Test 2 Key Terms (Ch. 5, 6, 8)
Test 2 Key Terms (Ch. 5, 6, 8) GEOG 1101
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Human Geography Test 2 Key Terms Chapter 5 - Cultural Geographies Text: Cultural complex – combination of cultural traits of a particular groups. Cultural trait occurring in combination with others, i.e chopsticks, food preferences, traditional holiday meals cultural geography - how space, place, and landscape shape culture, and how culture shapes space, place and landscape. focuses on place-based interactions between culture and political/economic global forces. cultural landscape – a characteristic and tangible outcome of the complex interactions between a human group and it’s natural environment. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions industrial revolution, political revolution can all change this. cultural system - includes cultural traits and complexes, and the collection of interacting components including language, shared history, territorial affiliation, religion. Broad similarities at the national level. cultural trait – single aspect of a culture; chopsticks; one aspect of the complex of routine practices hat constitute a particular culture group. culture - a shared set of meanings lived through material (objects) and symbolic practices/traditions. A process one cannot understand outside of context. Always evolving and changing. Disability – physical or mental condition that limits a persons movements, senses, or abilities in their society. Ethnicity – part of the cultural identity of having shared history, language, religion, and place called “home” for a group of people. Based on actual or perceived categories. Hinges on shared culture and history. Gender – a socially constructed performance that uses codes of femininity and masculinity to operate in the world. Gender performance is purposefully acting out a gender, i.e. drag shows. - sex and gender NOT separate categories for Intersectionality – recognition of the ways that different systems of oppression, domination, and discrimination can overlap in one person (Black, lesbian, woman). popular culture – practices and meaning systems produced by large groups of people whose norms and tastes are often heterogeneous and change frequently, often in response to commercial products, race – socially constructed categories of people based on phenotypic (based on observable traits) differences. Racialization – the process of ascribing racial identity to a relationship, social practices, or groups that did not identify themselves as such. The practice of creating unequal castes based on the norm of whiteness. I.e. “African American” and “ghetto” Sex – biological and physiological characteristics that differentiate males and females at birth. ALSO socially constructed, because sex is NOT binary (intersex people – anatomy doesn’t fit general trends, happens in ALL species); sex and gender NOT separate categories Transgender – transcending gender; a person whose self- identity does not conform to conventional notions of male or female gender white privilege – advantages that come to white people beyond what is commonly experienced by people of color white supremacy (text and lecture definitions!) text: the belief that white people are superior to other races Lecture: Institutionally perpetuated system of oppression of exploitation and oppression of people of color by whites/European continent, for the purpose of maintaining and defending a system of wealth, power, and privilege Lecture: Orientalism - pervasive in Western tradition, both academic and artistic, of prejudiced outsider interpretations of the East, shaped by the attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries. - image of Orient is constructed, creates idea that all “eastern” cultures are fundamentally similar to each other Representation & Difference – Knowledge and power are inseparable, social institutions is how we maintain ideas of difference because of skewed representations of cultures. - corporeal markers of difference – hijab Gender performativity - how our speech, action, and gender expression construct our reality of gender. Patriarchal society – male dominated power structure over society "The personal is political" – drawing connections between our personal experiences and the larger social structures in which they are embedded. (rent prices go up – poor woman stays in abusive relationship) Rape culture – the ways in which society blames victims of sexual assault and normalizes male sexual violence; double standards for men and women Chapter 6 - Language, Communication, and Belief Text: Dialects – part of the same language system, but different pronunciation; location based; could depend on class, or urban vs. rural areas; pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary that is place-based Fusion Language – influenced by many languages (example: Garifuna Language in Africa) Language – a means of communicating ideas or feelings by way of a conventionalized system of signs, gestures, marks, or articulate vocal sounds. Symbolic, based on commonly understood meanings of signs or sounds. - without language, there would be no culture Language family – a collection of individual languages believed to be related in their pre-historic origin Language hearth – source areas of the world’s languages ; the geographical source of certain cultural practices (in this case, language) Language branch – collection of languages that possesses a definite common origin but have split into individual