New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Devin Mart

Exam 1 Study Guide BIO 121 A

Devin Mart
GPA 3.82

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Exam 1 Study Guide
General Biology
Dr. Durham
Study Guide
Biology 120 - General Biology
50 ?




Popular in General Biology

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Devin Mart on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 121 A at Missouri State University taught by Dr. Durham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Missouri State University.


Reviews for Exam 1 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/29/16
  Mart 1  Exam 1 Study Guide    Lecture 1  1. Biology is the study of life.  2. The lowest level of biological organization is the atom.  a. The order of structural levels is as follows: atoms, molecules, organelles, cells,  tissues, organs, organ systems, biological community, ecosystem, biosphere.  i. Biological community ­ an interacting group of various species in a  common location  ii. Ecosystem ­ a biological community of interacting organisms and their  physical environment.  iii. Biosphere ­ the regions of the surface, atmosphere, and hydrosphere of the  earth (or analogous parts of other planets) occupied by living organisms.  3. Uptake and processing of nutrients, excretion of wastes, response to environmental  stimuli.  4. Hook ­ first observation of cells & named the cell (idea stemmed through cork).  Leeuwenhoek ­ first to discover single celled organisms, cells in blood & sperm.  5. Cell Theory:  a. All living things consist of cells.  b. All cells come from other cells.  c. New cells produced by division of existing cells.  d. All cells enclosed by membrane.  e. All cells contain DNA.  6. Prokaryotic cells are single celled organisms with no internal membranes, no organelles  and no nucleus. Eukaryotic cells are all other cells that contain internal membranes,  organelles, and a nucleus.  7. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the biological instructions for all organisms. Genome is  the entire “library” of genetic instructions (all of the nucleotides).  8. A source of energy for an ecosystem is the sun.  9. Negative feedback or feedback inhibition slows or stops processes. Positive feedback  speeds up a process.  10. Evolution is the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have  developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth. Taxonomy is  the branch of science concerned with classification, especially of organisms; systemics.  a. The three domains are: bacteria, archaea and eukarya.  b. The four kingdoms are: protista, plantae, fungi, animalia  11. Darwin formed the theory of evolution and natural selection with his book ​ The Origin of  Species​.    Mart 2  12. The scientific method consists of five steps: observation, question, hypothesis, prediction,  and test.  13. Science is the quest for knowledge and technology is the process by which we get there.    Lecture 2  1. The ​ Origin of Species ​is a book written by Charles Darwin about his theories of evolution  and natural selection.  2. Lamarck was another scientist looking into the theory of evolution, he and Darwin both  published articles over it but Darwin had far more evidence so he was given credit. The  use and disuse of parts and inheritance of acquired characteristics.  3. Natural selection is the mechanism for evolutionary change in populations. Descent with  modification, all present day organisms are related through descent from unknown  ancestors in the past.  4. The three inferences proposed by Ernst Mayr:  a. Inference 1 ­ production of more individuals than environment can support leads  to a struggle for existence among individuals of population, only a fraction of  offspring surviving each generation.  b. Inference 2 ­ survival in struggle for existence is not random, it depends in part on  hereditary constitution of individuals.  c. Inference 3 ­ this unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead  to a gradual change in a population, with favorable characteristics accumulating  over the generation.  5. Darwin’s main ideas:  a. Natural selection is differential success in reproduction (unequal ability of  individuals to survive and reproduce).  b. Natural selection occurs through interaction between environment and variability  inherent among individual organisms making up a population.  c. Product of natural selection is adaptation of populations of organisms to their  environment.  6. A population is a group of interbreeding individuals of a single species that share a  common geographic area.  7. When 1% of insects is immune to insecticide they will go on to give those genes to their  offspring until all insects are immune ­ natural selection.  8. Homologous structures is an organ or bone that appears in different animals, underlying  anatomical commodities demonstrating descent through a common ancestor (whales,  humans and bats all have similar bone structures).  