Completed Review Guide for Exam 2
Completed Review Guide for Exam 2 MUMH 1600
Popular in Music in Human Imagination
Popular in Music
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Arely Sanchez on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUMH 1600 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. Randy Kinnett in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 155 views. For similar materials see Music in Human Imagination in Music at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Western art music: round came from western Office: (Divine) the church eight daily services polyphonic Mass Periodization: performed by Ordinary: ordinary different times and medieval Roman sung parts of the things that have catholic clergy at mass (unchanging) happened (begin and specified hours of the ex: Kyrie, Gloria, end) they lead to day. Set of prayer Credo, Sanctus, generalizations services held every Agnus Dei (hear the history of music week. towards the end) church calendar: Reformation; patronage: church was dominant through important for deciding Counter medieval all the way which chant to do and Reformation: during to renaissance. The to see what is the renaissance era baroque era and scheduled for that where the church classical era had day. starts to break apart aristocratic patronage. monophony: same (1500s) Gregorian chant: melody being sung Council of Trent: one sacred singing ABA form: used in of the Roman Catholic performed by trained Introit Puer Natus. A: Church's most singers only, a main part, B: a verse important ecumenical cappella with no beat from Psalms, C: first councils. It t has been (nonmetrical), sung in section again described as the the same melody a cappella: just embodiment of the (unison/monophonic), voices singing with no CounterReformation. learned by ear, accompaniment Publishing: of music syllabic, neumatic, nonmetrical: there is took place in the melismatic no beat reneaissance era Liturgy: frequent polyphony: more (1450 1600). It opens public worship than one melody up a new avenue for Mass: central service being sang at the transmitting and of Christian worship same time buying/selling music commemorating the counterpoint: The art (starting c. 1500) last supper and the of creating Partbooks: one book death and simultaneous for each individuals resurrection of Jesus independent voice report Proper chant: text melodies. “putting one Madrigal: secular change according to note against another polyphony, a cappella, calendar. (Christmas sung by professionals day) ex: Introit Puer or amatuers in their Natus pastime, increasingly Ordinary Chant: text published, sang about is the same all year non sacred topics like: love, sex, nature, and base or bassoon) and pastoral scenes harmony (lute or harphiscord) word painting: vocal music, melody is basso continuo: being sung to what style of Aria: a style of solo the words of the song accompaniment with vocal music also. A is saying. Singing the usually at least 2 nice song to listen to, word “up” pitch may musicians. Ones coherent, duets and go up. playing the base line trios. It has different imitative polyphony: and the other playing forms: strophic, ABA a type of style in harmony. Used to form, and recurring which voices enter at accompany singers, instrumental different times with instrumentalists, and “ritonerllo” they are similar melody ensembles like used for expressing a point of imitation: orchestra and choir. single emotion procedure by which early opera: 1600 (reflection) each voice of a (musical theatre), in Castrato: male polyphony texture multiple movements, soprano enters using the same basis of Florentine Libretto: writer of the motive in imitation. (Florence) Camerata; words (librettist) strophic form: Form Italian peninsula, (light Concerto: shorter of a song that uses accompaniment), compared to operas, the same music for argued that have a soloist, each verse. one of the accompanied solo baroque genre for 3 forms when singing vocal music was more orchestra, basso an Aria expressive than continuo, and soloists, homophony: texture polyphony usually in 3 where a single melody recitative: style of movements, 1 is is accompanied by solo vocal music, no faster, 2 is slower, chords. It could be on rhythm, comes from last is faster. a guitar or sung by speech and naturally solo concerto: 1 ofther people in a accompanied by soloist (todays norm) chorus. All in the basso continuo. They concerto grosso: 2 same rhythm. are used for conveying action soloists or more use of ritornello form: accompaniment in (monologue/dialogue) returning; coming Baroque music: back. In opera, basso continuo (2 recurring ritornello musicians and section features whole accompaniment) there ensemble where is a base line (low everybody plays pitch done by a cello, before the end of of a concerto movement. kinds of aristocratic: fugue: an imitative wealthy people with polyphonic lots of freetime, ritornello; solo instrumental work nobles, who would go episode: groups of used for: to private theatres soloists playing church/concert, together and they studying counterpoint, freelance work: or conveying earned each get a part where Basically everyone they come out. connotationsounding who could not find a Popping out of the smart. They start with permanent full time texture, creating their exposition (each voice job as a musician in enters with a subject) episode. aristocratic courts or oratorio: took place and the rest of the churches. They did during Lent story from fugue alternates temporary work with the Bible/religious between episodes aristocracy or that include new aspect, language churches, public varies, acceptable material and concerts, publications, during Lent, no occasional and teaching staging, acting, set, or restatements of opera reform: During subject costumes, everyone is the mid 1770s. It was on stage at all times. movement: a section a way to break up Recitative were for in a concerto. Faster boring recitative and dialogue or to movements are aria routine and usually in ritornello advance the plot and enhance dramatic arias were for a freeze form. (generalized by content in music. It fame for emotional its own tempo) influenced comic outpouring. binary form: 2 parts opera (opera buff) and of a piece of music took place in less secco recitative: accompanied by amateur important theatres. basso continuo musicianship: part of