HY 110 Exam 2 Essay Review
HY 110 Exam 2 Essay Review HY 110
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Date Created: 03/29/16
HY 110 Exam 2 Essay Review Possible Essay Questions 1. Describe the tenants of Confucianism as they were constructed by Confucius, Mencius, and Xunzi. What were their beliefs on the attitude of people towards government? How did they believe that this ideology could stabilize society? Answer: Ren, Li, and Xiao are the three main tenants of Confucianism. Ren means an attitude of kindness/benevolence, a sense of humanity. Those who displayed this quality are courteous, respectful, loyal, diligent, which are all needed in government officials according to Confucius. Li means a sense of propriety, making it mandatory that all human beings treat each other with courtesy, showing respect to everyone but especially to superiors or elders. Third, Xiao means filial piety and states that is imperative that children to respect their elders and parents, look after their welfare, support them in old age, and course include them in their worship of their ancestors after their deaths. Their beliefs towards government included ideologies that would require government officials to be genuinely good people, being loyal, diligent and respectful, unlike most government officials today. They believed this would stabilize society because if the leaders of society were pure, and good, they would have a positive impact on the civilization in the ways they governed it. 2. Discuss Chinese Legalism, how did the Legalists believe that China should be ran? Discuss the utilization of legalism under Qin Shi Huang and Liu Bang, did they believe that China should be ruled using solely Legalist principles, or should they be used in connection with other Chinese philosophies regarding politics. Answer: Legalism valued the military and agriculture above all else, if you were unable to contribute to either of those two you were not considered to have any value in society and they discouraged professions which they thought were less useful to the state, including poetry, art, education, scholarship, merchants, philosophers, entrepreneurs. Legalists placed significant importance on structure, knowing what is expected of each person, how they should execute the role they occupy, and what the consequences will be if they do not fulfill said role. Under the rule of Qin Shi Huang (the first emperor of China), the government in centralized in the capital of China at the time, called Xianyang, he divides the rest of China into smaller sectors but there is a bureaucratic and centralized rule. He is very strict on his laws and rules and does everything in his power to keep those below them in their place and takes multiple steps to avoid a revolt or another attempt at overthrowing him. Moreover, Qin Shi Hang standardizes laws, currencies, weights and measures of China and brings the entire nation closer together and creates unity. Liu Bang utilized practices that were undeniably similar to legalism, specifically the use of rewards and punishment a significant aspect of legalism. 3. Choose one of the following to discuss its development as a salvation religion in India: A. Buddhism. B. Popular Hinduism. Was it successful in attracting followers, why or why not? Answer: A (Buddhism): Buddhism was a successful salvation religion in India for multiple reasons. In Buddhism, there is not one specific person judging everyone and handing out rewards and punishments regularly, it is expected that believers will live purely to better themselves. Moreover, the relationship between Buddha and his followers is that of a student and a teacher, the followers are learning how to be better, and purer people from the Buddha. The liberation of oneself is the responsibility of that person, Buddhism doesn’t call for an unquestionable blind faith by all of its followers, it places emphasis and value on selfreliance, self discipline and striving to better oneself. The ultimate goal of Buddhism is to become enlightened, and reach Nirvana (Nirvana has many meanings but an easy one to remember is ultimate peace, and being free from worldly desires, temptations, suffering, etc.) Rebirth is a significant doctrine in Buddhism and goes hand in hand with karma. There is a minor difference between rebirth and the reincarnation known in Hinduism, Buddhism rejects the theory of a transmigrating permanent soul. The Four Noble Truths are the key tenants of Buddhism, they are: 1. The Truth of Suffering: This tenant includes the perception of all types of worldly suffering had, including physical, mental, and emotional suffering. To summarize this tenant one could say that suffering is an unavoidable aspect of life on Earth. There are four unavoidable physical sufferings that are birth, old age, sickness and death. There are three mental ways to suffer mentally that are separation from loved ones, contact with people we do not like, and the frustration associated with worldly desires. Happiness is real and is presented in multiple forms, but happiness is not permanent and cannot stop suffering. It is a belief of Buddhists that the only way to end suffering is to accept that suffering is an undeniable fact of life. 2. The Truth of the Cause of Suffering: There are many things that are associated with the cause of suffering including craving, ignorance, and other things that humans do that are