Study guide exam 2
Study guide exam 2 Geog 1250
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bridget Goble on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geog 1250 at Bowling Green State University taught by Marius Paulikas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Weather and Climate in Geography at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE TOPIC 5 Precipitation processes In WARM clouds: o Collision coalescence – The process of rising and sinking water droplets (applies to WARM clouds) o Warm droplets rise and as they cool, they collide with colder droplets until it begins to precipitate In COLD clouds: o Bergeron – Wegener processes – Ice crystals grow over time as water vapor molecules move (applies to COLD clouds) o Saturated water vapor hits ice and starts freezing to the ice, causing bigger ice crystals to form (this is how hail is made) Types of precipitation o Freezing rain – Falls into cold layer of atmosphere first, then melts as it enters a warmer layer of atmosphere, and proceeds to freeze when it hits the colder ground o Rain – Temperatures well above freezing o Snow – Temperatures below freezing o Sleet – Falls into cold layer (below freezing) of atmosphere first as snow, then continues to fall into a warmer, above freezing atmosphere as rain, and finally, it turns into ice in another layer of atmosphere that is below freezing. This is because the below freezing atmosphere zone is tall in height o Hail – Upward surge of wind sends hail back into the cloud and it gathers more supercooled water to build a big droplet TOPIC 6 Vertical motions and instability Ways that air can rise into the atmosphere o Convection – Warm (less dense) air rises, as cool (more dense) air sinks o Frontal lifting – Air colliding when air rises and sinks. This occurs in large areas o Orographic lifting – Air forced up by a mountain o Convergence – Horizontal air flow pileup results in upward movement LCL table information o Dry adiabatic lapse rate (DALR) = “10 and 2” rule This can serve as a “warming rate” as one descends down a mountain o Saturated adiabatic lapse rate (SALR) = “6 and 6” rule o LCL (lifted condensation level) – When the cloud base starts forming This occurs at the height that both the temperature of the air and the dew point temperature are equal. LCL/LFC table information o Stability – Surface based air is cool and atmosphere is stable because it doesn’t want to rise Occurs when atmospheric temperature is WARMER than surface temperature o Instability – Occurs when surface based air is WARMER than the atmospheric temperature and resultantly wants to rise o LCL is located where the temperature of the surface and the dew point temperature are equal o LFC (level of free convection) – When atmosphere is unstable and air begins to rise This is located at the area where the atmosphere becomes unstable because the surface temperature is warmer than the atmospheric temperature o EL (equilibrium level) – End point of unstable atmosphere and atmosphere becomes stable again o Absolute stability – When air will not rise upwards at any point and the atmosphere is always stable o Absolute instability – Air will always want to rise o Conditional instability – When air is stable with one rule (for example, the “10 and 2” rule), but unstable with the other rule (“6 and 6” rule) o Lapse rates – Change in temperature relative to change in height o Inversion – Occurs in winter months when normal atmospheric conditions become “inverted”. This is when a dense layer of cool air is trapped under a layer of warm air. The warm air traps pollutants near the surface o Adiabatic cooling – Air cools as it rises and then saturates and forms a cloud base. The molecular mass of air stays the same in this process TOPIC 7 Satellite, radar, and other observations Direct observations – When weather measuring tool is in direct contact with the weather o Barometer, weather balloon Indirect observations – Measuring tool is usually far away and doesn’t have to be in direct contact with the weather o Satellite o Active sensors – Actively send out beams of radiation (satellite rays) to see what atmosphere’s doing o Passive sensors – Collect radiation emissions to understand the atmosphere (aerial photograpy) RADAR reflectivity – The amount of transmitted power returned to the RADAR receiver o This is used to detect precipitation, storm structure, hail potential, etc Doppler velocity RADAR – Radar using the Doppler effect to determine the location and velocity of storms, clouds, precipitation, etc – VERY important to furthering weather