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Biology 102 Study Guide for Test 3

by: annazeberlein

Biology 102 Study Guide for Test 3 BIOL102

Marketplace > College of Charleston > Biology > BIOL102 > Biology 102 Study Guide for Test 3
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About this Document

This study guide covers Chapters 23-26, from plant structure to invertebrates. A lot of information here!
Concepts/Apps in Biology II
Dr. Heather Pritchard
Study Guide
Biology, biology 102, Plant Structure, plant nutrition, animals
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by annazeberlein on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL102 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Heather Pritchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Concepts/Apps in Biology II in Biology at College of Charleston.


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Date Created: 03/29/16
Biology 102 Study Guide for Test 3, Chapters 25, 26, 23, 24 Chapter 25 – Plant Tissues - Structure of a flowering plant o Shoot system o Root system § Modified roots § Adventitious roots o Stems and modified stems o Leaves and modified leaves o The body plan originates from two types of growth § Primary § Secondary - Plant life spans o Annual o Biennial o Perennial - Plant growth occurs by meristems o Apical o Lateral o Meristems give rise to three tissue systems § Dermal tissue system § Vascular tissue system § Ground tissue system - Types of plant tissues o Simple § Parenchyma § Collenchyma § Sclerenchyma o Complex § Vascular xylem § Phloem § Dermal epidermis § Periderm - Plant tissue organization o Root tissue o Epidermis o Leaf tissue § o Epidermal hairs o Stem tissues § Nodes § Vascular bundles § Secondary growth and growth rings Chapter 26 – Plant Nutrition and Transport - Require on average 16 chemical elements - Soil quality determines plant nutrition and growth o Sand o Silt o Clay o Humus o Loam - Agriculture changes the health of soils o Topsoil § Leaching § Erosion o Sustainable agriculture movement § Soil conservation § Better irrigation § Better fertilizers § Prevent erosion - How plants derive nutrients from soil o Function of roots § Absorbing water and minerals • Controlling water uptake o Stacked vessel elements o Tracheids • Water transport o Cohesion o Transpiration • Sugar transport o Sinks o Pressure flow theory o Epidermal surface area o Symbiotic relationships Chapter 23 – Animals: Major Invertebrate groups - Characteristics o (Invertebrates) do not have a backbone o Eukaryotic o Multicellular o Ingestive o Lack cell walls o Reproduce sexually (some asexually) o Embryos have similar developmental stages o Most are actively mobile - Evolutionary trends o Body symmetry § Radial symmetry § Bilateral symmetry o Development of tissue layers § Ectoderm § Mesoderm § Endoderm o Type of gut § Incomplete § Complete • Protostomes • Deuterostomes o Body cavity § Acoelomate § Pseudocoelemate § True coelom o Body segmentation - Phylum Porifera: Sponges o Marine o Sessile o Multicellular but no body symmetry, no tissues, no gut, no segmentation o Hermaphrodites - Phylum Cnidaria: Hydra, jellies, anemones, corals o Characteristics § Radial symmetry § Two basic body forms • Medusa • Polyp § Simple, two tissue layers (ecto and endo) § Gastrovascular cavity § Tentacles with stinging cells - Phylum Platyheminthes: Flatworms o Free living or parasitic o *Bilateral symmetry* o Protostomes § Acoelomates o Organ level of characterization § Nervous system § Reproductive organs (hermaphrodite) § Excretory system o Tapeworms o Parasitic Flukes § Blood fluke § Liver fluke § Lung fluke - Phylum Nematoda: Round worms o *Protostomes with a pseudocoelom* o Small, complete gut, free living or parasitic o Hookworms, pinworms, trichinosis, elephantiasis - Phylum Mollusca: Mollusks, annelids, arthropods o *Protostome coelomates* o Most marine, some freshwater, some terrestrial o Similar body plans § Visceral mass § Foot § Mantle § Radula o Gastropods o Bivalves o Cephalopods - Phylum Annelida: Segmented worms o *Development of segmentation* o Segmentation leads to specialization o Simple brain, specialized digestive system, closed circulatory system, excretory system, hermaphrodites o Three groups § Oligochaetes § Polychaete § Leeches - Phylum Arthropoda: Spiders, lobsters o Evolved from polychaetes o Jointed appendages, segmented with fusion, exoskeleton of chitin, reproduce rapidly, some metamorphose, have organ systems o Three kinds § Chelicerates • Arachnids § Myriapods § Crustaceans § Uniramians § Insects - Phylum Echinodermata: Sea cucumbers, sea stars o Marine, spines or plates in body wall, bilateral symmetry as larvae, radial symmetry as adults, can regenerate o Water vascular system


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