not pure. To summarize the Truth of the Cause of Suffering, to end suffering it is crucial that we understand what causes suffering. Craving and ignorance are two of the main causes of worldly suffering. Craving causes suffering because when people crave their pleasures of their senses, they become dissatisfied and disappointed until they are able to replace their cravings with new ones. Obtaining something that was previously craved causes suffering because it is replaced with a new thing. An inability to see the world as it truly is and living with illusions about life such as fears, hopes, facts and behaviors are forms of suffering based on ignorance. Craving and ignorance can be solved by meditation, thinking carefully, and properly sculpting the mind. Solving these main causes of suffering are believed to provide a state of true happiness, as it is believed to have done for the Buddha himself. 3. The Truth of the End of Suffering: Enlightenment is the main idea in the Truth of the End of Suffering. Enlightenment is also known as Nirvana, and even to Buddhists the concept is hard to explain. The Buddha Himself has described Nirvana in multiple ways, such as supreme happiness, peace, immorality, and as being unformed, beyond the Earth, and beyond water, fire, air, sun, and moon. Sometimes it has been described as unfathomable and immeasurable, because it is so pure and peaceful. To achieve it, one will have been liberated from conflict, selfishness, destruction of craving, hatred and delusion. 4. The Truth of the Path Leading to the End of Suffering: In this tenant, the Eightfold Path is introduced. The Eightfold Path has eight steps; each step must be accomplished otherwise Enlightenment cannot be reached. The steps include, Right Understanding (to understand the Law of Cause and Effect and the Four Noble Truths), Right Attitude (not having thoughts of greed or anger), Right Speech (avoidance of gossip, lying, harsh speech, fabrication, and taletelling), Right Action (not to destroy any type of life, and not stealing or committing adultery), Right Livelihood (not having occupations that harm oneself, or anything else), Right Effort (always doing your best), Right Mindfulness (always being aware of oneself, and always being attentive), Right Concentration (to keeping the mind steady and calm, and to realize the true nature of all things). Buddhism was undeniably successful as a salvation religion in India because of the promise it presented. The Third of the Four Noble Truths discusses the concept of Nirvana, and especially for those in India this was desirable because it provided a chance at ultimate peace. It laid out guidelines how to be truly free of worldly suffering, something that many, especially in that time and place, deemed valuable. Due to the promise it presented, and the clarity of the steps to achieve said Enlightenment, it attracted many followers and continues to be an extremely accepted and utilized religion. B (Popular Hinduism): Hinduism is different from other religions such as Islam, Judaism, and Christianity in many ways. Primarily, the concept of Samsara (when someone dies, they go to the World of the Fathers, and then return to earth in a new incarnation), is different than the concepts of birth and death in the other religions. A second large aspect of Hinduism is the concept of karma. Karma is the reason for a certain incarnation, if you are pure and genuinely a good person, you will reincarnate into a better, more prestigious version of yourself, and therefore have a better life than your previous one (ex. a prince), and on the other end, if you are a bad person you are punished by being reincarnated as lesser than your previous self (ex. a snake). The ultimate goal is to become a Brahmin, the universal soul, and with each positive reincarnation you are closer to reaching said goal. It is known that there will always be suffering and pain, but you have to work through it in order to make yourself a better person so that when it is time to die again, you can escape the cycle completely and attain the state of moksha, which is the deep, dreamless sleep that comes with your permanent liberation from the cycle of physical incarnation and reincarnation. Seeing as this is not easy, its known that it is a challenge and the teachings state that even though it is difficult to disconnect yourself fro the physical world, that is imperative that it is done if you wish to identify with the universal soul. In order to achieve this, you must attain a degree of selfdenial (asceticism) and thoughtful prayer (meditation), to help you expel worldly desires and achieve the universal soul. It was successful in attracting followers because of the promise of liberation from worldly pain and suffering at the end of a successful completion of a series of genuine and pure lives, something that gave hope especially to lowerclass people who desperately wished to escape their state and become something better. 