predictions RADAR images regarding storms o “Hook echo” – This area looks like a hook extending out from the storm that is often yellow and/or red. This is where tornados sometimes develop o Doppler velocity couplets o 3 body scatter spike o ALL of the above can lead to tornados and help warn citizens of the possibility GEO satellites – Orbits Earth horizontally and monitors the Earth broadly (about 36,000 km high) LEO satellites – Orbits Earth vertically and more specifically, pole to pole (about 850 km high) GOES imagery – Provides information on clouds and moisture by measuring visual, infrared, and water vapor imagery o Visual imagery – Bright regions = high albedo, dark regions = low albedo Only available during daytime hours o Infrared imagery – Detects radiation emissions at 1012 wavelengths Clouds appear lighter, darker objects are warmer o Water vapor imagery – Imagery based on water vapor content Emissions at 6 wavelengths Darker regions = drier regions TOPIC 8 Air masses and fronts Types of air masses o Continental polar (CP) o Continental tropical (CT) o Maritime polar (MP) o Maritime tropical (MT) **In these masses, continental = dry, maritime = moist, tropical = warm, and polar = cool** Types of fronts o Warm – Temperatures and dew points of area go up as it passes through Usually passes through before a cold front and progresses slowly because it is less dense Cool temperatures usually occur after these fronts Hazards: Warm air mixing with cold, dry surface can cause fog Flash floods can occur because warm fronts take longer to pass through an area and can resultantly rain for a long period of time o Cool – Temperature and dew points drop in a short distance as the front passes through an area. It causes a lower relative humidity Normally travel downward Air in these fronts are more dense, and therefore, it is easy for them to push warmer, less dense air upward Hazards: Squall lines – Long boundary of cold air approaching warm air “Rolling cloud” sometimes occurs in cold fronts. It is a fast moving storm cloud o Occluded – When warm air front and cold air front meet Precipitation will occur o Stationary – Long lasting front with little movement Flash floods may occur Mid – latitude cyclone: Warm and cold front = precipitation o Dryline – Drastic temperature and dew point differences Lake effect snows – When cold air mass moves along a long expanse of warmer water. o The warmer water allows for the lower layer of the air mass to warm as well, further making the mass pick up water vapor from the lake. When the water vapor is picked up, it adds to the air mass’s current water vapor o This effect makes areas around lakes (especially Great Lakes) have very large amounts of snow Identifying fronts on a map o 1) Look for sudden temperature changes o 2) Look for sudden dew point changes o 3) Look for sudden wind pattern changes o Warm fronts are red with circles, and cold fronts are blue with triangles (look below) TOPIC 9 Low and high pressure dynamics Low pressure systems o Cyclone – Center of low pressure surrounded by higher pressure on all sides Low pressure storm system that forms and intensifies based on temperature differences Usually produces cloudy skies and precipitation Air moves counter clockwise (in Northern hemisphere) around the center and the center rises High pressure dynamics o Anticyclone – Center of high pressure surrounded by low pressure on all sides Often suppresses cloudy skies and precipitation Air sinks and moves clockwise (in Northern hemisphere) around the center Land breeze – Land is warmer and drier than water at night, so water is where the air converges Sea breeze – Wind flows from water to the land Monsoons – Seasonal prevailing wind in the region of Southeast Asia blowing from the Southwest between May and September and bringing rain (wet monsoon), or from the Northeast between October and April (dry monsoon) o In the summer, air converges over the land because the land is warmer than the Indian ocean (more rain) o In the winter, the air converges over the ocean because the land is cooler than the Indian ocean (dry, and less rain) Southern oscillation – Irregular variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over tropical, Eastern Pacific ocean. The warming phase is El Nino, and the cooling phase is La Nina El Nino – “warming phase” o Warm and rainy conditions in the Western o Cool and dry conditions in the East o Happens once every 7 or so years La Nina – “cooling phase” o Warm and moist in Southern regions o Cool and dry in Northern regions
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