The subject matters accompagnato the classical era when were broader (not just the bourgeois heroic and recitative: accompanied by patronage was on the mythological). They orchestra rise. They would learn also used dramatic cadenza: Ev’ry an instrument and use overture. Ex: gluck. sheet music. double aria: cantible Valley; a way to sing an aria. It comes just is the first half of it. Medieval Era: 476 1450 “middle ages” starts at the fall or roman empire ends with renaissance church patronage more significant than all the others (dominant influences music’s purposes and music’s styles aristocratic (private chapels) predominant musical genre: Gregorian chant Renaissance: 14501600 church patronage is still important aristocracy still growing in power and wealth western church starts to break apart reformation and counter reformation music publishing opens up a new avenue for transmitting and buying/selling music golden age of sacred a cappella polyphony palestrina lassus victoria josquin byrd tallis Baroque Era: 16001750 aristocratic patronage the era of monterverdi purcell vivaldi telemann Handel (hallelujah) J.S Bach favorite aristocratic genres/styles influence others opera and its sound homophonic textures (melody and accompaniment) basso continuo (2 musicians performing accompaniment) >base line: low pitch melody: cello, base, bassoon >harmony: lute or harphiscord Classical Era: 17501815 aristocratic patronage still dominant bourgeois patronage on the rise wealthy people were less likely to spend money on music amateur musicianship, learning an instrument/sheet music there was public theatres less common were concerts musicians sought work as: permanentfulltime musicians in aristocratic courts/churches freelancers: >temporary work with aristocracy or churches >public concerts >publications >teaching *1. What is Western art music? How is it divided into three main phases of patronage? The first music that began in Europe specifically, classical music. It was divided into the church patronage, aristocracy, and bourgeois. *2. As far as we’ve studied so far, how is the history of Western art music prior to the twentieth century divided into eras? Medieval era, renaissance, baroque and classical. What characterizes each of those eras in terms of styles, genres, ensembles, and composers? Bullet points for each era are listed above. What ideas about music seem to prevail in each era? Medieval wants sacred. Renaissance was more expressive with a little sacredness. Beginning with a little secular madrigals. Baroque was for the aristocracy and more secular. Classical era was for entertainment for wealthy people. And to also show off your talent. What kinds of patronage did we find in each era? Listed above. What was notable about the composers we studied in each era? Composers in the medieval got no credit. Composers during renaissance were more expressive and got credit for their work because of publishing. Baroque era, people would pay more money to see opera and concertos. That put composers out there. Classical era, musicians started looking for permanent full time work or freelance.To what extent did the musical examples we studied in Kelly reflect the salient characteristics of the music of each era? It slowly got more expressive and more wealthy people bought tickets to their concerts. 3. What was Gregorian chant? What were its characteristics? Who performed it? Definitions above. 4. What is the Mass? What is the difference between ordinary and proper? Definitions above. 5. What is imitative polyphony? What are some specific examples in which we have observed it? Defintions above. An example of it is Byrd Agnus Dei. 6. What is basso continuo, and what two types of instruments are typically involved in playing it? Be as specific as you can. Definitions above. 7. What is opera? What is the difference between recitative and arias? Which typically sounds more beautiful or catchy musically? Which is most or least likely to contain elements of the plot? What are some specific examples of recitative and arias that we studied? Arias are more catchy musically. Recitatives contain elements of the plot. Some examples of recitatives are Tu’ Se’ Morta/You are dead. Examples of Arias are: Ev’ry Valley,Viricorda/Do You remember. 8. What is oratorio? What are the specific ways in which it is different from opera? It is different from opera because no costumes or sets or staging or acting. Everyone is on stage at all times. It took place during Lent. 9. What is ritornello form? Where are you most likely to encounter it? What typically happens in a ritornelloform. movement?What is a piece we studied in which it can be found? You encounter ritornello in concertos. Faster movements are usually in ritornello form and recurring ritornello section features whole ensemble. Also alternating between episodes featured accompanied soloist(s). A piece it can be found in is Bach Concerto in F minor for harpsichord, 2 recorders, and strings (first movement) – Fast ritornello. 10. What kinds of patronage were available in the Classical Era? Think about this in terms of Haydn and Mozart: what kinds of work did they have in the course of their lives? Aristocratic patronage is still dominant. A lot of freelance work is done by Haydn and Mozart. Haydn was a music director at palace of Prince esterhazy in NW Hungary. He negotiates to work with others and then starts publishing. He then freelance works in Vienna and other places. This is all in the time span of 17611790. Mozart was a child star. His dad worked in Salzburg for Prince Archbishop so he got a job there too but that wasn’t enough for him. He loved opera and decided to go to Paris and then Vienna for freelance work in 1777. He got sick and then he died. 11. In what ways did opera change from the Baroque Era to the Classical Era? Think of examples that can be found in Mozart’s Don Giovanni. The ways they changed were by different instruments used. It was usually only 2 instruments but as time went by, the more people were added to play and to sing. There was also more dramatic overture. There was also more subjects that made people feel a little bit uncomfortable while watching. For example, the legend of Don Juan. Also there will be more public theatres. Tickets are still a bit expensive but the theatre is now available to more people.
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