4. Describe the fortunes of the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties, describe the factors in the rise and fall of these dynasties. Answer: Xia: (2070 BC/E to 1766 BC/E) Rise: Yu was able to establish an effective method of floodcontrol, making large scale projects and public works construction a possibility. These developments paved way for the emergence of a government, and the Xia Dynasty most likely worked closely with the leaders of local villages allowing a policy of indirect rule to take place, and resulting in support of local village chiefs towards the authority of the overall government. Fall: According to legend, the last Xia king was evil, and as a result lost his realm (soon to be known as the mandate of Heaven) to a man named Tang, who then founded the Shang Dynasty. Shang Dynasty: (1766 BC/E to 1122 BC/E) Rise: The Shang Dynasty is noted mostly for its written records and bronze technology, which is believed to have contributed to its success in displacing the Xia Dynasty which was without bronze metallurgical methods. They seemingly monopolized bronze production in their region, and as a result had control over the villages there. Also, the kings likely viewed this as an advantage, and claimed a lot fo the surplus agricultural production in taces that were used to support the military and its allies. A strong military with strong allies are imperative in the maintenance and security of the rule a king had. Fall: At first, the Shang the Zhou dynasties existed alongside each other, but a war inevitably broke out, resulting in a victory for the Zhou, and the fall of the Shang Dynasty. Zhou: (1122 BC/E to 256 BC/E) Rise: The Zhou Dynasty came to ultimate power in China as a result of the victory in the battle against the Shang Dynasty. The Zhou Dynasty justified the overthrow of the Shang Dynasty by a concept developed by the Duke of Zhou, King Wu’s brother, that states that every king has a Mandate of Heaven (Tian Ming), and that if a king abuses his power, the mandate of heaven would not be lost. Therefore, being a good and honest king will allow the mandate to be maintained, and those kings who are evil and undeserving lose their mandate of heaven. As a result of the improper behavior had by the final king of the Shang Dynasty, the mandate shifted into to King Wu, creating a new dynasty, the Zhou Dynasty. ** The Mandate of Heaven had the following principles: The right to rule China is granted by Heaven. There can only be one legitimate ruler of China. The right to rule is based on the personal virtues of the ruler and his performance as a good steward for Heaven. The right to rule can pass from father to son, but only under certain conditions. Fall: The Zhou Dynasty is significantly larger than the Shang Dynasty and one court cannot effectively rule the entire country, resulting in the creation of a decentralized administration in which they entrust power, authority, and responsibility to subordinates who will give tribute, military support, and pledge allegiance to the government. This only works successfully for a bit, and over the years the subordinates are able to establish their own bases of power and act more independently than before. Zhou subordinates towards the end of the dynasty took advantage of the new iron technology and created weapons that they used to resist the government if the king did not do what they wished. A second factor in the fall of the Zhou Dynasty is the Steppe Nomads. The Steppe Nomads were a group of pastoral peoples located in the North and West of China. Sometimes they traded with the Chinese, but they favored war and attacked the Zhou and forced them from the capital of Hao around 700 BC/E causing the Zhou to only rule its kingdom nominally. All credibility is lost, along with any power. Moreover, the states that were scattered across China began fighting against one another, leading to the Period of Warring States (403 221 BC/E) when the King of Qin takes control. The King of Qin is the father of Qin Shi Huang. 5. Discuss the origins of ritual human sacrifice in Mesoamerican civilizations, what it entailed and how the Aztecs intensified the practice. Answer: Human sacrifice was important to various cultures throughout history. The Aztecs took the practice of human sacrifice to new heights. There is no certain number of how many people were sacrificed by the Aztecs in total, but it is believed that thousands were sacrificed each year. For each of the 18 months in the Aztec cycle, there was a ritual sacrifice. The victim would be painted as part of the ritual, and would be placed on a slab where their heart would be extracted and held to the sun. The body would then be thrown down the stairs of the temple/pyramid where the sacrifice took place. The body would be discarded in one of many ways. For example, some bodies were put on display, or fed to animals. Other ways of sacrifice include drowning, burning, and killing in a fight. Human sacrifice in Mesoamerica originated 6. Discuss the origins of the Upanishads, and why they felt that Aryan religion did not respond to its worshippers on a personal level, their personal response to Aryan religion with regard to their formulation of the Brahman, asceticism, and reincarnation, as well as how this influenced the Indian religions that followed. Answer: The origins of the Upanishads begin in the late Vedic Age (800400 BC/E) and the thoughts, reflections and beliefs are recorded and become known as the Upanishads. They felt the Aryan religions did not respond to its worshippers on a personal level because they only did things for their Gods in hopes of receiving some type of reward. The Aryans believed that through sacrifice the would be rewarded with success in war, large families, wealth, and long lives. The Upanishads teach that all individuals participate in a