Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide BIO 121 A
Popular in General Biology
Popular in Biology
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Devin Mart on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 121 A at Missouri State University taught by Dr. Durham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Missouri State University.
Reviews for Exam 1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/29/16
Mart 1 Exam 1 Study Guide Lecture 1 1. Biology is the study of life. 2. The lowest level of biological organization is the atom. a. The order of structural levels is as follows: atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, biological community, ecosystem, biosphere. i. Biological community an interacting group of various species in a common location ii. Ecosystem a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment. iii. Biosphere the regions of the surface, atmosphere, and hydrosphere of the earth (or analogous parts of other planets) occupied by living organisms. 3. Uptake and processing of nutrients, excretion of wastes, response to environmental stimuli. 4. Hook first observation of cells & named the cell (idea stemmed through cork). Leeuwenhoek first to discover single celled organisms, cells in blood & sperm. 5. Cell Theory: a. All living things consist of cells. b. All cells come from other cells. c. New cells produced by division of existing cells. d. All cells enclosed by membrane. e. All cells contain DNA. 6. Prokaryotic cells are single celled organisms with no internal membranes, no organelles and no nucleus. Eukaryotic cells are all other cells that contain internal membranes, organelles, and a nucleus. 7. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the biological instructions for all organisms. Genome is the entire “library” of genetic instructions (all of the nucleotides). 8. A source of energy for an ecosystem is the sun. 9. Negative feedback or feedback inhibition slows or stops processes. Positive feedback speeds up a process. 10. Evolution is the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth. Taxonomy is the branch of science concerned with classification, especially of organisms; systemics. a. The three domains are: bacteria, archaea and eukarya. b. The four kingdoms are: protista, plantae, fungi, animalia 11. Darwin formed the theory of evolution and natural selection with his book The Origin of Species. Mart 2 12. The scientific method consists of five steps: observation, question, hypothesis, prediction, and test. 13. Science is the quest for knowledge and technology is the process by which we get there. Lecture 2 1. The Origin of Species is a book written by Charles Darwin about his theories of evolution and natural selection. 2. Lamarck was another scientist looking into the theory of evolution, he and Darwin both published articles over it but Darwin had far more evidence so he was given credit. The use and disuse of parts and inheritance of acquired characteristics. 3. Natural selection is the mechanism for evolutionary change in populations. Descent with modification, all present day organisms are related through descent from unknown ancestors in the past. 4. The three inferences proposed by Ernst Mayr: a. Inference 1 production of more individuals than environment can support leads to a struggle for existence among individuals of population, only a fraction of offspring surviving each generation. b. Inference 2 survival in struggle for existence is not random, it depends in part on hereditary constitution of individuals. c. Inference 3 this unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to a gradual change in a population, with favorable characteristics accumulating over the generation. 5. Darwin’s main ideas: a. Natural selection is differential success in reproduction (unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce). b. Natural selection occurs through interaction between environment and variability inherent among individual organisms making up a population. c. Product of natural selection is adaptation of populations of organisms to their environment. 6. A population is a group of interbreeding individuals of a single species that share a common geographic area. 7. When 1% of insects is immune to insecticide they will go on to give those genes to their offspring until all insects are immune natural selection. 8. Homologous structures is an organ or bone that appears in different animals, underlying anatomical commodities demonstrating descent through a common ancestor (whales, humans and bats all have similar bone structures). 9. The genetic code is shared by all of life. Libraries of genes and proteins with sequences that match closely related sequences probably have been copied from a common ancestor. Mart 3 10. Biogeography is the geographical distribution of species. a. Convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments. b. Endemics are species of plants & animals that can only be found in one area of the world. 11. Succession of fossil forms are compatible with major branches of descent in tree of life. Lecture 3 1. Microevolution is a change in allele frequencies in a population. Macroevolution is major evolutionary change. Population genetics emphasizes extensive genetic variation within populations and recognizes the importance of quantitative characters. 2. Modern synthesis is the comprehensive theory of evolution and it emphasizes: a. The importance of populations as the units of evolution. b. The central role of natural selection as most important mechanism of evolution. c. The idea of gradualism to explain how large changes over long periods of time. 3. A population is a localized group of individuals that belong to the same species. A species is a group of populations whose individuals have potential to interbreed and produce fertile offspring in a nature. A gene pool is the stock of different genes in an interbreeding population. 4. The HardyWeinberg theorem describes a non evolving population, the conditions of this are: a. Very large population size. b. No migrations. c. No net mutations. d. Random mating. e. No natural selection. 5. The four factors that can alter allele frequencies in a population are: genetic drift, natural selection, gene flow, mutation. a. Genetic drift occurs when changes in gene frequencies from one generation to another occur because of chance events that occur when populations are finite in size. b. The bottleneck effect occurs when numbers of individuals in a larger population are drastically reduced by a disaster. c. Founder effect occurs when a new population is started by only a few individuals that don’t represent the gene pool of a larger source population. 6. Natural selection is the violation of conditions necessary for the HardyWeinberg equilibrium. Gene flow is the genetic exchange due to migration of fertile individuals or gametes between populations. A mutation is a change in an organism’s DNA, this is Mart 4 important to evolution because the original source of genetic variation that serves as raw material for natural selection. 7. Quantitative characters vary along a continuum within a population. Discrete characters are determined by a single locus with different alleles. 8. Polymorphism occurs when two or more discrete characters are present and noticeable in a population. 9. Geographic variation results from differences in genetic structure between population or between subgroups of single populations. A geographic variation in form of graded change in a trait along a geographic axis is a cline. 10. Natural selection affects frequency of a heritable trait in a population: a. Directional selection most common during periods of environmental change or when members of a population migrate to a new habitat with different environmental conditions. b. Diversifying selection occurs when environmental conditions favor individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range over intermediate phenotypes. c. Stabilizing selection favors intermediate variants and acts against extreme phenotypes, reduces variation and maintains predominant phenotypes. 11. Sex provides a mechanism for changing the distribution of alleles and varying them among offspring. Lecture 4 1. Speciation is the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution. Anagenesis is the accumulation of changes associated with transformation of one species into another. Cladogenesis is the budding of one or more new species from a parent species. 2. The biological species concept is a species as members of populations that actually or potentially interbreed in nature, not according to similarity of appearance. Species are populations or groups of populations whose members have potential to interbreed with each other to produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other species. 3. Prezygotic barriers impede mating between species if members of different species attempt to mate. a. Habitat isolation, behavioral isolation, temporal isolation, mechanical isolation, gametic isolation. 4. Postzygotic barrier prevent hybrid zygote from developing into a viable, fertile adult. a. Reduced hybrid viability, reduced hybrid fertility, hybrid breakdown. b. Allopatric speciation is several geological processes can fragment a population into two or more isolated populations. Adaptive radiation is the evolution of many diversely adapted species from a common ancestor. Mart 5 c. Ring species are various stages in gradual divergence of new species from common ancestors.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'