Socy 370 Exam 2 study guide
Socy 370 Exam 2 study guide SOCY 370 001
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sequoia Brown on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCY 370 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Derek M Silva in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Sport in Sociology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Sociology Exam 2 study guide Exam 2 Wednesday March 30, 2016 Gender and Sport 1. Gender is a social construct that outlines the roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a particular society believes are appropriate for men and women 2. Title IX passed by Congress in 1972 Requires schools or other covered education programs to 3 things: o Offer members of both sexes equal opportunities to play sports o Allocate athletic scholarships equitably o Treat male and female athletes equality with respect to other benefits and services, such as equipment, coaching, and facilitates 3. In class examples of gender inequity in sport? - While 170,384 men played college sports in 1971-72, female intercollegiate athletes did not pass 170,000 until 2005-06 - Women in Division 1 colleges, while representing 53% of the student body, receive only: * 45% of the participation opportunities *40% of the total money spent on athletics *48% of the total athletic dollars *36% of the recruiting dollars 4. Women -in sports magazines women barely have clothes on -the woman are advertised to please the ‘male gaze of the media’ 5. see worksheet Masculinity and Sport 1. Hyper-masculinity - a term for the exaggeration of male stereotypical behavior *emphasizes on physical strength, aggression, and sexuality - has an impact across society and tends to lead to: 1. callous sexual and physical attitudes towards women 2. ingrained belief that violence is ‘manly’ 2. Hegemonic-masculinity ***Developed by R.W. Connell - Proposes to explain how and why men maintain dominant social roles over women, and other gender identities perceived as more ‘feminine’ in any given society o Key characteristics: Independent Powerful Emotionally unexpressive Strictly heterosexual Unflinching in the face of adversity Indifferent to pain Unwilling to compromise his core values ** Ideal type for how we think masculinity is and the achievement of masculinity 3. Apply the concept “hegemonic masculinity” - professional football players personify hegemonic masculinity Independent performance based Powerful speed and strength Emotionally unexpressive players stay mum and stoic Strictly heterosexual Michal Sam? Indifferent to pain “suck it up”/ “take it for the team” Unwilling to compromise his core values - Players who violate the implicit rules may find themselves belittled in from of their teammates 4. Why is the concept “hegemonic masculinity” problematic for some sociologist? - It does not give a categorical label to a group of sexist and anti- feminine attitudes 5. Orthodox Masculinity - refers to the conformity of the achieved variables that currently align with social dominance, something that all men can attempt to approximate - refers to how men express their near uniformity in thought and action- how they achieve the ideology of OM *Difference between from hegemonic masculinity & orthodox masculinity - Hegemonic o Ideal type for both how we think masculinity should be and the achievement of masculinity o Used to describe both achieved and ascribed variables that align with social masculine dominance - Orthodox o A way to conceptualize the acts and achievements of masculinity o Used to describe the achieved variables of masculine dominance 6. Explain counter-hegemonic masculinity and highlight some examples Counter-hegemonic masculinity -refers to the type of masculinity that is the opposite of hegemonic masculinity Example: body building - In terms of gender construction, while men and women who reach the elite ranks of bodybuilding may appear hyper masculine from the standpoint of muscle mass, their impressive physiques sometimes serve as protective shells for emotional insecurities 7. Be able to discuss Dale Spencer’s (2014) article (online) “Eating clean’ for a violent body: mixed martial arts, diet and masculinity (from the article) In this article, I engage with food and food preparation as a site for the performance and regulation of masculinities. I probe contemporary rationalized body culture and the forms of food, social domination, scientific knowledge and normative discourses that are part of the sport of mixed martial arts (MMA). I examine manifold dietary discourses, food consumption and preparation practices related to MMA to illuminate how MMA fighters' involvement in the sport involves the subjection of their own bodies to rigorous dietary regimes, but also the domination of female bodies in relation to food preparation. This article demonstrates how ‘eating clean’ involves a perception of certain foods and supplements as clean. This is centered on producing a body-for- masculine performance that is fast, strong and capable of giving and taking pain. It involves an ascetic lifestyle that involves the rejection of fast food and other ‘dirty’ foods that would pollute or slow down the violent bodies of MMA fighters. A four-year ethnography of MMA, advertising of ‘MMA supplements’, and online articles regarding MMA dietary regimes forms the empirical basis of this article. Race and Sport 1. Define Race - any action or behavior, intentional or unintentional, that is based primarily on the race or the skin color and that subordinates an individual or group based on that skin color or race - in short: the belief that one race is superior to anther *can be enacted individually or institutionally a. Individual racism - refers to an individual’s own racist assumptions, beliefs or behaviors that stem from conscious and unconscious personal prejudice b. Systematic racism (institutional racism) - is a sociological theory for understanding involves the policies and structural practices entrenched in established institutions which result in the exclusion or promotion of certain racial groups *differs from overt discrimination in the sense that no individual intent is necessary (but does not exist) -engrained in norms, regulations, and customs -informal, implicit racial codes - prejudiced people become part of institutions 2. Fleras and Kunz ‘Classic’ conception of racism a. formal boundaries b. denial of opportunities c. discriminatory laws and regulations against identifiable minorities d. deliberate exclusion of minorities from equitable participation 3. Contemporary Racism a. subtle, covert, rather than overt b. associated with institutions c. evolving and situational