bigger picture or cosmic order that forms a part of the university soul, known as Brahman. The Brahman is the only stable thing in the physical world, because it is an unchanging force and a real foundation for all things that exist. This is different from Aryan religion because the Aryans viewed stability as support from Heaven in war, health, wealth, and only worldly things. This is a significant difference that caused the Upanishads to feel as though the Aryan religion did not respond to its worshippers on a personal level, because instead of rewarding faithful followers with stability and peace, the Aryan religion rewarded its worshippers with worldly pleasures that were not permanent or stable like the rewards of the Upanishads. Asceticism is a degree of selfdenial that is necessary in order to obtain permanent, peaceful sleep that liberates you from the physical incarnation and reincarnation. (Moksha), and was of significant importance to the Upanishads. Reincarnation was another principle utilized by the Upanishads. If you lived a pure life and put forth your best effort to be a genuine and pure person, you were rewarded by reincarnating as something better than your previous self. If a farmer lived a good and pure life, he would reincarnate as something better such as a prince, and if a prince lived an impure life and was a bad person, he would reincarnate as something below what he was, such as a farmer or merchant. This shaped the Indian Religions that followed because it laid the foundation of hope for ultimate rest and peace. These concepts provided a base for other religions that involved ultimate liberation from worldly suffering and pain, which is desirable to most everyone. 7. Discuss the socioeconomic problems that the Han Empire faced with regard to the growing of its military and bureaucracy, how it contributed to the land crisis of China st st during the late 1 century BC/early 1 century AD, and how Wang Mang tried to resolve this crisis, and in what ways he failed. Answer: The Han empire faced adversity in the form of socioeconomic problems in regard to the growth of its military and bureaucratic principles. In the Han Dynasty, there are many legalist ideologies utilized, especially by Emperor Wu. This presents an issue due to the fact that an army of reliable, talented, and intelligent fighters in imperative to achieve and maintain success in his empire. Without a formal educational institution in China this is difficult because there is no formal way to educate potential fighters, causing problems for the military. To tackle this obstacle, Emperor Wu established an imperial university in 124 BC/E to prepare young men for government service, taught based on a Confucian curriculum. A large problem arises a result of Xiongnu, which is a group of nomadic peoples from the steppes of Central Asia who travel and bring chaos with them most anywhere they go. When they can’t trade with a place, they raid said place and commandeer supplies from those villages. Without a set city for an emperor to attack, it is easy for them to seemingly disappear, making them an unbeatable opponent, causing a significant problem for the military of the Han empire. Tensions inevitably rise between the wealthy and the poor, causing a land crisis. Wealthy landowners never had problems during the Han Dynasty, but many small landowners found that they could not survive when economic hard times present themselves, and they are forced to sell their property or give it up to cancel their debts. This causes a concentration of land in the hands of a few wealthy people favored by the Han government causing peasants to get angry and begin rebelling and causing an increased amount of Banditry. Wang Mang tried to resolve these issues by instituting a large amout of taxes such as the “sloth tax” that was aimed against large landowners who neglected their lands, as well as an income tax for 10%. He monopolized the liquor and weapons industries, and limited the amount of the land that a family could hold, ordering large estates to be broken up and redistributed to landless individuals. He failed for multiple reasons. Primarily, his policies were not well planned, or properly communicated to the people they effected, causing complications to arise and cause chaos. For example, landlords resisted the policy because it threatened their holdings, and peasants realized they were not really benefitting from it because the policy was implemented in an inconsistent manner. Moreover, his failure was also attributed to the disloyalty from his officials. His officials were unhappy because they were not paid their salaries for years, resulting in corruption and misapplication of the policies. Eventually, many revolts against Wang prove unavoidable and detrimental to his rule. His people subsequently lose faith in Wang, and rise up against him in 23 AD/CE and cut his body to pieces and use his head as a toy ball. 8. Discuss the samurai, when they first appeared in Japan and how they were later utilized by both the shogun and the daimyo of the land, and how the code of bushido defined how samurai should live. Answer: The Samurai the mounted warriors of the Daimyo (provincial lords whose power was based on loyalty to the shogun). They first appeared in Japan under the Shogunate of Minamoto Yoritomo, a man who used soldiers to arrest rebels and collection provisions for the