of buildings swaying during an earthquake) when a new push (or wave) arrives at just the right time to be "in sync" with existing motion. 6. Short-term predictions of earthquake behavior have been largely unrealiable. 7. A large earthquake in the New Madrid seismic zone occurs, on average, about every 300- 400 years. 8. During the New Madrid earthquakes following occurred: landslides, chimneys in Cincinnati collapsed, liquifaction. 9. Earthquake magnitude does NOT decrease farther from epicenter, because magnitude is a measure of energy released, which remains the same. 10. Wind blown waves, at the surface of the ocean, only affect top part of the ocean; while tsunami displaces a whole column of water. 11. Tsunami may be preceded by lowering sea level, exposing more beach area.
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