d. associated with consequences, rather than with intentions 4. Overrepresentation of certain groups in sport in relation to contemporary conceptualizations of racism - African Americans accounted for over 75% of players in the NBA at the end of 2008 - African Americans players comprised 67.3% of NFL players in 2012 - In 2012, 63.9% of MLB players were white; 7.2% African American; 26% Hispanic; 1.9% Asian - In 2013, there were 69 minority players in the NHL 5. Explain the graduation rate of NCAA basketball players in relation to the concept of ‘systemic racism ” - 91% of white NCAA tournament players graduate, whereas only 59% of African American players do informal, implicit racial codes Southall et al. (2015) suggest that black profit athletes who play for most successful FBS and NCAA D-1 programs graduate at significantly lower rates than full time male students 6. Discuss some of the overt and systemic racism examined in class - Overt, individual racism, still exists but it tends to be more subtle and covert Example: a white football player only sits with other white football players on the bus -Systemic racism involves the policies and structural practices entrenched in established institutions Example: segregation of schools 7. Apply the “classic” and “contemporary” conceptions of racism to the case of “Washington Redskins” and explain how they approach it differently - Historically, a derogatory term used to refer to Native American people; a racial slur too many - Regardless of justifications, the use of the name continues to garner opposition from many 8. What are some of the other notable team names derived from Native American/ Aboriginal Canadian culture? - Florida State Seminoles - Indiana Braves - Atlanta Braves 9. Explain why the appropriation of American Indian imagery could be conceived of as problematic. -“The continued use of American Indian likenesses and images by sports teams has resulted in widespread racial, cultural and spiritual stereotyping, which promotes hatred and disrespect of American Indian people” 10. What are the differences between biological/physiological and socioeconomic explanations of racial disparities in professional sport? Discuss some of the trends in the research discussed in class. Biological/physiological Explanations - Different racial/ ethnic groups are biologically predetermined to perform better in athletic endeavors o Example: black atheletes = higher CoMfavors them in running Socioeconomic Explanations - Rather than looking at the inherent biological characteristics of athletes, SE explanations look at how racial and cultural disparities in sport are due to their economics positions, education, geographic location, lived experiences, privilege, power, and control o Example:In the current college sport system, a racial hierarchy with divergent group interests factors the economic and culturally elite (i.e., white males) Social Class and Sport 1. Define social class - A concept centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped together into a set of hierarchical social categories a. Explain the concept Social Stratification - Categorization of people into socioeconomic strata o Based upon their occupation, income, wealth, and social status 2. What are the most common hierarchical categories of class? a. Upper Class b. Middle Class c. Lower Class 3. How does social class interact with sport? - Studies have shown that there is a correlation between a person’s social class and their participation in sports - People who are ‘higher’ in the social class are more likely to play sport - People of high status are less likely to participate in prole sports 4. Define and explain the concept of “prole” sports. - Prole sports are sports that the upper class avoid and therefore are associated with the proletariat or working class o Examples: boxing, wrestling, rugby, bodybuilding, football 5. Highlight the key similarities and differences in how the three general “classes” interact with sport. Be sure to use examples discussed in class. a. Lower class and sport i. Suffer from lack of suitable opportunities to fruitfully participate in sport 1. Insufficient public facilities 2. Lack of quality instruction 3. Poor equipment 4. Transportation difficulties b. Middle class and sport i. Middle class sports require significant amounts of money to participate ii. Usually enjoy better conditions that those in ‘lower class’ 1. Public facilitates 2. Adequate instruction 3. Poor to adequate equipment 4. Means of transportation 5. Financial resources for facility dues, coaching, and equipment costs What is the difference in sport regarding the lower and middle class? - HOW they choose to play in their sport c. Upper class and sport i. To play sports, more expensive to participate and very exclusive 6. Explain how some sports, typically sports populated by the “upper class”, reinforce class division in society? Be sure to highlight some examples used in class. i. Work to reinforce class divisions through exclusivity 1. Private golf clubs 2. Private ski club 3. Equestrian clubs 7. Explain the relationship between social capital and sport . Be sure to discuss some of the findings of the studies discussed in class. - Social Capital a. How social networks (people who you know) can provide resources that help in attainment of upward mobility - Sports in the upper class: o often require a high degree of both economic and social capital to participate - Often actively seek to exclude those who do not have high degrees of economic and social capital - Very institutionalized in the form of rules and regulations o Example: Augusta National Golf Club (you can only get in if you have social capital o Example: skiing – you have to have economic capital Studies discussed - ** (all you need to know) o Levine’s (your reading) ethnography of Parlington High School Ethnography: the scientific description of the customs of individual peoples and cultures when the researcher goes to stay in the environment he is studying 8. Explain the relationship between cultural capital and sport. Be sure to discuss some of the findings of the studies discussed in class. - Cultural Capital o General knowledge, experience, style, and self- presentation that one has acquired that enables him or her to succeed in certain social settings Studies discussed in class - Stempel (2006) found o Many sports are highly class exclusive o Dominant classes are use strenuous aerobic sports to draw boundaries o Competitiveness within civilized constraints on physical domination appear to be an important secondary principle of distinction between upper and middle/lower class
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