languages. Lingua Franca – intersecting languages; when two languages come together as different people come together to form a new language; a common language among speakers whose native languages are different Linguistic drift – a process of random change inherent to all languages, communication becomes more difficult as people migrate or become disconnected from their original community. Official Language – also known as ‘Standard Language’ – the state determines the official language that the government operates with; made in government offices, in the courts, in the schools; can change Standard Language – also known as ‘Official Language’ Slang – language that consists of nonstandard words and phrases and is a common occurrence among most languages. Example of slang: Vocal fry – the practice of speaking in the lowest voice register to produce a popping or creaky sound at a low frequency; how the Kardashian’s talk Diaspora – the spatial dispersion of a previously homogenous group – contributed to the spread of religions from their origin sites Organized religions – when belief systems and associated rituals are systematically arranged and formally established Religion – belief systems and sets of practices that incorporate the idea of a power higher than humans. Sacred spaces – physical settings recognized by individuals or groups as worthy of special attention because they are the sites of special religious experiences or events. Lecture: Language revitalization – language revitalization could help current populations solve social issues within the group together Language death – colonialism attributed barbarity to languages of the oppressed and wished to end use of those languages because language builds social cohesion within a people; language loss is not natural Chapter 6 - Language, Communication, and Belief Text: Conglomerate Corporations – corporations that consist of several divisions engaged in quite different activities Dependency – involves a high level of reliance by a country on foreign enterprises, investment, or technology. Dependency for a peripheral county can result in a narrow economic base in which the balancing of national accounts and the generation of foreign exchange depend on the export of one or two agricultural or mineral resources. Elasticity of demand – the degree to which levels of demand for a product or service change in response to changes in price. Foreign direct investment – cross border investment from one enterprise in one country to one enterprise in another country. Company can set up factories in another country to expand overseas. Cross border mergers and acquisitions also occur. Geographical path dependence – the relationship between present-day activities in a place and the past experiences of that place; activities of a place now compared to the history of that place Gross Domestic Product (GDI) – an estimate of the total value of all materials, food stuffs, goods, and services that are produced by a country in a particular year; based on each nations currency Gross National Income (GNI) – a measure of the income that flows to a country from production wherever in the world that production occurs; based on each nations currency Import substitution – advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production to reduce foreign dependency through the local production of industrialized products International Division of Labor – the specialization, by countries, in particular products for export Newly Industrializing Countries – countries, formerly peripheral within the world-system, that have acquired a significant industrial sector, usually through foreign direct investment Primary Activities – natural resources (agriculture, mining, forestry, fishing) Secondary Activities – refining natural resources (steelmaking, garments) Tertiary Activities – sale/exchange of goods/services (tourism) Quaternary Activities – knowledge and information (research and development) Terms of Trade – determined by the ratio of the prices at which exports and imports are exchanged; Prices of exports rises (relative to imports) = terms of trade reflect an IMPOROVEMENT for the exporting country. Trading Blocs - groups of countries with formalized systems of trading agreements; intergovernmental agreement on where to put barriers of trade (tariff and non- tariff barriers); 4 major trading blocs in the world: Western Europe and former colonies, North America with some Latin America, countries of the former Soviet Union, Japan with other east Asian countries and oil producing places like Saudi Arabia Lecture: Neoliberalism – economic policies predicted on a minimalist role of the state, assuming the desirability of free markets as the ideal condition for economic, social, and political life; liberalizing the economy; public sectors should subsidize private sectors; benefits large corporate interest; Structural Adjustment Programs for poorer countries that reduce the role of the state, privatize institutions, remove restrictions on imports, up the exports 1. Rule of Market 2. Cutting public expenditure for social services 3. Deregulation of policies that could reduce profits 4. Privatization of services to provide investors, concentrating wealth 5. Individual responsibility Uneven Development – spatially and temporally uneven processes and outcomes that are characteristic and functional to capitalism; the increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy; occurs on a regional and global scale
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