army, something that was extremely important, if not most important. The soldiers start serving local lords, instead of only serving the Shogun. The samurai were eventually the equivalent of the Knights in Europe, and were loyal to their lord until death. Samurai without masters were known as ronins, and they were very uncommon due to the fact that it was hard to make money, causing most samurais to find a lord, and to work in his service. The code of Bushido was a code by which all samurai must live, and was similar to chivalry in Europe. In it, there are seven virtues: Recitude Courage Benevolence Respect Honesty Loyalty Honor There are also three associated virtues: Filial Piety Wisdom Care for the Aged Loyalty, mastery of martial arts, honor to the death, and frugality were all stressed. If a samurai was unable to uphold his honor by doing things such as disobeying his master, he had to perform seppuku (ritual suicide) in hopes of regaining his lost honor. Under the code of bushido, the samurai knew extremely well what was acceptable and what was not acceptable behavior. 9. Discuss the Bantu of SubSaharan Africa, how their migrations ended up making them the dominant culture in that region, how and why the Bantu evolved their governments from that of small kinship based societies to larger kingdoms. Answer: The Bantu of SubSaharan Africa were a group of people who emerge around 4000 BC/E in a region that encompasses much of modern day Nigeria and Cameroon. They settled along riverbanks that they traveled through by canoe. They cultivated many crops including oil palms, yams, among other things. Their political organization was centered mainly around clan based villages ruled by chieftans who oversaw politics and religious practices. They traded primarily with other villages and huntergatherers in the forests. They offered pottery and stone tools and obtained meat, honey, and similar products. They became the dominant culture in their region as a result of their migrations. They migrated south into the forests, and eventually they migrate to areas along the Congo river basin, and towards the Great Lakes. They took in the local hunter gatherers and taught them their agricultural methods. Moreover, all of the peoples that the Bantu came into contact with eventually adopted their languages, causing most of the people in Sub Saharan Africa to speak some form of language similar to Bantu. The growing size of the Bantu as a result of their migrations is the major reason they became so dominant in SubSaharan Africa, so dominant that today 90 million people speak a language that is somehow related to Bantu. They began to produce iron tools and weapons which helped the cultivators clear land more effectively and expand the zones of their agriculture, and the iron weapons aided in the defense of Bantu lands from any potential invaders. Ultimately, iron lead to population growth and more effective migration. The Bantu societies began to be ruled by a chief, and groups were formed to complete tasks the community needed done, the groups were mostly based on age and gender. The small kinship based societies became impossible to maintain due to the fact that the constant migration of the Bantu people caused it to grow rapidly, resulting in the formation of larger kingdoms. The small kinship based societies were those that were ruled by Chieftans and eventually evolved into larger kingdoms that would continue to grow due to constant migration. Possible Terms: Han Wu Di: The 7 emperor of the Han Dynasty who was in power from 14187. He valued continued centralization and imperial expansion. After accomplishing continued centralization, he built a gigantic bureaucracy to run his empire, and relies on legalist principles of government in how he ran his empire. He implemented an imperial university that operated from a Confucian curriculum and taught students how to be talented administrators. Xiongnu gave him the most problems as they were nomadic peoples who are from the steppes of Central Asia that cause chaos everywhere they go. He was extremely successful and considered to be one of the most important emperors in Chinese history. Bantu: The Bantu were a group of people in SubSaharan Africa who greatly valued migration. They began as a relatively small group, and become enormous. When they were not extremely dominant, they traded with other villages as well as huntergatherers to sustain their wellbeing. They become extremely dominant as a result of their migration, eventually occupying most of SubSaharan Africa. Their language became utilized by much of the other peoples in Sub Saharan Africa and is still utilized today in one way or another by around 90 million people. Mandate of Heaven (Tian Ming): The Mandate of Heaven is a concept introduced during the Zhou Dynasty by the Duke of Zhou, King Wu’s brother, that stated that every king has a Mandate of Heaven and that if a king abuses his power, the mandate will be lost, along with all of his power. There are multiple principles associated with the Mandate of Heaven, including: The right to rule China is granted by Heaven, there can only be one legitimate ruler of China, The right to rule is based on the personal virtues of the ruler and his performance as a good steward for Heaven, and that the right to rule can pass from father to son under certain conditions.
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