9. The genetic code is shared by all of life. Libraries of genes and proteins with sequences  that match closely related sequences probably have been copied from a common  ancestor.    Mart 3  10. Biogeography is the geographical distribution of species.  a. Convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related  independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar  environments.  b. Endemics are species of plants & animals that can only be found in one area of  the world.  11. Succession of fossil forms are compatible with major branches of descent in tree of life.    Lecture 3  1. Microevolution is a change in allele frequencies in a population. Macroevolution is major  evolutionary change. Population genetics emphasizes extensive genetic variation within  populations and recognizes the importance of quantitative characters.  2. Modern synthesis is the comprehensive theory of evolution and it emphasizes:  a. The importance of populations as the units of evolution.  b. The central role of natural selection as most important mechanism of evolution.  c. The idea of gradualism to explain how large changes over long periods of time.  3. A population is a localized group of individuals that belong to the same species. A  species is a group of populations whose individuals have potential to interbreed and  produce fertile offspring in a nature. A gene pool is the stock of different genes in an  interbreeding population.  4. The Hardy­Weinberg theorem describes a non evolving population, the conditions of this  are:  a. Very large population size.  b. No migrations.  c. No net mutations.  d. Random mating.  e. No natural selection.  5. The four factors that can alter allele frequencies in a population are: genetic drift, natural  selection, gene flow, mutation.  a. Genetic drift occurs when changes in gene frequencies from one generation to  another occur because of chance events that occur when populations are finite in  size.  b. The bottleneck effect occurs when numbers of individuals in a larger population  are drastically reduced by a disaster.  c. Founder effect occurs when a new population is started by only a few individuals  that don’t represent the gene pool of a larger source population.  6. Natural selection is the violation of conditions necessary for the Hardy­Weinberg  equilibrium. Gene flow is the genetic exchange due to migration of fertile individuals or  gametes between populations. A mutation is a change in an organism’s DNA, this is    Mart 4  important to evolution because the original source of genetic variation that serves as raw  material for natural selection.  7. Quantitative characters vary along a continuum within a population. Discrete characters  are determined by a single locus with different alleles.  8. Polymorphism occurs when two or more discrete characters are present and noticeable in  a population.  9. Geographic variation results from differences in genetic structure between population or  between subgroups of single populations. A geographic variation in form of graded  change in a trait along a geographic axis is a cline.  10. Natural selection affects frequency of a heritable trait in a population:  a. Directional selection ­ most common during periods of environmental change or  when members of a population migrate to a new habitat with different  environmental conditions.  b. Diversifying selection ­ occurs when environmental conditions favor individuals  at both extremes of the phenotypic range over intermediate phenotypes.  c. Stabilizing selection ­ favors intermediate variants and acts against extreme  phenotypes, reduces variation and maintains predominant phenotypes.  11. Sex provides a mechanism for changing the distribution of alleles and varying them  among offspring.    Lecture 4  1. Speciation is the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution.  Anagenesis is the accumulation of changes associated with transformation of one species  into another. Cladogenesis is the budding of one or more new species from a parent  species.  2. The biological species concept is a species as members of populations that actually or  potentially interbreed in nature, not according to similarity of appearance. Species are  populations or groups of populations whose members have potential to interbreed with  each other to produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other species.  3. Prezygotic barriers impede mating between species if members of different species  attempt to mate.  a. Habitat isolation, behavioral isolation, temporal isolation, mechanical isolation,  gametic isolation.  4. Postzygotic barrier prevent hybrid zygote from developing into a viable, fertile adult.  a. Reduced hybrid viability, reduced hybrid fertility, hybrid breakdown.  b. Allopatric speciation is several geological processes can fragment a population  into two or more isolated populations. Adaptive radiation is the evolution of many  diversely adapted species from a common ancestor.    Mart 5  c. Ring species are various stages in gradual divergence of new species from  common ancestors.     


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.